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Publications

The latest Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) and qEV Isolation publications.

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Dynamic surface tension probe for measuring the concentration of extracellular vesicles
The concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is an essential attribute of biofluids and EV preparations. EV concentration in body fluids was correlated with health status. The abundance of EV secreted by cultured cells into growth medium is vital in signaling studies, tissue and disease models, and biomanufacturing of acellular therapeutic secretome. A limited number of physical principles sensitive to EV concertation have been discovered so far. Particle-by-particle counting methods enumerate individual particles scattering light, modulating the Coulter current, or appearing in EM images. The available ensemble techniques in current use rely on the concentration-dependent signal intensity, as in the case of ELISA. In this study, we propose for the first-time the ensemble-based characterization of EV concentration by dynamic surface tension (DST) probe and demonstrate its implementation. We show that DST measurements agree with the widely used NTA measurements of EV concertation. The proposed method is low-cost and requires only basic laboratory equipment for implementation.
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2022
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A Comparison of Blood Plasma Small Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment Strategies for Proteomic Analysis
Proteomic analysis of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) poses a significant challenge. A ‘gold-standard’ method for plasma sEV enrichment for downstream proteomic analysis is yet to be established. Methods were evaluated for their capacity to successfully isolate and enrich sEVs from plasma, minimise the presence of highly abundant plasma proteins, and result in the optimum representation of sEV proteins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma from four cattle (Bos taurus) of similar physical attributes and genetics were used. Three methods of sEV enrichment were utilised: ultracentrifugation (UC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and ultrafiltration (UF). These methods were combined to create four groups for methodological evaluation: UC + SEC, UC + SEC + UF, SEC + UC and SEC + UF. The UC + SEC method yielded the highest number of protein identifications (IDs). The SEC + UC method reduced plasma protein IDs compared to the other methods, but also resulted in the lowest number of protein IDs overall. The UC + SEC + UF method decreased sEV protein ID, particle number, mean and mode particle size, particle yield, and did not improve purity compared to the UC + SEC method. In this study, the UC + SEC method was the best method for sEV protein ID, purity, and overall particle yield. Our data suggest that the method and sequence of sEV enrichment strategy impacts protein ID, which may influence the outcome of biomarker discovery studies.
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2022
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Unveiling the Native Morphology of Extracellular Vesicles from Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by Atomic Force and Cryogenic Electron Microscopy
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures in biofluids with enormous diagnostic/prognostic potential for application in liquid biopsies. Any such downstream application requires a detailed characterization of EV concentration, size and morphology. This study aimed to observe the native morphology of EVs in human cerebrospinal fluid after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, they were separated by gravity-driven size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The enrichment of EVs in early SEC fractions was confirmed by immunoblot for transmembrane proteins CD9 and CD81. These fractions were then pooled, and the concentration and particle size distribution were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (around 1010 particles/mL, mode 100 nm) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (around 109 particles/mL, mode 150 nm). Liquid AFM and cryo-TEM investigations showed mode sizes of about 60 and 90 nm, respectively, and various morphology features. AFM revealed round, concave, multilobed EV structures; and cryo-TEM identified single, double and multi-membrane EVs. By combining AFM for the surface morphology investigation and cryo-TEM for internal structure differentiation, EV morphological subpopulations in cerebrospinal fluid could be identified. These subpopulations should be further investigated because they could have different biological functions.
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2022
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Neuron-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Antidepressant Response
Background Previous work has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) change as a function of antidepressant treatment (ADT) response. However, it is unclear how representative these peripherally detected miRNA changes are to those occurring in the brain. Our goal was to use peripherally extracted neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEV) to investigate neuronal miRNA changes associated with antidepressant response. Methods Samples were collected at two time points (baseline and after 8 weeks of follow-up) from depressed patients who responded (N=20) and did not respond (N=20) to escitalopram treatment, as well as controls (N=20). Total extracellular vesicles (EVs) were extracted from plasma, and then further enriched for NDEV by immunoprecipitation with L1CAM. EV size was measured using tunable resistive pulse sensing, and exosomal miRNA cargo was extracted and sequenced. Subsequently, studies in cell lines and postmortem tissue were conducted. Results Characterization of NDEVs revealed they were smaller than other EVs isolated from plasma (p<0.0001), had brain-specific neuronal markers, and contained miRNAs enriched for brain functions (p<0.0001) Furthermore, NDEVs from depressed patients were smaller than controls (p<0.05), and NDEV size increased with ADT response (p<0.01). Finally, changes in NDEV cargo, specifically changes in miR-21-5p, miR-30d-5p and miR-486-5p together (p<0.01), were associated with ADT response. Targets of these three miRNAs were altered in brain tissue from depressed individuals (p<0.05). Conclusions Together, this study indicates that changes in peripherally isolated NDEV can act as both a clinically accessible and informative biomarker of ADT response specifically through size and cargo.
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2022
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Methodology to Detect Biological Particles Using a Biosensing Surface Integrated in Resistive Pulse Sensing
Resistive pulse sensing (RPS) is an analytical method that can be used to individually count particles from a small sample. RPS simply monitors the physical characteristics of particles, such as size, shape, and charge density, and the integration of RPS with biosensing is an attractive theme to detect biological particles such as virus and bacteria. In this report, a methodology of biosensing on RPS was investigated. Polydopamine (PD), an adhesive component of mussels, was used as the base material to create a sensing surface. PD adheres to most materials, such as noble metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers; as a result, PD is a versatile intermediate layer for the fabrication of a biosensing surface. As an example of a biological particle, human influenza A virus (H1N1 subtype) was used to monitor translocation of particles through the pore membrane. When virus-specific ligands (6′-sialyllactose) were immobilized on the pore surface, the translocation time of the virus particles was considerably extended. The detailed translocation data suggest that the viral particles were trapped on the sensing surface by specific interactions. In addition, virus translocation processes on different pore surfaces were distinguished using machine learning. The result shows that the simple and versatile PD-based biosensor surface design was effective. This advanced RPS measurement system could be a promising analytical technique.
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2022
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Modified Bovine Milk Exosomes for Doxorubicin Delivery to Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Biological nanoparticles, such as exosomes, offer an approach to drug delivery because of their innate ability to transport biomolecules. Exosomes are derived from cells and an integral component of cellular communication. However, the cellular cargo of human exosomes could negatively impact their use as a safe drug carrier. Additionally, exosomes have the intrinsic yet enigmatic, targeting characteristics of complex cellular communication. Hence, harnessing the natural transport abilities of exosomes for drug delivery requires predictably targeting these biological nanoparticles. This manuscript describes the use of two chemical modifications, incorporating a neuropilin receptor agonist peptide (iRGD) and a hypoxia-responsive lipid for targeting and release of an encapsulated drug from bovine milk exosomes to triple-negative breast cancer cells. Triple-negative breast cancer is a very aggressive and deadly form of malignancy with limited treatment options. Incorporation of both the iRGD peptide and hypoxia-responsive lipid into the lipid bilayer of bovine milk exosomes and encapsulation of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin, created the peptide targeted, hypoxia-responsive bovine milk exosomes, iDHRX. Initial studies confirmed the presence of iRGD peptide and the exosomes’ ability to target the αvβ3 integrin, overexpressed on triple-negative breast cancer cells’ surface. These modified exosomes were stable under normoxic conditions but fragmented in the reducing microenvironment created by 10 mM glutathione. In vitro cellular internalization studies in monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) spheroids of triple-negative breast cancer cells confirmed the cell-killing ability of iDHRX. Cell viability of 50% was reached at 10 μM iDHRX in the 3D spheroid models using four different triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Overall, the tumor penetrating, hypoxia-responsive exosomes encapsulating doxorubicin would be effective in reducing triple-negative breast cancer cells’ survival.
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2022
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Erythrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles aggravate inflammation by promoting the proinflammatory macrophage phenotype through TLR4–MyD88–NF-κB–MAPK pathway
Transfusion of stored erythrocytes is associated with the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critical infections, but the mechanism is incompletely understood. Previous studies have suggested that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be potential risk factors for the occurrence of transfusion-related immunomodulation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of RBC-derived EVs under inflammatory conditions and explore the underlying mechanisms. In vivo, the activity of EVs was evaluated in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Our results showed that EVs significantly aggravated the inflammatory response to sepsis in serum and lung tissue by promoting the production of the proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and reduced the survival rate of septic mice in vivo. Importantly, adoptive transfer of EVs-pretreated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) obviously aggravated systemic proinflammatory factors in mice after CLP surgery. In vitro, the proinflammatory properties of EVs were shown to elevate TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDMs. Moreover, EVs promoted LPS-induced macrophage polarization into a proinflammatory phenotype. The underlying mechanism might involve EV-mediated up-regulation of TLR4–MyD88–NF-κB–MAPK activity to favor macrophage cytokine production.
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2022
Cardioprotective effect of extracellular vesicles derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocyte on hyperglycemic cardiomyocytes through alleviation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) via connecting the immune cell response to tissue injury, besides stimulation to muscle insulin resistance, while DM is associated with increased risks for major cardiovascular complications. Under DM, chronic hyperglycemia, and subsequent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) further lead to cardiac growth remodeling and dysfunction. The purinergic drug ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Although it is widely used in cardioprotection, the underlying molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly elucidated. Here, we aimed to understand how ticagrelor exerts its cardio-regulatory effects. For this purpose, we investigated the anti-oxidative and cardioprotective effect of EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocytes under DM conditions. To mimic DM in cardiomyocytes, we used high glucose incubated H9c2-cells (HG). HG cells were treated with EVs, which were derived from either ticagrelor-pretreated or untreated H9c2-cells. Our results demonstrated that ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-derived EVs significantly decreased the hyperglycemia-induced aberrant ROS production, prevented the development of apoptosis and ER stress, and alleviated oxidative stress associated miRNA-expression profile. Importantly, EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-cells enhanced endothelial cell migration and tube formation, suggesting a modulation of the EV profile in cardiomyocytes. Our data, for the first time, indicate that ticagrelor can exert an important regulatory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy through extracellular vesicular modulation behind its receptor-inhibition-related effects.
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2022
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Extracellular vesicles derived from human Sertoli cells: characterizations, proteomic analysis, and miRNA profiling
Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain thousands of proteins and nucleic acids, playing an important role in cell–cell communications. Sertoli cells have been essential in the testis as a “nurse cell”. However, EVs derived from human Sertoli cells (HSerCs) have not been well investigated. Methods EVs were isolated from HSerCs via ultracentrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, tunable resistive pulse sensing, and Western blotting. The cargo carried by HSerCs-EVs was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and GeneChip miRNA Arrays. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to reveal potential functions of HSerCs-EVs. Results A total of 860 proteins with no less than 2 unique peptides and 88 microRNAs with high signal values were identified in HSerCs-EVs. Biological processes related to molecular binding, enzyme activity, and regulation of cell cycle were significantly enriched. Specifically, many proteins in HSerCs-EVs were associated with spermatogenesis and regulation of immune system, including Septins, Large proline-rich protein BAG6, Clusterin, and Galectin-1. Moreover, abundant microRNAs within HSerCs-EVs (miR-638, miR-149-3p, miR-1246, etc.) had a possible impact on male reproductive disorders such as asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia. Conclusions Our study has shown that HSerCs-EVs contain diverse components such as proteins and microRNAs. Further research is required to evaluate HSerCs-EVs in spermatogenesis, which are underutilized but highly potent resources with particular promise for male infertility.
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2022
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The Role of Plasma Extracellular Vesicles in Remote Ischemic Conditioning and Exercise-Induced Ischemic Tolerance
Ischemic conditioning and exercise have been suggested for protecting against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the endogenous protective mechanisms stimulated by these interventions remain unclear. Here, in a comprehensive translational study, we investigated the protective role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released after remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE), or high-load resistance exercise (HLRE). Blood samples were collected from human participants before and at serial time points after intervention. RIC and BFRRE plasma EVs released early after stimulation improved viability of endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Furthermore, post-RIC EVs accumulated in the ischemic area of a stroke mouse model, and a mean decrease in infarct volume was observed for post-RIC EVs, although not reaching statistical significance. Thus, circulating EVs induced by RIC and BFRRE can mediate protection, but the in vivo and translational effects of conditioned EVs require further experimental verification.
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2022
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Determining extracellular vesicles properties and miRNA cargo variability in bovine milk from healthy cows and cows undergoing subclinical mastitis
Background Subclinical mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland lacking clinical symptoms, is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in dairy farming worldwide. Milk microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers of different mammary gland conditions, including subclinical mastitis. However, little is known about the robustness of EVs analysis regarding sampling time-point and natural infections. To estimate the reliability of EVs measurements in raw bovine milk, we first evaluated changes in EVs size and concentration using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) during three consecutive days of sampling. Then, we analysed daily differences in miRNA cargo using small RNA-seq. Finally, we compared milk EVs differences from naturally infected udder quarters with their healthy adjacent quarters and quarters from uninfected udders, respectively. Results We found that the milk EV miRNA cargo was very stable over the course of three days regardless of the health status of the quarter, and that infected quarters did not induce relevant changes in milk EVs of adjacent healthy quarters. Chronic subclinical mastitis induced changes in milk EV miRNA cargo, but neither in EVs size nor concentration. We observed that the changes in immunoregulatory miRNAs in quarters with chronic subclinical mastitis were cow-individual, however, the most upregulated miRNA was bta-miR-223-3p across all individuals. Conclusions Our results showed that the miRNA profile and particle size characteristics remained constant throughout consecutive days, suggesting that miRNAs packed in EVs are physiological state-specific. In addition, infected quarters were solely affected while adjacent healthy quarters remained unaffected. Finally, the cow-individual miRNA changes pointed towards infection-specific alterations.
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2022
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A new strategy to count and sort neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles: Validation in infectious disorders
Newly recognized polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) functions include the ability to release subcellular mediators such as neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) involved in immune and thrombo-inflammatory responses. Elevation of their plasmatic level has been reported in a variety of infectious and cardiovascular disorders, but the clinical use of this potential biomarker is hampered by methodological issues. Although flow cytometry (FCM) is currently used to detect NDEVs in the plasma of patients, an extensive characterization of NDEVs has never been done. Moreover, their detection remains challenging because of their small size and low antigen density. Therefore, the objective of the present study was first to establish a surface antigenic signature of NDEVs detectable by FCM and therefore to improve their detection in biological fluids by developing a strategy allowing to overcome their low fluorescent signal and reduce the background noise. By testing a large panel of 54 antibody specificities already reported to be positive on PMNs, we identified a profile of 15 membrane protein markers, including 4 (CD157, CD24, CD65 and CD66c) never described on NDEVs. Among them, CD15, CD66b and CD66c were identified as the most sensitive and specific markers to detect NDEVs by FCM. Using this antigenic signature, we developed a new strategy combining the three best antibodies in a cocktail and reducing the background noise by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This strategy allowed a significant improvement in NDEVs enumeration in plasma from sepsis patients and made it feasible to efficiently sort NDEVs from COVID-19 patients. Altogether, this work opens the door to a more valuable measurement of NDEVs as a potential biomarker in clinical practice. A similar strategy could also be applied to improve detection by FCM of other rare subpopulations of EVs generated by tissues with limited access, such as vascular endothelium, cancer cells or placenta
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2022
Biomechanical responses of encysted zoospores of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis to hyperosmotic stress are consistent with an ability to turgor regulate
Zoospores are motile, asexual reproductive propagules that enable oomycete pathogens to locate and infect new host tissue. While motile, they have no cell wall and maintain tonicity with their external media using water expulsion vacuoles. Once they locate host tissue, they encyst and form a cell wall, enabling the generation of turgor pressure that will provide the driving force for germination and invasion of the host. It is not currently known how these spores respond to the osmotic stresses that might arise due to different environments on and around their hosts that have different osmotic strengths. We have made microaspiration (MA) measurements on > 800 encysted zoospores and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on 12 encysted zoospores to determine their mechanical properties and how these change after hyperosmotic stress. Two types of encysted zoospores (Type A and Type B) were produced from the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, that differed in their morphology and response. With a small hyperosmotic stress (using 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 155.4 and 295.6 mOsmol/kg), Type A zoospores initially became stiffer, with an increase in the Young’s modulus (E) over 30 mins from 0.16 MPa to 0.25 and 0.22 MPa respectively. E then returned to its original value after 120 min. With a greater osmotic stress (using 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 438.2, 587.2 and 787.6 mOsmol/kg) the reverse occurred, with an initial decrease in E over 30 – 60 mins to values of 0.1, 0.08 and 0.09 MPa respectively, before recovery to the original value after 120 min. In 0.5 M sorbitol this recovery was only observed with AFM, but not with MA. Type B zoospores, which may be primary/secondary spores about to release secondary/tertiary spores, or else spores that were damaged during encystment, initially stiffened in response to the lower hyperosmotic stresses with a slight increase in E (from 0.077 to 0.1 MPa after 15 min (with both 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol) before recovering to the original value after 60 min. These spores showed no change in response to the higher osmotic stresses. The responses of the Type A spores are consistent with rapid changes in cell wall thickness and a turgor regulation mechanism. Turgor regulation is further supported by microscopic observations of the Type A spores showing protoplast retraction from the cell wall followed by deplasmolysis, coupled with measurements of spore volume. As far as we are aware this is the first demonstration of turgor regulation, not just in encysted zoospores, but in oomycetes in general.
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2022
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A review of optical methods for ultrasensitive detection and characterization of nanoparticles in liquid media with a focus on the wide field surface plasmon microscopy
Development of nanotechnology and corresponding industries during the last decade resulted in a new challenge for analytical science. This includes an ultrasensitive detection and characterization of nanoparticles of different origin and other nanomaterials in various media, including so complex ones as food, biological or environmental samples. The goal of this review is a systematic analysis of possible approaches and description of physical principles behind these methods. The main attention is paid to optical methods which are considered by authors to be mostly effective for the formulated task. Different approaches for detection and analysis of nanoparticles in a volume as well as of those adsorbed on a surface are discussed. While the technologies based on direct analysis of nanoparticle suspensions belong to the established approaches whose development potential has been in large extent exhausted, the novel technologies based on the surface sensing of adsorbed nanoparticles demonstrate intensive development. Therefore, the final part of the review is focused on the wide-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy. It allows one an ultrasensitive detection and characterization of individual nanoparticles of different origin in complex media and provides numerous possibilities for subsequent chemical identification of the detected particles using a hyphenation with other analytical technologies.
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2022
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Melanoma-derived extracellular vesicles mediate lymphatic remodelling and impair tumour immunity in draining lymph nodes
Tumour-draining lymph nodes (LNs) undergo massive remodelling including expansion of the lymphatic sinuses, a process that has been linked to lymphatic metastasis by creation of a pre-metastatic niche. However, the signals leading to these changes have not been completely understood. Here, we found that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from melanoma cells are rapidly transported by lymphatic vessels to draining LNs, where they selectively interact with lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) as well as medullary sinus macrophages. Interestingly, uptake of melanoma EVs by LN-resident LECs was partly dependent on lymphatic VCAM-1 expression, and induced transcriptional changes as well as proliferation of those cells. Furthermore, melanoma EVs shuttled tumour antigens to LN LECs for cross-presentation on MHC-I, resulting in apoptosis induction in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, our data identify EV-mediated melanoma—LN LEC communication as a new pathway involved in tumour progression and tumour immune inhibition, suggesting that EV uptake or effector mechanisms in LECs might represent a new target for melanoma therapy.
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2022
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Antimicrobial potential of probiotic cell-free and Carum copticum L. seed extracts co-nanoencapsulated in cellulose acetate fibers
The aim of this work was to co-nanoencapsulate Lactobacillus acidophilus (LCFE) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (BCFE) cell-free extract and zenyan (Carum copticum L.) seed water (ZWE) and ethanolic (ZEE) extract in electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers and evaluate antimicrobial potential. The zeta potential, SEM image, antibacterial (MIC and MBC), and antifungal (MIC and MFC) activities were evaluated. TPC (total phenol content) of water and ethanol extract of zenyan seed were 14.05 and 136.44 mg GAE/g, respectively. A zeta potential of −40.25, −45.80, −43.71, 48.55, 35.50, 47.93, 31.50, 44.69, and −29.61 mV was found for nanofibers of pure CA (cellulose acetate), CA/LCFE, CA/BCFE, CA/ZWE, CA/ZEE, CA/LCFE/ZWE, CA/LCFE/ ZEE, CA/BCFE/ZWE, and CA/LCFE/ZEE, respectively. CA electrospun nanofiber loaded with different extracts showed nanosized diameter and uniform structure. Nanoencapsulated extracts showed considerably higher antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to free extracts. Antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cell-free extract was higher than bifidobacteria, which indicated the presence of the higher amount of antibacterial compounds in lactobacilli extract. Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes) had the lowest MIC and MBC of free and nanoencapsulated extracts while Gram-negatives (E. coli, S. dysenteriae, and S. enteritidis) had higher MIC and MBC. CA-coated zenyan extracts (water and ethanolic) inhibited the growth of the assayed fungi at the MIC ranging 0.25 to 0.95%. These concentrations were 1.5–2 times lower than those obtained for pure extracts. For nanoencapsulated cellfree extracts of both probiotics, the MIC values were about five times lower than the free extracts. The highest antimicrobial activity obtained for CA nanofibers contained zenyan ethanolic extract and cell-free extract of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria.
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2022
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Bioanalytics for Influenza Virus-Like Particle Characterization and Process Monitoring
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are excellent platforms for the development of influenza vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, their characterization is challenging due to VLPs’ unique biophysical and biochemical properties. To cope with such complexity, multiple analytical techniques have been developed to date (e.g., single-particle analysis, thermal stability, or quantification assays), most of which are rarely used or have been successfully demonstrated for being applicable for virus particle characterization. In this study, several biophysical and biochemical methods have been evaluated for thorough characterization of monovalent and pentavalent influenza VLPs from diverse groups (A and B) and subtypes (H1 and H3) produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS). Particle size distribution and purity profiles were monitored during the purification process using two complementary technologies — nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). VLP surface charge at the selected process pH was also assessed by this last technique. The morphology of the VLP (size, shape, and presence of hemagglutinin spikes) was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Circular dichroism was used to assess VLPs’ thermal stability. Total protein, DNA, and baculovirus content were also assessed. All VLPs analyzed exhibited similar size ranges (90–115 nm for NTA and 129–141 nm for TRPS), surface charges (average of −20.4 mV), and morphology (pleomorphic particles resembling influenza virus) exhibiting the presence of HA molecules (spikes) uniformly displayed on M1 protein scaffold. Our data shows that HA titers and purification efficiency in terms of impurity removal and thermal stability were observed to be particle dependent. This study shows robustness and generic applicability of the tools and methods evaluated, independent of VLP valency and group/subtype. Thus, they are most valuable to assist process development and enhance product characterization.
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2022
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Gut Microbiota‐Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Endorse Memory‐like Inflammatory Responses in Murine Neutrophils
Neutrophils are classically characterized as merely reactive innate effector cells. However, the microbiome is known to shape the education and maturation process of neutrophils, improving their function and immune‐plasticity. Recent reports demonstrate that murine neutrophils possess the ability to exert adaptive responses after exposure to bacterial components such as LPS (Gram‐ negative bacteria) or LTA (Gram‐positive bacteria). We now ask whether small extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the gut may directly mediate adaptive responses in neutrophils in vitro. Murine bone marrow‐derived neutrophils were primed in vitro by small EVs of high purity collected from colon stool samples, followed by a second hit with LPS. We found that low‐dose priming with gut micro‐ biota‐derived small EVs enhanced pro‐inflammatory sensitivity as indicated by elevated levels of TNF‐α, IL‐6, ROS and MCP‐1 and increased migratory and phagocytic activity. In contrast, high‐ dose priming resulted in a tolerant phenotype, marked by increased IL‐10 and decreased transmi‐ gration and phagocytosis. Alterations in TLR2/MyD88 as well as TLR4/MyD88 signaling were cor‐ related with the induction of adaptive cues in neutrophils in vitro. Taken together, our study shows that small EVs from stools can drive adaptive responses in neutrophils in vitro and may represent a missing link in the gut–immune axis.
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2022
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Virus-like Particles: Measures and Biological Functions
Virus-like particles resemble infectious virus particles in size, shape, and molecular composition; however, they fail to productively infect host cells. Historically, the presence of virus-like particles has been inferred from total particle counts by microscopy, and infectious particle counts or plaque-forming-units (PFUs) by plaque assay; the resulting ratio of particles-to-PFUs is often greater than one, easily 10 or 100, indicating that most particles are non-infectious. Despite their inability to hijack cells for their reproduction, virus-like particles and the defective genomes they carry can exhibit a broad range of behaviors: interference with normal virus growth during co-infections, cell killing, and activation or inhibition of innate immune signaling. In addition, some virus-like particles become productive as their multiplicities of infection increase, a sign of cooperation between particles. Here, we review established and emerging methods to count virus-like particles and characterize their biological functions. We take a critical look at evidence for defective interfering virus genomes in natural and clinical isolates, and we review their potential as antiviral therapeutics. In short, we highlight an urgent need to better understand how virus-like genomes and particles interact with intact functional viruses during co-infection of their hosts, and their impacts on the transmission, severity, and persistence of virus-associated diseases.
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2022
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Combination of Tipifarnib and Sunitinib Overcomes Renal Cell Carcinoma Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors via Tumor-Derived Exosome and T Cell Modulation
Background: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were initially demonstrated as an efficacious treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, after a median treatment length of 14 months, a vast majority of patients develop resistance. This study analyzed a combination therapy of tipifarnib (Tipi) + sunitinib that targeted exosome-conferred drug resistance. Methods: 786-O, 786-O-SR (sunitinib resistant), A498, A498-SR, Caki-2, Caki-2-SR, and 293T cells were cultured. Exosomes were collected using differential ultracentrifugation. Cell proliferation, Jurkat T cell immune assay, and immunoblot analysis were used for downstream analysis. Results: SR exosomes treatment displayed a cytotoxic effect on immune cells. This cytotoxic effect was associated with increased expression of PD-L1 on SR exosomes when compared to sunitinib-sensitive (SS) exosomes. Additionally, Tipi treatment downregulated PD-L1 expression on exosomes derived from SR cell lines. Tipi’s ability to downregulate PD-L1 in exosomes has a significant application within patients. Exosomes collected from patients with RCC showed increased PD-L1 expression over subjects without RCC. Next, exosome concentrations were then compared after Tipi treatment, with all SS cell lines displaying an even greater reduction. On immunoblot assay, 293T cells showed a dose-dependent increase in Alix with no change in either nSMase or Rab27a. Conversely, all the SS and SR cell lines displayed a decrease in all three markers. After a cell proliferation employed a 48-h treatment on all SS and SR cell lines, the drug combination displayed synergistic ability to decrease tumor growth. Conclusions: Tipifarnib attenuates both the exosome endosomal sorting complex required for endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent pathways, thereby blocking exosome biogenesis and secretion as well as downregulating PD-L1 on SS and SR cells.
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2022
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Effect of SP-C and its palmitoylation state on membrane fragmentation and vesicle uptake
One of the largest surfaces of the human body in contact with the environment is the respiratory epithelium, constituted by different specialized cells. Alveolar type I cells are involved in gas exchange whereas alveolar type II cells prevent the alveoli from collapsing due to the synthesis and secretion of lung surfactant (LS). This lipid-protein complex covers the alveolar surface and reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface. LS, the first element in contact with inhaled air, is also involved in innate defense mechanisms. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a small hydrophobic transmembrane protein crucial for the biophysical function of LS. Different studies have revealed that the palmitoylation state of SP-C modulates important protein-lipid interactions within surfactant layers. Moreover, recent research has revealed that SP-C oligomerization, presumably through two structural motifs in SP-C sequence, could promote membrane fragmentation and enhance membrane vesicle alveolar uptake highlighting a key potential role of SP-C in LS homeostasis. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of palmitoylation on SP-C-promoted membrane fragmentation and vesicle uptake in the LS context. To do so, we have compared the behavior in different assays of the native palmitoylated protein and a recombinant SP-C version lacking palmitoyl chains, once reconstituted in two different lipid models mimicking LS membranes. Likewise, we have studied the implication of the proposed dimerization motifs in the SP-C sequence by testing synthetic peptides with selected sequence variations. Results from tunable resistive pulse sensing experiments suggest that both palmitoylation and the oligomerization state of SP-C are important to promote fission of membranes. Protein oligomerization and membrane fragmentation have been also analyzed with respect to membrane vesicle internalization by alveolar-derived cell lines, as evaluated by flow cytometry of cell cultures exposed to fluorescent lipid/protein complexes.
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2022
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An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away: Potential Role of miRNA 146 on Macrophages Treated with Exosomes Derived from Apples
The constant dialogue between the plant world and the animal world (including man among them) has been known since the time of Adam and Eve, where an apple was the origin of the evils of the world. Apart from Snow White—who might have something to object to when it comes to the use of apples—fruits, plants, and natural extracts have been known for millennia as remedies for human health-related ailments. In the light of such evidence, the aim of the present work was to investigate from a biological point of view the potential role of apple exosomes in inflammatory processes on human cells. To this end we isolated and characterized apple exosomes and treated human cells such as macrophages and NCTC L929 as cancer cells in order to evaluate the tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory effect of apple exomes. Microscopic and molecular biology analyses were conducted to characterize exosomes and to assess cell proliferation, death, and miRNA line, as well as gene expression and the uptake of exosomes by cells. The results confirm the absolute biological safety of exosomes and their anti-inflammatory effect, mediated mainly by miRNA146 production by M2 macrophages.
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2022
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A functional corona around extracellular vesicles enhances angiogenesis, skin regeneration and immunomodulation
Nanoparticles can acquire a plasma protein corona defining their biological identity. Corona functions were previously considered for cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here we demonstrate that nano-sized EVs from therapy-grade human placental-expanded (PLX) stromal cells are surrounded by an imageable and functional protein corona when enriched with permissive technology. Scalable EV separation from cell-secreted soluble factors via tangential flow-filtration (TFF) and subtractive tandem mass-tag (TMT) proteomics revealed significant enrichment of predominantly immunomodulatory and proangiogenic proteins. Western blot, calceinbased flow cytometry, super-resolution and electron microscopy verified EV identity. PLX-EVs partly protected corona proteins from protease digestion. EVs significantly ameliorated human skin regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo, induced differential signalling in immune cells, and dose-dependently inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro. Corona removal by size-exclusion or ultracentrifugation abrogated angiogenesis. Re-establishing an artificial corona by cloaking EVs with fluorescent albumin as a model protein or defined proangiogenic factors was depicted by superresolution microscopy, electron microscopy and zeta-potential shift, and served as a proof-of-concept. Understanding EV corona formation will improve rational EVinspired nano-therapy design.
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2022
ev
Customer interview: Camila Espejo - Tasmanian devil
Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by all cell types and serve as biological packets delivering a wide variety of molecules for cell-to-cell communication. However, the biology of the EV extravesicular surface domain that we have termed EV ‘biocorona’ remains underexplored. Upon cell secretion, EVs possess an innate biocorona containing membrane integral and peripheral constituents that is modified by acquired constituents post secretion. This distinguishes EVs from synthetic nanoparticulate biomaterials that are limited to an adsorption-based, acquired biocorona. Methods The EV biocorona molecular constituents were radiolabeled with 125I to study biocorona constituents and its surface dynamics. As example toolset applications, 125I-EVs were utilized to study EV cell trafficking and the stability of the EV biocorona during storage. Results The biocorona of EVs consisted of proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. The cellular uptake of 125I-EVs was temperature dependent and internalized 125I-EVs were rapidly recycled by cells. When 125I-EVs were stored in a purified state, they exhibited time and temperature dependent biocorona shedding and proteolytic degradation that was partially inhibited in the presence of serum. Conclusion The EV biocorona is complex and dynamic. Radiolabeling of the EV biocorona enables a unique platform methodology to study the biocorona and will facilitate unlocking EV's full clinical translation potential. General significance The EV biocorona affects EV mediated biological processes in health and disease. Acquiring knowledge of the EV biocorona composition, dynamics, stability and structure not only informs the diagnostic and therapeutic translation of EVs but also aids in designing biomimetic nanomaterials for drug delivery.
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2022
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Engineering pro-angiogenic biomaterials via chemoselective extracellular vesicle immobilization
Nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a unique cellular derivative that reflect the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward tissue engineering and injury repair without the logistical and safety concerns of utilizing living cells. However, upon systemic administration in vivo,EVs undergo rapid clearance and typically lack controlled targeted delivery, thus reducing their effectiveness in therapeutic regenerative therapies. Here, we describe a strategy that enables long-term in vivo spatial EV retention by chemoselective immobilization of metabolically incoporated azido ligand-bearing EVs (azido-EVs) within a dibenzocyclooctyne-modified collagen hydrogel. MSC-derived azido-EVs exhibit comparable morphological and functional properties as their non-labeled EV counterparts and, when immobilized within collagen hydrogel implants via click chemistry, they elicited more robust host cell infiltration, angiogenic and immunoregulatory responses including vascular ingrowth and macrophage recruitment compared to ten times the higher dose required by non-immobilized EVs. We envision this technology will enable a wide range of applications to spatially promote vascularization and host integration relevant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
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2022
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Weekly treatment with SAMiRNA targeting the androgen receptor ameliorates androgenetic alopecia
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men and women. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen receptor (AR) levels are increased in patients with AGA, and DHT-AR signaling correlates strongly with AGA pathogenesis. In this study, treatment with self-assembled micelle inhibitory RNA (SAMiRNA) nanoparticle-type siRNA selectively suppressed AR expression in vitro. Clinical studies with application of SAMiRNA to the scalp and massaging to deliver it to the hair follicle confirmed its efficacy in AGA. For identification of a potent SAMiRNA for AR silencing, 547 SAMiRNA candidates were synthesized and screened. SAMiRNA-AR68 (AR68) was the most potent and could be efficiently delivered to human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) and hair follicles, and this treatment decreased the AR mRNA and protein levels. We confirmed that 10 µM AR68 elicits no innate immune response in human PBMCs and no cytotoxicity up to 20 µM with HFDP and HaCaT cells. Clinical studies were performed in a randomized and double-blind manner with two different doses and frequencies. In the low-dose (0.5 mg/ml) clinical study, AR68 was applied three times per week for 24 weeks, and through quantitative analysis using a phototrichogram, we confirmed increases in total hair counts. In the high-dose (5 mg/ml) clinical study, AR68 was given once per week for 24 weeks and showed 83% efficacy in increasing hair counts compared with finasteride. No side effects were observed. Therefore, SAMiRNA targeting AR mRNA is a potential novel topical treatment for AGA.
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2022
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Differential lipidomics of HK-2 cells and exosomes under high glucose stimulation
Abnormal cellular lipid metabolism has a very important role in the occurrence and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, the lipid composition and differential expression by high glucose stimulation of renal tubular cells and their exosomes, which is a vital part of the development of DKD, are largely unknown. In this study, based on targeted lipid analysis by isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, a total of 421 and 218 lipid species were quantified in HK-2 cells and exosomes, respectively. More importantly, results showed that GM3 d18:1/22:0, GM3 d18:1/16:0, GM3 d18:0/16:0, GM3 d18:1/22:1 were significantly increased, while LPE18:1, LPE, CL66:4 (16:1), BMP36:3, CL70:7 (16:1), CL74:8 (16:1) were significantly decreased in high glucose-stimulated HK-2 cells. Also, PG36:1, FFA22:5, PC38:3, SM d18:1/16:1, CE-16:1, CE-18:3, CE-20:5, and CE-22:6 were significantly increased, while GM3 d18:1/24:1, GM3 were significantly decreased in exosomes secreted by high glucose-stimulated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, TAG, PC, CL were decreased significantly in the exosomes comparing with the HK-2 cells, and LPA18:2, LPI22:5, PG32:2, FFA16:1, GM3 d18:1/18:1, GM3 d18:1/20:1, GM3 d18:0/20:0, PC40:6p, TAG52:1(18:1), TAG52:0(18:0), CE-20:5, CE-20:4, CE-22:6 were only found in exosomes. In addition, the expression of PI4P in HK-2 cells decreased under a high glucose state. These data may be useful to provide new targets for exploring the mechanisms of DKD.
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2022
ev vr
Synergy of Human Platelet-Derived Extracellular Vesicles with Secretome Proteins Promotes Regenerative Functions
Platelet-rich plasma is a promising regenerative therapeutic with controversial efficacy. We and others have previously demonstrated regenerative functions of human platelet lysate (HPL) as an alternative platelet-derived product. Here we separated extracellular vesicles (EVs) from soluble factors of HPL to understand the mode of action during skin-organoid formation and immune modulation as model systems for tissue regeneration. HPL-EVs were isolated by tangential-flow filtration (TFF) and further purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) separating EVs from (lipo)protein-enriched soluble fractions. We characterized samples by tunable resistive pulse sensing, western blot, tandem mass-tag proteomics and super-resolution microscopy. We evaluated EV function during angiogenesis, wound healing, organoid formation and immune modulation. We characterized EV enrichment by TFF and SEC according to MISEV2018 guidelines. Proteomics showed three major clusters of protein composition separating TSEC-EVs from HPL clustering with TFF soluble fractions and TFF-EVs clustering with TSEC soluble fractions, respectively. HPL-derived TFF-EVs promoted skin-organoid formation and inhibited T-cell proliferation more efficiently than TSEC-EVs or TSEC-soluble fractions. Recombining TSEC-EVs with TSEC soluble fractions re-capitulated TFF-EV effects. Zeta potential and super-resolution imaging further evidenced protein corona formation on TFF-EVs. Corona depletion on SEC-EVs could be artificially reconstituted by TSEC late fraction add-back. In contrast to synthetic nanoparticles, which commonly experience reduced function after corona formation, the corona-bearing EVs displayed improved functionality. We conclude that permissive isolation technology, such as TFF, and better understanding of the mechanism of EV corona function are required to realize the complete potential of platelet-based regenerative therapies.
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2022
Comparison of Submicron Particle Counting Methods with a Heat Stressed Monoclonal Antibody: Effect of Electrolytes and Implications on Sample Preparation
Within this study, the performance and limitations of tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) was evaluated to characterize submicron particles in unstressed and heat stressed monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. These were compared with microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), resonant mass measurement (RMM), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). For TRPS and MRPS measurements, an adjustment of ionic strength was required to achieve suitable measurement conditions. The addition of electrolytes is potentially critical for protein formulations and therefore the effect of salt concentration and pH on submicron particle levels was further investigated. Heat stress caused a sharp increase in particle levels between 250-900 nm, observable by all four techniques. Due to reduced colloidal stability, indicated by increased attractive forces and reduced aggregation onset temperatures in the presence of sodium chloride, protein aggregation was observed in heat stressed mAb only after the addition of sodium chloride. Achieving adequate ionic strength by replacing sodium chloride with other electrolytes similarly resulted in reduced colloidal stability and protein aggregation. It is recommended that protein samples prone for aggregation in the presence of high ionic strength should not be analyzed by RPS measurements after the addition of electrolytes. However, protein samples containing already required ionic strength can be analyzed by any of the four techniques.
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2022
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Evidence for Effects of Extracellular Vesicles on Physical, Inflammatory, Transcriptome and Reward Behaviour Status in Mice
Immune-inflammatory activation impacts extracellular vesicles (EVs), including their miRNA cargo. There is evidence for changes in the EV miRNome in inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. This mouse study investigated: (1) effects of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chronic social stress (CSS) on plasma EV miRNome; and (2) physiological, transcriptional, and behavioural effects of peripheral or central delivered LPS-activated EVs in recipient mice. LPS or CSS effects on the plasma EV miRNome were assessed by using microRNA sequencing. Recipient mice received plasma EVs isolated from LPS-treated or SAL-treated donor mice or vehicle only, either intravenously or into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), on three consecutive days. Bodyweight, spleen or NAc transcriptome and reward (sucrose) motivation were assessed. LPS and CSS increased the expression of 122 and decreased expression of 20 plasma EV miRNAs, respectively. Peripheral LPS-EVs reduced bodyweight, and both LPS-EVs and SAL-EVs increased spleen expression of immune-relevant genes. NAc-infused LPS-EVs increased the expression of 10 immune-inflammatory genes. Whereas motivation increased similarly across test days in all groups, the effect of test days was more pronounced in mice that received peripheral or central LPS-EVs compared with other groups. This study provides causal evidence that increased EV levels impact physiological and behavioural processes and are of potential relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders.
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2022
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Exosomal and Plasma Non-Coding RNA Signature Associated with Urinary Albumin Excretion in Hypertension
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA), released into circulation or packaged into exosomes, plays important roles in many biological processes in the kidney. The purpose of the present study is to identify a common ncRNA signature associated with early renal damage and its related molecular pathways. Three individual libraries (plasma and urinary exosomes, and total plasma) were prepared from each hypertensive patient (with or without albuminuria) for ncRNA sequencing analysis. Next, an RNA-based transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. The three RNA biotypes with the greatest number of differentially expressed transcripts were long-ncRNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA) and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs). We identified a common 24 ncRNA molecular signature related to hypertension-associated urinary albumin excretion, of which lncRNAs were the most representative. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory network showed five lncRNAs (LINC02614, BAALC-AS1, FAM230B, LOC100505824 and LINC01484) and the miR-301a-3p to play a significant role in network organization and targeting critical pathways regulating filtration barrier integrity and tubule reabsorption. Our study found an ncRNA profile associated with albuminuria, independent of biofluid origin (urine or plasma, circulating or in exosomes) that identifies a handful of potential targets, which may be utilized to study mechanisms of albuminuria and cardiovascular damage.
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2022
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Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Rapid Detection and In Situ Diagnosis in Clinical Oncology
Screening, monitoring, and diagnosis are critical in oncology treatment. However, there are limitations with the current clinical methods, notably the time, cost, and special facilities required for radioisotope-based methods. An alternative approach, which uses magnetic beads, offers faster analyses with safer materials over a wide range of oncological applications. Magnetic beads have been used to detect extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the serum of pancreatic cancer patients with statistically different EV levels in preoperative, postoperative, and negative control samples. By incorporating fluorescence, magnetic beads have been used to quantitatively measure prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer biomarker, which is sensitive enough even at levels found in healthy patients. Immunostaining has also been incorporated with magnetic beads and compared with conventional immunohistochemical methods to detect lesions; the results suggest that immunostained magnetic beads could be used for pathological diagnosis during surgery. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), can detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer in a clinical setting, as well as those in gallbladder cancer in animal models, in a surgery-applicable timeframe. Ultimately, recent research into the applications of magnetic beads in oncology suggests that the screening, monitoring, and diagnosis of cancers could be improved and made more accessible through the adoption of this technology.
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2022
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A new transgene mouse model using an extravesicular EGFP tag enables affinity isolation of cell-specific extracellular vesicles
The in vivo function of cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenging to establish since cell-specific EVs are difficult to isolate and differentiate. We, therefore, created an EV reporter using truncated CD9 to display enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on the EV surface. CD9truc-EGFP expression in cells did not affect EV size and concentration but enabled co-precipitation of EV markers TSG101 and ALIX from the cell-conditioned medium by anti-GFP immunoprecipitation. We then created a transgenic mouse where CD9truc-EGFP was inserted in the inverse orientation and double-floxed, ensuring irreversible Cre recombinase-dependent EV reporter expression. We crossed the EV reporter mice with mice expressing Cre ubiquitously (CMV-Cre), in cardiomyocytes (αMHC-MerCreMer) and renal tubular epithelial cells (Pax8-Cre), respectively. The CD9truc-EGFP positive mice showed Cre-dependent EGFP expression, and plasma CD9truc-EGFP EVs were immunoprecipitated only from CD9truc-EGFP positive CD9truc-EGFPxCMV-Cre and CD9truc-EGFPxαMHC-Cre mice, but not in CD9truc-EGFPxPax8-Cre and CD9truc-EGFP negative mice. In urine samples, CD9truc-EGFP EVs were detected by immunoprecipitation only in CD9truc-EGFP positive CD9truc-EGFPxCMV-Cre and CD9truc-EGFPxPax8-Cre mice, but not CD9truc-EGFPxαMHC-Cre and CD9truc-EGFP negative mice. In conclusion, our EV reporter mouse model enables Cre-dependent EV labeling, providing a new approach to studying cell-specific EVs in vivo and gaining a unique insight into their physiological and pathophysiological function.
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2022
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LncRNA SNHG12 in extracellular vesicles derived from carcinoma-associated fibroblasts promotes cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is defined as the most universally diagnosed class of lung cancer. Cisplatin (DDP) is an effective drug for NSCLC, but tumors are prone to drug resistance. The current study set out to evaluate the regulatory effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on DDP resistance in NSCLC cells. Firstly, NSCLC cells were treated with EVs, followed by detection of cell activity, IC50 values, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and Cy3-SNHG12. We observed that CAFs-EVs promoted IC50 values and cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. In addition, we learned that lncRNA SNHG12 carried by CAFs-EVs into NSCLC facilitated DDP resistance of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (HuR/ELAVL1) binding to lncRNA SNHG12 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) was verified and RNA stability of XIAP was also verified CAFs-EVs promoted RNA stability and transcription of XIAP, while silencing HuR could partially-reverse this promoting effect. Further joint experimentation showed that silencing XIAP partially inhibited DDP resistance in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the tumor growth and the positive rate of Ki67 and HuR were detected, which showed that CAFs-oe-EVs promoted the tumor and the positive rate of Ki67, as well as the levels of lncRNA SNHG12, HuR, and XIAP in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicated that lncRNA SNHG12 carried by CAFs-EVs into NSCLC cells promoted RNA stability and XIAP transcription by binding to HuR, thus augmenting DDP resistance in NSCLC cells.
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2022
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Characterization of surface markers on extracellular vesicles isolated from lymphatic exudate from patients with breast cancer
Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among females world-wide. Recent research suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in the development of breast cancer metastasis. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in patients with known lymph node metastases, and after surgery large amounts of serous fluid are produced from the axilla. The overall aim was to isolate and characterize EVs from axillary serous fluid, and more specifically to determine if potential breast cancer biomarkers could be identified. Methods Lymphatic drain fluid was collected from 7 patients with breast cancer the day after ALND. EVs were isolated using size exclusion chromatography, quantified and detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, nano flow cytometry and western blot. The expression of 37 EV surface proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry using the MACSPlex Exosome kit. Results Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved after surgery from all 7 patients contained EVs. The isolated EVs were positive for the typical EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81 and Flotillin-1 while albumin was absent, indicating low contamination from blood proteins. In total, 24 different EV surface proteins were detected. Eleven of those proteins were detected in all patients, including the common EV markers CD9, CD63 and CD81, cancer-related markers CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, platelet markers CD41b, CD42a and CD62p as well as HLA-DR/DP/DQ. Furthermore, CD29 and CD146 were enriched in Her2+ patients compared to patients with Her2- tumors. Conclusions Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved from breast cancer patients after surgery contains EVs that can be isolated using SEC isolation. The EVs have several cancer-related markers including CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, proteins of potential interest as biomarkers as well as to increase the understanding of the mechanisms of cancer biology.
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2022
ev nm
Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Bone Marrow in an Early Stage of Ionizing Radiation Damage Are Able to Induce Bystander Responses in the Bone Marrow
Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced bystander effects contribute to biological responses to radiation, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in mediating these effects. In this study we investigated the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived EVs in the bystander transfer of radiation damage. Mice were irradiated with 0.1Gy, 0.25Gy and 2Gy, EVs were extracted from the BM supernatant 24 h or 3 months after irradiation and injected into bystander mice. Acute effects on directly irradiated or EV-treated mice were investigated after 4 and 24 h, while late effects were investigated 3 months after treatment. The acute effects of EVs on the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell pools were similar to direct irradiation effects and persisted for up to 3 months, with the hematopoietic stem cells showing the strongest bystander responses. EVs isolated 3 months after irradiation elicited no bystander responses. The level of seven microRNAs (miR-33a-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-152-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-200c-5p, miR-375-3p and miR-669o-5p) was altered in the EVs isolated 24 hour but not 3 months after irradiation. They regulated pathways highly relevant for the cellular response to IR, indicating their role in EV-mediated bystander responses. In conclusion, we showed that only EVs from an early stage of radiation damage could transmit IR-induced bystander effects.
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2022
vr nm
Induction of Peptide-specific CTL Activity and Inhibition of Tumor Growth Following Immunization with Nanoparticles Coated with Tumor Peptide-MHC-I Complexes
Tumor peptides associated with MHC class I molecules or their synthetic variants have attracted great attention for their potential use as vaccines to induce tumor-specific CTLs. However, the outcome of clinical trials of peptide-based tumor vaccines has been disappointing. There are various reasons for this lack of success, such as difficulties in delivering the peptides specifically to professional Ag-presenting cells, short peptide half-life in vivo, and limited peptide immunogenicity. We report here a novel peptide vaccination strategy that efficiently induces peptide-specific CTLs. Nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated from a biodegradable polymer, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), attached to H-2Kb molecules, and then the natural peptide epitopes associated with the H-2Kb molecules were exchanged with a model tumor peptide, SIINFEKL (OVA257-268). These NPs were efficiently phagocytosed by immature dendritic cells (DCs), inducing DC maturation and activation. In addition, the DCs that phagocytosed SIINFEKL-pulsed NPs potently activated SIINFEKL-H-2Kb complex-specific CD8+ T cells via cross-presentation of SIINFEKL. In vivo studies showed that intravenous administration of SIINFEKL-pulsed NPs effectively generated SIINFEKL-specific CD8+ T cells in both normal and tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, intravenous administration of SIINFEKL-pulsed NPs into EG7.OVA tumor-bearing mice almost completely inhibited the tumor growth. These results demonstrate that vaccination with polymeric NPs coated with tumor peptide-MHC-I complexes is a novel strategy for efficient induction of tumor-specific CTLs.
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2021
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miR-223-3p and miR-24-3p as novel serum-based biomarkers for myotonic dystrophy type
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult-onset muscular dystrophy, primarily characterized by muscle wasting and weakness. Many biomarkers already exist in the rapidly developing biomarker research field that aim to improve patients’ care. Limited work, however, has been performed on rare diseases, including DM1. We have previously shown that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as potential biomarkers for DM1 progression. In this report, we aimed to identify novel serum-based biomarkers for DM1 through high-throughput next-generation sequencing. A number of miRNAs were identified that are able to distinguish DM1 patients from healthy individuals. Two miRNAs were selected, and their association with the disease was validated in a larger panel of patients. Further investigation of miR-223-3p, miR-24-3p, and the four previously identified miRNAs, miR-1-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b-3p, and miR-206-3p, showed elevated levels in a DM1 mouse model for all six miRNAs circulating in the serum compared to healthy controls. Importantly, the levels of miR-223-3p, but not the other five miRNAs, were found to be significantly downregulated in five skeletal muscles and heart tissues of DM1 mice compared to controls. This result provides significant evidence for its involvement in disease manifestation.
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2021
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A scalable coaxial bioprinting technology for mesenchymal stem cell microfiber fabrication and high extracellular vesicle yield
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine; however, the lack of scalable methods for high quantity EV production limits their application. In addition, signature EV-derived proteins shared in 3D environments and 2D surfaces, remain mostly unknown. Herein, we present a platform combining MSC microfiber culture with ultracentrifugation purification for high EV yield. Within this platform, a high quantity MSC solution (∼3 × 108 total cells) is encapsulated in a meter-long hollow hydrogel-microfiber via coaxial bioprinting technology. In this 3D core–shell microfiber environment, MSCs express higher levels of stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2) than in 2D culture, and maintain their differentiation capacity. Moreover, this platform enriches particles by ∼1009-fold compared to conventional 2D culture, while preserving their pro-angiogenic properties. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization results demonstrate that EVs derived from our platform and conventional 2D culturing have unique protein profiles with 3D-EVs having a greater variety of proteins (1023 vs 605), however, they also share certain proteins (536) and signature MSC-EV proteins (10). This platform, therefore, provides a new tool for EV production using microfibers in one culture dish, thereby reducing space, labor, time, and cost.
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2021
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Surface analysis of novel fibroin films based on well-preserved crystalline structures
We recently reported that a highly homogeneous aqueous suspension of fibroin nanofiber (FNF) can be simply obtained by mechanical water-grinding a heterogeneous aqueous fibroin slurry and that the FNF in the suspension preserves the native β-sheet secondary structure during this mechanical treatment. The current study reports the surface properties of well-preserved crystalline structure novel FNF film from water-grinding preparation as compared with those of typical, conventionally prepared regenerated fibroin (RF) film. RF film was not treated with alcoholic solutions and was verified to be amorphous from a WAXD diffraction diagram. The air-side surfaces of the FNF semi-crystalline and RF amorphous films were studied to clarify differences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), static water contact angle, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The well-preserved crystalline in the FNF film was found to exist near a slightly deep surface region and to act as a physically cross-linking domain, governing the molecular motions of the amorphous polypeptide chains at the very shallow surface region.
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2021
ev vr
Human hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate the carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice
Acute liver injury (ALI) induced by chemicals or viruses can progress rapidly to acute liver failure (ALF), often resulting in death of patients without liver transplantation. Since liver transplantation is limited due to a paucity of donors, expensive surgical costs, and severe immune rejection, novel therapies are required to treat liver injury. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are used for cellular communication, carrying RNAs, proteins, and lipids and delivering them intercellularly after being endocytosed by target cells. Recently, it was reported that EVs secreted from human hepatocytes have an ability to modulate the immune responses; however, these roles of EVs secreted from human hepatocytes were studied only with in vitro experiments. In the present study, we evidenced that EVs secreted from human hepatocytes attenuated the CCL4-induced ALI by inhibiting the recruitment of monocytes through downregulation of chemokine receptor in the bone marrow and recruitment of neutrophils through the reduction of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CXCL2 expression levels in the liver.
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2021
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NNT-AS1 in CAFs-derived exosomes inhibits miR-889-3p in PDAC cells and then promotes proliferation, metastasis, and metabolic reprogramming through favorably regulating HIF-1α
Background: It is metabolic and signaling crosstalk between stromal cells and tumors in the tumor microenvironment, which influences several aspects of tumor formation and drug resistance, including metabolic reprogramming. Despite considerable findings linking lncRNAs in HIF-1-related regulatory networks to cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, little emphasis has been given to the lncRNAs' role in communication between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor cells. Previously, we observed that NNT-AS1 was substantially expressed in CAFs cells and CAFs exosomes, and subsequently investigated the influence of CAFs exosomal NNT-AS1 on glucose metabolism, proliferation, and metastasis of PDAC cells. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine exosomes secreted by PDAC patient-derived CAFs. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate at the expression of NNT-AS1, miR-889-3p, and HIF-1. The role of CAFs-derived exosomal NNT-AS1 in PDAC cell proliferation, metastasis, and metabolism has been identified. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to look at the binding between NNT-AS1, miR-889-3p, and HIF-1. Results: After PDAC cells co-culture exosomes secreted by CAFs, we found that they alter glucose metabolism, proliferation, and metastasis. In PDAC cells, CAF-derived exosomal lncRNA NNT-AS1 acted as a molecular sponge for miR-889-3p. Furthermore, HIF-1 could be targeted by miR-889-3p and was controlled by NNT-AS1. Conclusion: This study explores the mechanism by which NNT-AS1 influences the interaction of CAFs on glycolytic remodeling, proliferation, and metastasis of tumor cells through regulating miR-889-3p/HIF-1α, which also helps discover new clinical treatment targets for PDAC.
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2021
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The impact of storage on extracellular vesicles: A systematic study
Mounting evidence suggests that storage has an impact on extracellular vesicles (EVs) properties. While −80◦C storage is a widespread approach, some authors proposed improved storage strategies with conflicting results. Here, we designed a systematic study to assess the impact of −80◦C storage and freeze-thaw cycles on EVs. We tested the differences among eight storage strategies and investigated the possible fusion phenomena occurring during storage. EVs were collected from human plasma and murine microglia culture by size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation, respectively. The analysis included: concentration, size and zeta potential (tunable resistive pulse sensing), contaminant protein assessment; flow cytometry for the analysis of two single fluorescent-tagged EVs populations (GFP and mCherry), mixed before preservation. We found that −80◦C storage reduces EVs concentration and sample purity in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, it increases the particle size and size variability and modifies EVs zeta potential, with a shift of EVs in sizecharge plots. None of the tested conditions prevented the observed effects. Freezethaw cycles lead to an EVs reduction after the first cycle and to a cycle-dependent increase in particle size. With flow cytometry, after storage, we observed a significant population of double-positive EVs (GFP+-mCherry+). This observation may suggest the occurrence of fusion phenomena during storage. Our findings show a significant impact of storage on EVs samples in terms of particle loss, purity reduction and fusion phenomena leading to artefactual particles. Depending on downstream analyses and experimental settings, EVs should probably be processed from fresh, non-archival, samples in majority of cases.
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2021
nm
Engineered nanomaterials: the challenges and opportunities for nanomedicines
The emergence of nanotechnology as a key enabling technology over the past years has opened avenues for new and innovative applications in nanomedicine. From the business aspect, the nanomedicine market was estimated to worth USD 293.1 billion by 2022 with a perception of market growth to USD 350.8 billion in 2025. Despite these opportunities, the underlying challenges for the future of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in nanomedicine research became a significant obstacle in bringing ENMs into clinical stages. These challenges include the capability to design bias-free methods in evaluating ENMs’ toxicity due to the lack of suitable detection and inconsistent characterization techniques. Therefore, in this literature review, the state-of-the-art of engineered nanomaterials in nanomedicine, their toxicology issues, the working framework in developing a toxicology benchmark and technical characterization techniques in determining the toxicity of ENMs from the reported literature are explored. Keywords: engineered nanomaterials, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, particle tracking analysis, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, Taylor dispersion analysis
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2021
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Enhancing the Stabilization Potential of Lyophilization for Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are an emerging technology as immune therapeutics and drug delivery vehicles. However, EVs are usually stored at −80 °C which limits potential clinical applicability. Freeze-drying of EVs striving for long-term stable formulations is therefore studied. The most appropriate formulation parameters are identified in freeze-thawing studies with two different EV types. After a freeze-drying feasibility study, four lyophilized EV formulations are tested for storage stability for up to 6 months. Freeze-thawing studies revealed improved colloidal EV stability in presence of sucrose or potassium phosphate buffer instead of sodium phosphate buffer or phosphate-buffered saline. Less aggregation and/or vesicle fusion occurred at neutral pH compared to slightly acidic or alkaline pH. EVs colloidal stability can be most effectively preserved by addition of low amounts of poloxamer 188. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone failed to preserve EVs upon freeze-drying. Particle size and concentration of EVs are retained over 6 months at 40 °C in lyophilizates containing 10 mm K- or Na-phosphate buffer, 0.02% poloxamer 188, and 5% sucrose. The biological activity of associated beta-glucuronidase is maintained for 1 month, but decreased after 6 months. Here optimized parameters for lyophilization of EVs that contribute to generate long-term stable EV formulations are presented.
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2021
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Engineered EVs for Oxidative Stress Protection
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly studied as vectors for drug delivery because they can transfer a variety of molecules across biological barriers. SerpinB3 is a serine protease inhibitor that has shown a protective anti-apoptotic function in a variety of stressful conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate protection from oxidative stress-induced damage, using extracellular vesicles that overexpress SerpinB3 (EVs-SB3) in order to enhance the effect of extracellular vesicles on cellular homeostasis. EVs-SB3s were obtained from HepG2 cells engineered to overexpress SerpinB3 and they revealed significant proteomic changes, mostly characterized by a reduced expression of other proteins compared with EVs from non-engineered cells. These EV preparations showed a significantly higher protection from H2O2 induced oxidative stress in both the hepatoma cell line and in primary cardiomyocytes, compared to cells treated with naïve EVs or SerpinB3 alone, used at the same concentration. In conclusion, the induction of SerpinB3 transgene expression results in the secretion of EVs enriched with the protein product that exhibits enhanced cytoprotective activity, compared with naïve EVs or the nude SerpinB3 protein.
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2021
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A SARS-CoV-2 targeted siRNA-nanoparticle therapy for COVID-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in humans. Despite several emerging vaccines, there remains no verifiable therapeutic targeted specifically to the virus. Here we present a highly effective small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2 infection using a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery system. Multiple siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the SARS-CoV2 virus were screened, and three candidate siRNAs emerged that effectively inhibit the virus by greater than 90% either alone or in combination with one another. We simultaneously developed and screened two novel LNP formulations for the delivery of these candidate siRNA therapeutics to the lungs, an organ that incurs immense damage during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Encapsulation of siRNAs in these LNPs followed by in vivo injection demonstrated robust repression of virus in the lungs and a pronounced survival advantage to the treated mice. Our LNP-siRNA approaches are scalable and can be administered upon the first sign of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. We suggest that an siRNA-LNP therapeutic approach could prove highly useful in treating COVID-19 disease as an adjunctive therapy to current vaccine strategies.
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2021
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Effects of Solidification Conditions on Grain Refinement Capacity of TiC in Directionally Solidified Ti6Al4V Alloy
In this study, the effects of solidification conditions on the grain refinement capacity of heterogeneous nuclei TiC in directionally solidified Ti6Al4V alloy were investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. Ti6Al4V powder with and without TiC particles in a Ti6Al4V sheath was melted and directionally solidified at various solidification rates via the floating zone melting method. In addition, by using the phase field method, the microstructural evolution of directionally solidified Ti6Al4V was simulated by varying the temperature gradient G and solidification rate V. As the solidification rate increased, the increment of the prior β grain number by TiC addition also increased. There are two reasons for this: first, the amount of residual potent heterogeneous nuclei TiC is larger. Second, the amount of TiC particles that can nucleate becomes larger. This is because increasing the constitutional undercooling ΔTc leads to the activation of a smaller radius of heterogeneous nuclei and a higher nucleation probability from each radius. At a cooling rate R higher than that in the floating zone melting experiment (R = 3 to 1000 K/s), the maximum degree of constitutional undercooling ΔTc,Max has a peak value, which suggests that constitutional undercooling ΔTc has a smaller contribution at higher cooling rates, such as those that occur during electron beam melting (EBM), including laser powder bed fusion (LPBF).
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2021
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Emerging technologies and commercial products in Exosome-Based Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis
Academic and industrial groups worldwide have reported technological advances in exosome-based cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the potential translation of these emerging technologies for research and clinical settings remains unknown. This work overviews the role of exosomes in cancer diagnosis and prognosis, followed by a survey on emerging exosome technologies, particularly microfluidic advances for the isolation and detection of exosomes in cancer research. The advantages and drawbacks of each of the technologies used for the isolation, detection and engineering of exosomes are evaluated to address their clinical challenges for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, commercial platforms for exosomal detection and analysis are introduced, and their performance and impact on cancer diagnosis and prognosis are assessed. Also, the risks associated with the further development of the next generation of exosome devices are discussed. The outcome of this work could facilitate recognizing deliverable Exo-devices and technologies with unprecedented functionality and predictable manufacturability for the next-generation of cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
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2021
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Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Therapeutic Application in Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Recently, many studies investigated the role of a specific type of stem cell named the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) in tissue regeneration and repair. EPCs represent a heterogeneous population of mononuclear cells resident in the adult bone marrow. EPCs can migrate and differentiate in injured sites or act in a paracrine way. Among the EPCs’ secretome, extracellular vesicles (EVs) gained relevance due to their possible use for cell-free biological therapy. They are more biocompatible, less immunogenic, and present a lower oncological risk compared to cell-based options. EVs can efficiently pass the pulmonary filter and deliver to target tissues different molecules, such as micro-RNA, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and non-coding RNAs. Their effects are often analogous to their cellular counterparts, and EPC-derived EVs have been tested in vitro and on animal models to treat several medical conditions, including ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, and acute kidney injury. EPC-derived EVs have also been studied for bone, brain, and lung regeneration and as carriers for drug delivery. This review will discuss the pre-clinical evidence regarding EPC-derived EVs in the different disease models and regenerative settings. Moreover, we will discuss the translation of their use into clinical practice and the possible limitations of this process.
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2021
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A new transgene mouse model using an extravesicular EGFP tag to elucidate the in vivo function of extracellular vesicles
The in vivo function of cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenging to establish since cell-specific EVs are difficult to isolate. We therefore created an EV reporter using CD9 to display enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on the EV surface. CD9-EGFP expression in cells did not affect EV size and concentration, but allowed for co-precipitation of EV markers TSG101 and ALIX from cell-conditioned medium by anti-GFP immunoprecipitation. We created a transgenic mouse where CD9-EGFP was inserted in the inverse orientation and double-floxed, ensuring Cre recombinase-dependent EV reporter expression. We crossed the EV reporter mice with mice expressing Cre ubiquitously (CMV- Cre), in cardiomyocytes (AMHC-Cre) and kidney epithelium (Pax8-Cre), respectively. The mice showed tissue-specific EGFP expression, and plasma and urine samples were used to immunoprecipitate EVs. CD9-EGFP EVs was detected in plasma samples from CMV-Cre/CD9-EGFP and AMHC-Cre/CD9-EGFP mice, but not in PAX8-Cre/CD9-EGFP mice. On the other hand, CD9-EGFP EVs were detected in urine samples from CMV-Cre/CD9-EGFP and PAX8-Cre/CD9-EGFP mice, but not AMHC-Cre/CD9-EGFP, indicating that plasma EVs are not filtered to the urine. In conclusion, our EV reporter mouse model enables Cre-dependent EV labeling, providing a new approach to study cell-specific EVs in vivo and gain new insight into their physiological and pathophysiological function.
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2021
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A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles, which include exosomes, micro vesicles (MVs) and various-sized vesicles, released by healthy and diseased cells. EVs also include other vesicular structures, such as large apoptotic bodies (1–5 μm), as well as membrane particles (50–80 nm) originating from the plasma membrane. However, exosomes are nanosize (≈30–100 nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin that are bud-off by most types of cells and circulate in bodily fluids. Extracellular nanovesicles contain a large variety of biomolecules, including miRNA, RNA, DNA, proteins, signaling peptides and lipids, that can have diagnostic and therapeutic value. The spectrum of the existing scientific interest in extracellular nanovesicles is comprehensive, which ranges from understanding their functions and pathways to their potential clinical usage. EVs can be obtained from different body fluids with minimally invasive techniques (e.g., urine, plasma, serum), so they are most useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to the accurate diagnosis of various diseases, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause misinterpreted results. Over the last decade, a plethora of approaches have been developed for examining EVs using optical and non-optical tools. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Moreover, the isolation method that is most appropriate to maximize EVs recovery depends on the different experimental situations. This review explores the emerging use of micro and nano-technologies to isolate and characterize exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) from different biological samples, and the application of these technologies for the monitoring and diagnosis of different pathological conditions.
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2021
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A simple displacement aptamer assay on resistive pulse sensor for small molecule detection
A universal aptamer-based sensing strategy is proposed using DNA modified nanocarriers and Resistive Pulse Sensing (RPS) for the rapid (≤20 min) and label free detection of small molecules. The surface of a magnetic nanocarrier was first modified with a ssDNA (anchor) which is designed to be partially complimentary in sequence to the ssDNA aptamer. The aptamer and anchor form a stable dsDNA complex on the nanocarriers surface. Upon the addition of the target molecule, a conformational change takes place where the aptamer preferentially binds to the target over the anchor; causing the aptamer to be released into solution. The RPS measures the change in velocity of the nanocarrier as its surface changes from dsDNA to ssDNA, and its velocity is used as a proxy for the concentration of the target. The length of the aptamer and the ability to extract and preconcentrate the nanocarriers using a magnet, is shown to affect the sensitivity. We illustrate the versatility of the assay using the same anchor sequence and Aptamers to the antibiotic Moxifloxacin, and chemotherapeutics Imatinib and Irinotecan. In addition, the proposed assay can be easily extended to detect multiple analytes simultaneously, by utilizing nanocarriers with different diameters. Each sized particle is functionalised with a the same anchor but a unique aptamer. We illustrate this with the simultaneous detection of Imatinib and Moxifloxacin. The strategy could be easily adapted to a range of targets and unlike previous strategies that use aptamer modified nanocarriers, the signal is not dependent upon the tertiary structure of the aptamer-target interaction.
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2021
ev vr
Aberrant expression of a novel circular RNA in pancreatic cancer
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded, covalently closed RNA molecules that are produced from pre-mRNAs through a process known as back-splicing. Although circRNAs are expressed under specific conditions, current understanding of their comprehensive expression status is still limited. Here, we performed a large-scale circRNA profiling analysis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, using circular RNA-specific RNA sequencing. We identified more than 40,000 previously unknown circRNAs, some of which were upregulated in PDAC tissues, compared with normal pancreatic tissues. We determined the full-length sequence of a circRNA upregulated in PDAC, which was derived from two noncoding RNA loci on chromosome 12. The novel circRNA, named circPDAC RNA, was not expressed in normal human cells, but was expressed in PDAC and other carcinoma cells. While postulated biological functions, such as peptide production from the circPDAC RNA, were not detected, its aberrant expression was confirmed in other PDAC tissues and in serum from a PDAC patient. These results demonstrate that comprehensive studies are necessary to reveal the expression status of circRNAs and that the circPDAC RNA identified here might serve as a novel biomarker for cancers, including PDAC.
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2021
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Aberrant Membrane Structures in Hypervesiculating Escherichia coli Strain ΔmlaEΔnlpI Visualized by Electron Microscopy
Escherichia coli produces extracellular vesicles called outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by releasing a part of its outer membrane. We previously reported that the combined deletion of nlpI and mlaE, related to envelope structure and phospholipid accumulation in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, respectively, resulted in the synergistic increase of OMV production. In this study, the analysis of ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells using quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDE-EM) revealed that plasmolysis occurred at the tip of the long axis in cells and that OMVs formed from this tip. Plasmolysis was also observed in the single-gene knockout mutants ΔnlpI and ΔmlaE. This study has demonstrated that plasmolysis was induced in the hypervesiculating mutant E. coli cells. Furthermore, intracellular vesicles and multilamellar OMV were observed in the ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells. Meanwhile, the secretion of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytosol of the ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells was more than 100 times higher than that of WT and ΔnlpI, and about 50 times higher than that of ΔmlaE in the OMV fraction, suggesting that cytosolic components were incorporated into outer-inner membrane vesicles (OIMVs) and released into the extracellular space. Additionally, QFDE-EM analysis revealed that ΔmlaEΔnlpI sacculi contained many holes noticeably larger than the mean radius of the peptidoglycan (PG) pores in wild-type (WT) E. coli. These results suggest that in ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells, cytoplasmic membrane materials protrude into the periplasmic space through the peptidoglycan holes and are released as OIMVs.
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2021
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Adherence to minimal experimental requirements for defining extracellular vesicles and their functions
Rigorous measures are required to cope with the advance of extracellular vesicle (EV) research, from 183 studies published in 2012 to 2,309 studies published in 2020. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) guidelines in 2014, updated in 2018, for assuring and improving EV research quality. We performed a systematic review using a text mining approach to assess adherence to MISEV criteria. A keyword search was conducted in 5,093 accessible publications over the period 2012–2020 and analyzed the methodology used for EV isolation and characterization. We found a significant improvement over the years particularly regarding EV characterization where recent papers used a higher number of methods and EV markers to check for quantity and purity. Interestingly, we also found that EV papers using more methods and EV markers were cited more frequently. Papers citing MISEV criteria were more prone to use a higher number of characterization methods. We therefore established a concise checklist summarizing MISEV criteria to support EV researchers towards reaching the highest standards in the field.
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2021
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An integrated workflow for biomarker development using microRNAs in extracellular vesicles for cancer precision medicine
EV-miRNAs are microRNA (miRNA) molecules encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs), which play crucial roles in tumor pathogenesis, progression, and metastasis. Recent studies about EV-miRNAs have gained novel insights into cancer biology and have demonstrated a great potential to develop novel liquid biopsy assays for various applications. Notably, compared to conventional liquid biomarkers, EV-miRNAs are more advantageous in representing host-cell molecular architecture and exhibiting higher stability and specificity. Despite various available techniques for EV-miRNA separation, concentration, profiling, and data analysis, a standardized approach for EV-miRNA biomarker development is yet lacking. In this review, we performed a substantial literature review and distilled an integrated workflow encompassing important steps for EV-miRNA biomarker development, including sample collection and EV isolation, EV-miRNA extraction and quantification, high-throughput data preprocessing, biomarker prioritization and model construction, functional analysis, as well as validation. With the rapid growth of “big data”, we highlight the importance of efficient mining of high-throughput data for the discovery of EV-miRNA biomarkers and integrating multiple independent datasets for in silico and experimental validations to increase the robustness and reproducibility. Furthermore, as an efficient strategy in systems biology, network inference provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms and can be used to select functionally important EV-miRNAs to refine the biomarker candidates. Despite the encouraging development in the field, a number of challenges still hinder the clinical translation. We finally summarize several common challenges in various biomarker studies and discuss potential opportunities emerging in the related fields.
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2021
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Analysis of extracellular vesicles as a potential index for monitoring differentiation of neural lineage cells from induced pluripotent stem cells
To improve cell production efficacy, it is important to evaluate cell conditions during culture. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from various cells are involved in stem cell differentiation. As EVs carry information about their source cells, we hypothesized that they may serve as a noninvasive index of cell conditions. We evaluated changes in EV morphology, concentration, and microRNA (miRNA) and protein expression in culture supernatants during the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neural lineage cells, for application in regenerative medicine for Parkinson's disease. We observed EVs (50–150 nm) in culture supernatants of iPSCs and differentiated cells. The EVs expressed the exosome markers CD63, CD81, and CD9. Throughout differentiation, the EV concentration in the supernatants decreased, and EV miRNA and protein expression changed substantially. Especially, miR-106b, involved in neural stem cell differentiation and normal brain development, was considerably downregulated. CD63 expression correlated with the CORIN-positive cell rate, which is an index of differentiation. Thus, EV concentration and miRNA and protein expression may reflect the differentiation status of iPSCs. These findings pave the way for the development of novel and sensitive cell culture monitoring methods.
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2021
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Analyzing Inter-Leukocyte Communication and Migration In Vitro: Neutrophils Play an Essential Role in Monocyte Activation During Swarming
Neutrophils are known to be the first responders to infection or injury. However, as inflammation progresses, other leukocytes become increasingly important in inflammation propagation, tissue reconstruction, and inflammation resolution. In recent years, there has been an increase in publications that analyze neutrophil behavior in vitro, but there remains a gap in the literature for in vitro technologies that enable quantitatively measuring interactions between different types of human leukocytes. Here, we used an in vitro platform that mimics inflammation by inducing neutrophil swarming to analyze the behavior of various leukocytes in a swarming setting. Using human peripheral blood leukocytes isolated directly from whole blood, we found that myeloid cells and lymphoid cells had different migratory behaviors. Myeloid cells, which are predominately neutrophils, exhibited swarming behavior. This behavior was not seen with lymphoid cells. We perturbed the peripheral blood leukocyte system by adding exogenous leukotriene B4 (LTB4) to the medium. Notably, only the myeloid cell compartment was significantly changed by the addition of LTB4. Additionally, LTB4 had no significant impact on myeloid cell migration during the recruitment phase of swarming. To further investigate the myeloid cell compartment, we isolated neutrophils and monocytes to analyze their interaction on the platform. We found that neutrophils increase monocyte migration toward the bioparticle clusters, as measured through speed, chemotactic index, track straightness, and swarm size. These results were confirmed with in vivo mouse experiments, where monocyte accumulation only occurred when neutrophils were present. Additionally, we found that both neutrophils and monocytes release the monocyte chemoattractant proteins CCL2 and CCL3 in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles from swarming neutrophils caused monocyte activation. These findings suggest that neutrophils play an essential role in the onset of inflammation not only by sealing off the site of infection or injury, but also by recruiting additional leukocytes to the site.
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2021
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Analysis of Tumor-Derived Exosomes by Nanoscale Flow Cytometry
The study of tumor exosomes has gained relevance in the last decades due to their potential use for therapeutic and diagnostic application. Although there is extensive knowledge of exosome biology, some biological samples like tumor-derived exosomes have been difficult to characterize due to their complexity and heterogeneity. This distinctive feature makes difficult the identification of specific exosome subpopulations with a shared molecular signature that could allow for targeting of exosomes with therapeutic and diagnostic potential use in cancer patients. Nanoscale flow cytometry has lately emerged as an alternative tool that can be adapted to the study of nanoparticles, such as exosomes. However, the physicochemical properties of these particles are an important issue to consider as nanoparticles need the application of specific settings which differ from those used in conventional flow cytometry of cells. Therefore, in the last few years, one of the main aims has been the optimization of technical and experimental protocols to improve exosome analysis. In this chapter, we discuss several aspects of cytometric systems with a special emphasis in technical considerations of samples and equipment.
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2021
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Applications of cell resealing to reconstitute microRNA loading to extracellular vesicles
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are cargo carried by extracellular vesicles (EVs) and are associated with cell–cell interactions. The response to the cellular environment, such as disease states, genetic/metabolic changes, or differences in cell type, highly regulates cargo sorting to EVs. However, morphological features during EV formation and secretion involving miRNA loading are unknown. This study developed a new method of EV loading using cell resealing and reconstituted the elementary miRNA-loading processes. Morphology, secretory response, and cellular uptake ability of EVs obtained from intact and resealed HeLa cells were comparable. Exogenously added soluble factors were introduced into multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and their subsequent secretion to the extracellular region occurred in resealed HeLa cells. In addition, miRNA transport to MVEs and miRNA encapsulation to EVs followed a distinct pathway regulated by RNA-binding proteins, such as Argonaute and Y-box binding protein 1, depending on miRNA types. Our cell-resealing system can analyze disease-specific EVs derived from disease model cells, where pathological cytosol is introduced into cells. Thus, EV formation in resealed cells can be used not only to create a reconstitution system to give mechanistic insight into EV encapsulation but also for applications such as loading various molecules into EVs and identifying disease-specific EV markers.
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2021
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Application of tunable resistive pulse sensing for the quantification of submicron particles in pharmaceutical monoclonal antibody preparations
Tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS, qNano Gold, IZON Ltd.) was investigated as a method to quantify submicron particles (SMPs) between 0.1 and 1 µm in solutions of biopharmaceuticals. To reduce sample dilution, a spiking-in approach was used to add the appropriate amount of electrolytes required for the measurement. For correct particle quantification, an electrolyte concentration of at least 50 mM sodium chloride was needed. Intra- and inter-nanopore variability were below 5% for size and below 10% for concentration measurements when analyzing polystyrene standard beads. Submicron particle counts in a stir stressed IgG1 monoclonal antibody formulation resulted in a non-symmetrical, almost bell-shaped size distribution with a maximum at 250 nm when using a NP300 nanopore (IZON Ltd.). It was shown that particle counts are heavily underestimated below 250 nm, and therefore it is recommended to quantify particle counts by TRPS in samples with heterogeneous particle size distributions (e.g., biopharmaceuticals) only starting from the maximum of the histogram towards the upper limit of detection.
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2021
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Astrocytes‐derived extracellular vesicles in motion at the neuron surface: Involvement of the prion protein
Astrocytes-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key players in glia-neuron communication. However, whether EVs interact with neurons at preferential sites and how EVs reach these sites on neurons remains elusive. Using optical manipulation to study single EV-neuron dynamics, we here show that large EVs scan the neuron surface and use neuronal processes as highways to move extracellularly. Large EV motion on neurites is driven by the binding of EV to a surface receptor that slides on neuronal membrane, thanks to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The use of prion protein (PrP)-coated synthetic beads and PrP knock out EVs/neurons points at vesicular PrP and its receptor(s) on neurons in the control of EV motion. Surprisingly, a fraction of large EVs contains actin filaments and has an independent capacity to move in an actin-mediated way, through intermittent contacts with the plasma membrane. Our results unveil, for the first time, a dual mechanism exploited by astrocytic large EVs to passively/actively reach target sites on neurons moving on the neuron surface.
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2021
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Biophysical and Computational Studies of Human Disease Related Proteins with a Single-Pass Transmembrane Helix
Single-pass transmembrane receptors (SPTMRs) are involved in essential processes of biophysical and pathological nature in the human. This membrane protein family includes receptor tyrosine kinases, integrins, and immunoreceptors, which play an important role in metabolism, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. SPTMR consists of several distinct domains including the extracellular domain (ECD), the transmembrane domain (TMD), and the intracellular domain (ICD) and exists as a monomer, homo- and/or heterodimer. Upon a ligand ligation through ECD, homo- or heterodimerization of SPTMR forms, followed by consequent modification of the ICDs, leading to the initiation of cellular signaling events. This activation requires interactions between TMD helices whose role in receptor activation becomes important. TMD is further highlighted by the discovery of mutations in the TMD or juxtamembrane domain (JMD) that are associated with human diseases. However, the details of cross-membrane signal transduction via SPTMRs have to be elucidated. Due to the high conformational flexibility of SPTMRs with their diverse structural composition, it is hard to characterize SPTMRs structurally. This drives us to work with only TMD helices of SPTMRs and focus on their interactions in the lipid bilayer environment. Our approach is the use of not only experimental data but also computational MD simulations to understand how TMD helices interact and how mutants associated with diseases affect the dimerization of TMD helices.
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2021
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes delay the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis through cartilage protection
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint degenerative disease. At present, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosome transplantation has more advantages, such as non-immunogenicity, non-tumorigenicity, convenient storage and transportation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes on osteoarthritis.  METHODS: (1) SD rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were extracted and identified by cell morphology and flow cytometry. Exosomes in the cell supernatant were extracted by ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, particle size and western blot assay. (2) Primary costal chondrocytes were extracted from suckling rats and cocultured with fluorescently labeled exosomes for 12 hours. The phagocytosis of chondrocytes was observed. In vitro chondrocyte damage was induced by interleukin-1β. PBS (100 μL) containing 50 μg exosomes was added for 24 hours. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type II collagen fiber α1 protein was detected by immunofluorescence to evaluate the protective effect of exosomes on injured chondrocytes. (3) The rat model of osteoarthritis was induced by iodoacetic acid in vivo. Exosomes were injected into the joint cavity, and the changes of joint structure of osteoarthritis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and safrane-fast green staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type II collagen fiber α1 protein was measured by immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the protective effect of exosomes on cartilage in vivo.  RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The extracted primary cells showed a typical fusiform shape and arranged radially. The extracted cells highly expressed CD73 and CD105, but slightly expressed CD45, CD34 and CD3. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the obtained particles showed a typical saucer-like morphology. The particle size was less than 100 nm. Meanwhile, nanoparticles showed positive expression of ALIX and HRS protein. (2) Typical red-stained particles could be observed in chondrocytes, which confirms that exosomes could be taken up by chondrocytes, and exosomes could promote chondrocyte type II collagen fiber α1 protein expression, but inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13, which confirmed that exosomes could attenuate the damage effect of interleukin-1β on chondrocytes. (3) Exosomes could promote the morphological recovery of damaged articular cartilage and the up-regulate type II collagen fiber α1 expression, while inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13, which also confirmed that exosomes can alleviate the effects of iodoacetic acid on articular cartilage damage. (4) Above findings results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes delay the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis through a chondroprotective mechanism.
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2021
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Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Proliferation, Invasion and Migration of Osteosarcoma Cells via the lncRNA MALAT1/miR-143/NRSN2/Wnt/β-Catenin Axis
Introduction Osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (BMSC-EVs) bear repair function for bone and cartilage. This study investigated the mechanism of BMSC-EVs in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Methods BMSC-EVs were isolated and identified. The effects of different concentrations of EVs on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated. LncRNA MALAT1 expression in osteosarcoma cells was detected. BMSCs were transfected with si-MALAT1 or si-NC. The binding relationships between MALAT1 and miR-143, and miR-143 and NRSN2 were verified. Levels of NRSN2 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway key proteins were detected. miR-143 mimic was transfected into EVs-treated osteosarcoma cells. Nude mice were injected with MG63 cells to verify the effect of EVs on osteosarcoma growth in vivo. Results BMSC-EVs facilitated proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells. BMSC-EVs carried MALAT1 into osteosarcoma cells. BMSC-EVs-treated osteosarcoma cells showed increased MALAT1 and NRSN2 expressions, decreased miR-143 expression, and activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. miR-143 mimic or si-MALAT1 reversed the effects of BMSC-EVs on osteosarcoma cells. In vivo experiment confirmed that BMSC-EVs promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Discussion BMSC-EVs promoted proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells via the MALAT1/miR-143/NRSN2/Wnt/β-catenin axis. This study might offer new insights into osteosarcoma management. Keywords: osteosarcoma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, extracellular vesicles, lncRNA MALAT1, miR-143, NRSN2, Wnt/β-catenin pathway
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2021
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Caracterización de partículas coloidales en el agua del suelo mediante detección sintonizable de pulsos resistivos
The transport of colloids in soil determines the fate of pollutants, nutrients and microorganisms in the environment and the contamination of groundwater. Colloidal retention mechanisms in soils depend on complex interactions between the soil pore walls and colloids. The hypothesis of this thesis is that the interaction of the particulate colloidal pollutants with the colloids present in the soil pore water has a dramatic influence on the transport of pollutants. This is due to the fact that the filtration of colloids in the porous medium depends on the size, shape and charge of the coatings and colloidal aggregates formed between the polluting particles and the suspended soil colloids. Improving the characterization of colloidal particulate pollutants in soil water can help to explain more precisely the role of soil as a filter for pollutants. Emerging technologies in particle characterization can represent an important advance in this characterization. Specifically, the tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) detection technology allows the real (non-hydrodynamic) size of individual particles to be determined with high precision in a polydisperse suspension between 40 nm and 3 micrometers, in addition to determining, also individually, their surface electrical potential. The new knowledge that this technique can provide could lead to a better understanding of the transport of particulate pollutants in the soil, which could improve the diagnosis of potential vulnerability of subsurface waters against pathogenic organisms, engineered nanoparticles and metals bound to colloids, as well as optimize the design of micro and nanopesticide formulations.
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2021
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Cardioprotection by remote ischemic conditioning is transferable by plasma and mediated by extracellular vesicles
Background Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) by brief periods of limb ischemia and reperfusion protects against ischemia–reperfusion injury. We studied the cardioprotective role of extracellular vesicles (EV)s released into the circulation after RIC and EV accumulation in injured myocardium. Methods We used plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after RIC (pre-PLA and post-PLA) to evaluate the transferability of RIC. Pre- and post-RIC plasma samples were separated into an EV enriched fraction (pre-EV + and post-EV +) and an EV poor fraction (pre-EV- and post-EV-) by size exclusion chromatography. Small non-coding RNAs from pre-EV + and post-EV + were purified and profiled by NanoString Technology. Infarct size was compared in Sprague–Dawley rat hearts perfused with isolated plasma and fractions in a Langendorff model. In addition, fluorescently labeled EVs were used to assess homing in an in vivo rat model. (ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT03380663) Results Post-PLA reduced infarct size by 15% points compared with Pre-PLA (55 ± 4% (n = 7) vs 70 ± 6% (n = 8), p = 0.03). Post-EV + reduced infarct size by 16% points compared with pre-EV + (53 ± 15% (n = 13) vs 68 ± 12% (n = 14), p = 0.03). Post-EV- did not affect infarct size compared to pre-EV- (64 ± 3% (n = 15) and 68 ± 10% (n = 16), p > 0.99). Three miRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-144-3p and miR-451a) that target the mTOR pathway were significantly up-regulated in the post-EV + group. Labelled EVs accumulated more intensely in the infarct area than in sham hearts. Conclusion Cardioprotection by RIC can be mediated by circulating EVs that accumulate in injured myocardium. The underlying mechanism involves modulation of EV miRNA that may promote cell survival during reperfusion.
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2021
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Characterisation of extracellular vesicles in the context of myocardial infarction and glucose intolerance
Introduction In response to myocardial infarction (MI), extracellular vesicles (EVs), including large (lEVs) and small (sEVs), are released within and from the heart to facilitate intercellular communication and maintain cardiac homeostasis by transporting cargo to recipient cells. Objective We investigated how glucose intolerance influences the intracardiac EV release post-MI and their content. Method B6J mice were fed chow (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. MI was induced by permanent coronary artery ligation. EVs were isolated from left ventricles and quantified by tunable resistive pulse sensing. EVs were characterised by flow cytometry. EV miRNA content was determined by RNAseq and qPCR. Using cardiomyocyte specific GFP+ mice, plasma lEVs were analysed by flow cytometry to determine if cardiomyocyte EVs (CMEVs) are circulating. Labelled hypoxic cardiomyocyte cell line (HL-1) lEVs were injected in HFD/CD mice post-MI to determine target cells. Results In CD mice, EV release was significantly increased 24 h post-MI compared to sham. HFD lEV levels were significantly higher compared to sham and CD mice post-MI with no difference in sEV release between sham and MI HFD mice. Intracardiac lEVs originate from cardiomyocyte and endothelial cells in response to MI and MI + HFD respectively. qPCR analyses identified miRNA candidates that were modulated by MI and HFD. Intracardiac GFP + lEV levels were lower in HFD than in CD mice whereas levels of circulating GFP + lEVs were higher. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed a preferential uptake of hypoxic HL-1 lEVs by splenic myeloid cells in HFD spleens versus CD post-MI. Conclusion Our results show that glucose intolerance modulates intracardiac EV release post-MI and their miRNA cargo. Circulating CMEV levels as well as their uptake by splenic myeloid cells are increased. Further investigations will aim to decipher the impact of the intracardiac EV miRNA mediated transfer in the diabetic heart post-MI.
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2021
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Characterization of feces-derived bacterial membrane vesicles and the impact of their origin on the inflammatory response
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex microbiome, which interacts in a variety of ways with the host. There is compelling evidence that gut microbial dysbiosis, defined as an alteration of diversity and abundance in intestinal microbes, is an etiological factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Membrane vesicles (MVs), which are nano-sized particles released by bacteria, have been found to interact with the host and modulate the development and function of the immune system. As a result MVs have been suggested to play a critical role in both health and disease. In this study we developed a method to isolate, characterize and assess the immunoreactivity of heterogeneous populations of MVs from fecal samples (fMVs) of healthy volunteers. We successfully isolated 2*109-2*1010 particles/ml from 0.5 gram of feces by using a combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) from 10 fecal samples. Bead-based flowcytometry in combination with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) provided a reliable method for (semi-)quantitative determination of fMVs originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of fMVs. Real time 16s PCR on bacterial cell fractions or isolated fMVs DNA of the most common phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) revealed differences in the relative abundance between bacteria and the fMVs. Moreover, fMVs evoke the release of TNF- by THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent matter. Also, a significant positive correlation was found between Actinobacteria/-Proteobacteria derived vesicles and the release of TNF-. It has become increasingly clear that fMVs could provide an additional layer to the definition of homeostasis or dysbiosis of the microbiota. The current study supports their potential involvement in the intestinal homeostasis or inflammatory disorders and provides putative interesting incentives for future research.
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2021
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Characterization of positively charged polyplexes by tunable resistive pulse sensing
With the approval of the first siRNA-based drugs, non-viral siRNA delivery has gained special interest in industry and academia in the last two years. For non-viral delivery, positively charged lipid and polymer formulations play a central role in research and development. However, nanoparticle size characterization, particularly of polydisperse formulations, can be very challenging. Tunable resistive pulse sensing for particle by particle measurements of size, polydispersity, zeta potential and a direct concentration promises better assessment of nanoparticle formulations. However, the current application is not optimized for positively charged particles. A supplier-provided coating solution for difficult-to-measure samples does not allow for successful measurements of positively charged nanoparticles. This article describes a new coating solution based on choline-chloride. Coating is verified by current–voltage (I-V) recordings and ultimately tested on a positively charged nanoparticle formulation comprising of siRNA and PEG-PCL-PEI polymer. This coating allows successful size, polydispersity index (PDI) and concentration measurement by tunable resistive pulse sensing of positively charged PEI-based polyplexes. This article provides the foundation for further characterization of polyplexes as well as other positively charged nanoparticle formulations based on particle by particle measurements.
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2021
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Characterization of systemic immunosuppression by IDH mutant glioma small extracellular vesicles
Background Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and are universally fatal. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) define a distinct glioma subtype associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Mechanisms underlying systemic immunosuppression in IDH mutant (mutIDH) gliomas are largely unknown. Here, we define genotype-specific local and systemic tumor immunomodulatory functions of tumor-derived glioma small extracellular vesicles (TEX). Methods TEX produced by human and murine wildtype and mutant IDH glioma cells (wtIDH and mutIDH, respectively) were isolated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). TEX morphology, size, quantity, molecular profiles and biodistribution were characterized. TEX were injected into naive and tumor-bearing mice, and the local and systemic immune microenvironment composition was characterized. Results Using in vitro and in vivo glioma models, we show that mutIDH TEX are more numerous, possess distinct morphological features and are more immunosuppressive than wtIDH TEX. mutIDH TEX cargo mimics their parental cells, and induces systemic immune suppression in naive and tumor-bearing mice. TEX derived from mutIDH gliomas and injected into wtIDH tumor-bearing mice reduce tumor-infiltrating effector lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, and increase circulating monocytes. Astonishingly, mutIDH TEX injected into brain tumor-bearing syngeneic mice accelerate tumor growth and increase mortality compared with wtIDH TEX. Conclusions Targeting of mutIDH TEX represents a novel therapeutic approach in gliomas.
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2021
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Characterizing KRAS Membrane Structures by Data-Driven Molecular Docking
Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2 NCI RAS Initiative, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA, 3 Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 4 Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 5 Data Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA, 6 Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA. KRAS is a GTPase that plays an important role in cell growth and signaling pathways. of the different RAS isoforms, KRAS also has the highest prevalence of mutations related to human cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target in these cases. Once attached to the membrane, KRAS in the active (GTP) form is capable to bind effector proteins, like RAF kinase. However, certain molecular details concerning KRAS conformation and orientational changes when interacting with the membrane and binding partners are not fully understood. To provide new insights, we used a variety of biophysical approaches to characterize KRAS structure and dynamics. Here, we focus on our results utilizing data-driven computational docking to investigate both KRAS and KRAS/ RAF1-RBD (RAS Binding Domain) complex at the membrane. with the HADDOCK program, we incorporated experimental restraints derived from our NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements to dock these KRAS forms to a 70:30 POPC:POPS lipid membrane surface. Using NMR-PRE restraints alone, we performed one series of docking runs with the KRAS G-domain directly interacting with the membrane to discern membrane-proximal states. Based on our experimental evidence, and particularly from NR, a highly populated membrane-distal state also exists, where the G-domain does not directly contact the membrane but KRAS remains tethered via the C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR). Therefore, we also conducted a second series of docking runs that incorporated both NMR-PRE and NR restraints to better elucidate the conformations in this state. From these results, we were able to generate atomistic models for KRAS and KRAS/RAF1-RBD with averaged 1-D profiles closely matching the respective NR profiles. Overall, the findings should assist in elucidating the role of KRAS structural dynamics in recruiting effectors, like RAF kinase, to the membrane for activation.
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2021
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Chemical Modification of Bovine Milk Exosomes, the Biological Nanoparticles of the Future, as a Contrast Agent and Drug Delivery Vehicle
Chemically derived nanoparticles are widely used across many applications. While they showed great promise when first discovered, the main hurdles, such as clearance and targeting, have yet to be overcome. A recently discovered class of biological nanoparticles have the potential to circumvent these disadvantages. Exosomes are biological nanoparticles (30 – 150 nm) excreted from most mammalian cells. While exosomes are typically involved in cellular signaling and traditionally removed from the body to be examined for biomarkers, this work combines chemical modifications and a biological particle for diagnostics and treatment of solid tumor cancer. Exosome involvement in cancer treatment has grown over the past ten years with the encapsulation of RNA, proteins and traditional chemotherapeutics. However, this work takes these ideas and drives them into the future by using bovine milk derived exosomes as (1) an ultrasound contrasting agent and (2) a targeted and triggered chemotherapeutic drug delivery vehicle. As an ultrasound contrast agent, raw and pasteurized bovine milk exosomes were tested and found to be capable of echogenicity without altering the ability to identify key features of the exosome, including the presence of CD63 and miRNA. In the second part of this work a chemically synthesized, hypoxia responsive lipid and a tumor penetrating and targeting peptide, iRGD were integrated into the lipid bilayer of the exosome for chemotherapeutic drug delivery. These modified exosomes were characterized using a variety of techniques, including a novel adhesion assay, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The functional capacity of the modified exosomes to deliver doxorubicin to Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells was also evaluated using a combination of cellular internalization and cytotoxicity assays in both monolayer and 3D spheroid cultures. Overall exosomes have the iv ability to be chemically modified in a variety of ways, opening a door to a new approach to nanoparticle drug delivery and targeted imaging.
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2021
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Circulating Serum Exosomal Long Non-Coding RNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer
Background: Exosomes derived from cancer cells encapsulate various kinds of tumor-specific molecules and thus can interact with adjacent or distant cells to mediate information exchange. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in exosomes have the potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current study was aimed to identify circulating exosomal lncRNAs for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Exosomes were isolated from the serum by ultracentrifugation and verified by transmission electron microscope (TEM), qNano, and immunoblotting. Exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 were selected by lncRNA microarray and validated by qPCR in 203 CRC patients and 201 healthy donors. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to assess the diagnostic efficiency of serum exosomal lncRNAs. Results: Exosomal FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 (TCONS_00020073) levels were significantly upregulated in 203 CRC patients and 80 early-stage CRC patients compared to 201 healthy donors, possessing the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.728, 0.660, and 0.682 for CRC, as well as 0.743, 0.660, and 0.689 for early-stage CRC, respectively. Notably, their combination demonstrated the markedly elevated AUC of 0.736 for CRC and 0.758 for early-stage CRC, indicating their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. Conclusions: Our data suggested that exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 act as the promising biomarkers for the diagnostics of CRC and early-stage CRC.
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2021
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Comparison and optimization of nanoscale extracellular vesicle imaging by scanning electron microscopy for accurate size-based profiling and morphological analysis
Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been found to play a key role in intercellular communication, offering opportunities for both disease diagnostics and therapeutics. However, lying below the diffraction limit and also being highly heterogeneous in their size, morphology and abundance, these vesicles pose significant challenges for physical characterization. Here, we present a direct visual approach for their accurate morphological and size-based profiling by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To achieve that, we methodically examined various process steps and developed a protocol to improve the throughput, conformity and image quality while preserving the shape of EVs. The study was performed with small EVs (sEVs) isolated from a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line as well as from human serum, and the results were compared with those obtained from nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). While the comparison of the sEV size distributions showed good agreement between the two methods for large sEVs (diameter > 70 nm), the microscopy based approach showed a better capacity for analyses of smaller vesicles, with higher sEV counts compared to NTA. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of identifying non-EV particles based on size and morphological features. The study also showed process steps that can generate artifacts bearing resemblance with sEVs. The results therefore present a simple way to use a widely available microscopy tool for accurate and high throughput physical characterization of EVs.
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2021
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Comparison of extracellular vesicle isolation and storage methods using high-sensitivity flow cytometry
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are of interest for a wide variety of biomedical applications. A major limitation for the clinical use of EVs is the lack of standardized methods for the fast and reproducible separation and subsequent detection of EV subpopulations from biofluids, as well as their storage. To advance this application area, fluorescence-based characterization technologies with single-EV resolution, such as high-sensitivity flow cytometry (HS-FCM), are powerful to allow assessment of EV fractionation methods and storage conditions. Furthermore, the use of HS-FCM and fluorescent labeling of EV subsets is expanding due to the potential of high-throughput, multiplex analysis, but requires further method development to enhance the reproducibility of measurements. In this study, we have applied HS-FCM measurements next to standard EV characterization techniques, including nanoparticle tracking analysis, to compare the yield and purity of EV fractions obtained from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells by two EV isolation methods, differential centrifugation followed by ultracentrifugation and the exoEasy membrane affinity spin column purification. We observed differences in EV yield and purity. In addition, we have investigated the influence of EV storage at 4°C or -80°C for up to one month on the EV concentration and the stability of EV-associated fluorescent labels. The concentration of the in vitro cell derived EV fractions was shown to remain stable under the tested storage conditions, however, the fluorescence intensity of labeled EV stored at 4°C started to decline within one day.
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2021
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Comparison of Syringes With Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs: Particle Burden and Protein Aggregates in Brolucizumab, Aflibercept and Bevacizumab
Purpose: In a benchwork particle counting analytical evaluation, the number and type of particles in intravitreal injection formulations of three different agents against vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. Methods: Commercially available ready-to-use aflibercept and brolucizumab glass syringes, vials containing bevacizumab (off-label use in ophthalmology), and repackaged ready-to-use plastic syringes containing bevacizumab were tested without filtration. Total visible, subvisible, and nanoparticles numbers and size distributions were quantified using light obscuration, flow imaging, resonant mass measurement (RMM), tunable resistive pulse sensing, and dynamic light scattering. Results: Repackaged bevacizumab showed overall low particle numbers, aflibercept showed high numbers of micrometer sized particles but low nanoparticle numbers, brolucizumab showed low to moderate numbers of micrometer sized particles but high nanoparticle numbers. RMM measurements identified particles in the nanometer range as either proteinaceous or silicon oil; the nature of the other particles was not further evaluated. Conclusions: Repackaged bevacizumab shows no inferior particle quality compared to ready-to-use products. It is relevant to study nanoparticle load of the products as the micrometer-sized particle numbers do not in all cases correlate to nanoparticle counts. Particularly for the high concentration product Beovu (brolucizumab), high nanoparticle numbers were found despite low numbers of micrometer sized particles. Silicone oil droplets did not account for high particle numbers as the measured numbers were low. Translational Relevance: Different side effects are registered in different frequencies with different intravitreal anti-VEGF-drugs and syringes, which are applied by injection by small 30G needles through the sclera directly to the intravitreal cavity. The study of nanoparticles and silicone oil droplets may be able to contribute to narrowing down the causes.
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2021
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Dancing with Trojan horses: an interplay between the extracellular vesicles and viruses
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated particles released by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells into the extracellular environment. Depending on their origin, size, and composition, EVs are grouped in several classes, with one of them being exosomes, which are small EVs (SEVs) generated within the endosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells via the unique multivesicular body pathway. Being able to deliver their content (proteins, lipids, small molecules, and nucleic acids) to other cells, exosomes/SEVs are considered as bioactive vesicles with multiple biological functions. Importantly, the composition of exosomes/SEVs depends on the cell and tissue of origin including a set of specific proteins. However, the pathological conditions may lead to the appearance of diseases-specific exosomes/SEVs containing pathology-specific cargoes utilized in the malicious cell-cell communication and spread of malady. Viruses demonstrate complex ‘dancing’ around the exosome biogenesis system, being able to hijack the host systems responsible for the exosome biogenesis. They use the exosome biogenesis system to promote packaging of their capsids, regulate virion production, and virus secretion. They also utilize a Trojan horse stratagem to place virions inside the SEVs and thereby to spread beyond their normal range of cell hosts using the normal EV uptake process. Another illustration of the virus-based utilization of Trojan horse strategy is given by the ability of human viruses to use exosomes/SEVs as carriers of their exogenous miRNA or viral proteins to the non-infected cells. Taken together, these strategies of dancing with Trojan horses can help viruses to fight with the host defense and to spread the infection.
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2021
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Deciphering the Structure and Chemical Composition of Drug Nanocarriers: From Bulk Approaches to Individual Nanoparticle Characterization
Drug nanocarriers (NCs) with sizes usually below 200 nm are gaining increasing interest in the treatment of severe diseases such as cancer and infections. Characterization methods to investigate the morphology and physicochemical properties of multifunctional NCs are key in their optimization and in the study of their in vitro and in vivo fate. Whereas a variety of methods has been developed to characterize “bulk” NCs in suspension, the scope of this review is to describe the different approaches for the NC characterization on an individual basis, for which fewer techniques are available. The accent is put on methods devoid of labelling, which could lead to artefacts. For each characterization method, the principles and approaches to analyze the data are presented in an accessible manner. Aspects related to sample preparation to avoid artefacts are indicated, and emphasis is put on examples of applications. NC characterization on an individual basis allows gaining invaluable information in terms of quality control, on: i) NC localization and fate in biological samples; ii) NC morphology and crystallinity; iii) distribution of the NC components (drugs, shells), and iv) quantification of NCs’ chemical composition. The individual characterization approaches are expected to gain increasing interest in the near future.
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2021
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Design and Optimization of a Biosensor Surface Functionalization to Effectively Capture Urinary Extracellular Vesicles
For this study, we tested and optimized silicon surface functionalization procedures for capturing urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs). The influence of the silane type (APTES or GOPS) and protein concentration on the efficiency of uEVs binding was investigated. Human lactadherin protein (LACT) was used to capture uEVs. We applied surface characterization techniques, including ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, to observe changes in the biosensor surface after each functionalization step. uEVs were purified by a low-vacuum filtration method and concentrated by ultracentrifugation. The physical parameters of uEVs after the isolation procedure, such as morphology and size distribution, were determined using transmission electron microscopy and tunable resistive pulse sensing methods. We observed a gradual growth of the molecular layer after subsequent stages of modification of the silicon surface. The ToF-SIMS results showed no changes in the mean intensities for the characteristic peaks of amino acids and lipids in positive and negative polarization, in terms of the surface-modifying silane (APTES or GOPS) used. The most optimal concentration of LACT for the tested system was 25 µg/mL.
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2021
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Development and Preclinical Evaluation of Virus Like Particle Vaccine Against COVID-19 Infection
Background Vaccines that incorporate multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens can further broaden the breadth of virus-specific cellular and humoral immunity. This study describes the development and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 VLP vaccine that incorporates the 4 structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Methods VLPs were generated in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, purified by multimodal chromatography and characterized by tunable resistive pulse sensing, AFM, SEM, and TEM. Immunoblotting studies verified the protein identities of VLPs. Cellular and humoral immune responses of immunized animals demonstrated the immune potency of the formulated VLP vaccine. Results Transiently transfected HEK293 cells reproducibly generated vesicular VLPs that were similar in size to and expressing all four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Alum adsorbed, K3-CpG ODN adjuvanted VLPs elicited high titer anti-S, anti-RBD, anti-N IgG, triggered multifunctional Th1 biased T cell responses, reduced virus load and prevented lung pathology upon live virus challenge in vaccinated animals. Conclusion These data suggest that VLPs expressing all four structural protein antigens of SARS-CoV-2 are immunogenic and can protect animals from developing COVID-19 infection following vaccination.
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2021
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Development of a new methodology to determine size differences of nanoparticles with nanoparticle tracking analysis
The current frontiers in Biology thus in Medicine and Pharmacy are at the nanoscale. Indeed, this is the relevant scale for extracting or synthetizing, visualizing, counting, characterizing and/or modifying nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are highly diverse including: extracellular vesicles (e.g.: exosomes), proteins, viruses and nanovectors or drug delivery systems for instance. To quantify the concentration of nano-sized objects, a growing number of size-tracking instruments is being developed. However, to date, the generated data is only used to provide a concentration measurement. The objective of this study was to determine which sizes of nanoparticles are statistically significant between 2 groups of samples. Using different samples (in silico data; calibrated beads; various biological samples), an approach that statistically compares 2 groups of samples was developed and validated. The proof of concept of the proposed approach was illustrated with applications in the field of Biology, Medicine and Pharmacy using liposomes and extracellular vesicles. For the first time to our knowledge, our results suggest that the presented approach enables comparing different groups of biological samples. It may be extended to situations such as batch 1 versus batch 2; healthy versus disease or non-treated versus treated.
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2021
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Diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicle‑associated microRNA‑10b and tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potential diagnostic markers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential EV miRNA biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Potential miRNAs were identified by searching public databases and verified by examining clinical samples. The diagnostic value of EV‑associated miR‑10b, plasma miR‑10b and tumor markers (TMs), including α‑fetoprotein (AFP), neuron‑specific enolase, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‑1 (CYFRA211), pro‑gastrin‑releasing‑peptide, carbohydrate antigen (CA)125, CA153, CA199 and CA724, was evaluated via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. By searching the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases, miR‑10b was identified as a potential biomarker. The analysis of clinical samples suggested that EV‑associated miR‑10b from plasma was significantly differentially expressed between LUAD and control samples. EV‑associated miR‑10b could function as a diagnostic marker for LUAD, with an AUC of 0.998, which was higher than the AUCs for TMs such as AFP, CEA, CYFRA211, CA125, CA153, CA199, CA724, pro‑gastrin‑releasing‑peptide and neuron‑specific enolase. In conclusion, EV‑associated miR‑10b may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for LUAD that is superior to plasma miR‑10b and TMs.
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2021
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Direct Detection of Conserved Viral Sequences and Other Nucleic Acid Motifs with Solid-State Nanopores
The rapid and reliable recognition of nucleic acid sequences is essential to a broad range of fields including genotyping, gene expression analysis, and pathogen screening. For viral detection in particular, the capability is critical for optimal therapeutic response and preventing disease transmission. Here, we report an approach for detecting identifying sequence motifs within genome-scale single-strand DNA and RNA based on solid-state nanopores. By designing DNA oligonucleotide probes with complementarity to target sequences within a target genome, we establish a protocol to yield affinity-tagged duplex molecules the same length as the probe only if the target is present. The product can subsequently be bound to a protein chaperone and analyzed quantitatively with a selective solid-state nanopore assay. We first use a model DNA genome (M13mp18) to validate the approach, showing the successful isolation and detection of multiple target sequences simultaneously. We then demonstrate the protocol for the detection of RNA viruses by identifying and targeting a highly conserved sequence within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1B).
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2021
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Drug-Rich Phases Induced by Amorphous Solid Dispersion: Arbitrary or Intentional Goal in Oral Drug Delivery?
Among many methods to mitigate the solubility limitations of drug compounds, amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is considered to be one of the most promising strategies to enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The enhancement of ASD in the oral absorption of drugs has been mainly attributed to the high apparent drug solubility during the dissolution. In the last decade, with the implementations of new knowledge and advanced analytical techniques, a drug-rich transient metastable phase was frequently highlighted within the supersaturation stage of the ASD dissolution. The extended drug absorption and bioavailability enhancement may be attributed to the metastability of such drug-rich phases. In this paper, we have reviewed (i) the possible theory behind the formation and stabilization of such metastable drug-rich phases, with a focus on non-classical nucleation; (ii) the additional benefits of the ASD-induced drug-rich phases for bioavailability enhancements. It is envisaged that a greater understanding of the non-classical nucleation theory and its application on the ASD design might accelerate the drug product development process in the future.
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2021
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Effect of Detergents on Morphology, Size Distribution, and Concentration of Copolymer-Based Polymersomes
Polymersomes made of amphiphilic diblock copolymers are generally regarded as having higher physical and chemical stability than liposomes composed of phospholipids. This enhanced stability arises from the higher molecular weight of polymer constituents. Despite their increased stability, polymer bilayers are solubilized by detergents in a similar manner to lipid bilayers. In this work, we evaluated the stability of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG–PCL)-based polymersomes exposed to three different detergents: N-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (OG), lauryldimethylamine N-oxide (LDAO), and Triton X-100 (TX-100). Changes in morphology, particle size distribution, and concentrations of the polymersomes were evaluated during the titration of the detergents into the polymersome solutions. Furthermore, we discussed the effect of detergent features on the solubilization of the polymeric bilayer and compared it to the results reported in the literature for liposomes and polymersomes. This information can be used for tuning the properties of PEG–PCL polymersomes for use in applications such as drug delivery or protein reconstitution studies.
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2021
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Brain Tissue-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Mediated Therapy in the Neonatal Ischemic Brain
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) in the brain is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and can lead to irreparable tissue damage and cognition. Thus, investigating key mediators of the HI response to identify points of therapeutic intervention has significant clinical potential. Brain repair after HI requires highly coordinated injury responses mediated by cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Studies show that stem cell-derived EVs attenuate the injury response in ischemic models by releasing neuroprotective, neurogenic, and anti-inflammatory factors. In contrast to 2D cell cultures, we successfully isolated and characterized EVs from whole brain rat tissue (BEV) to study the therapeutic potential of endogenous EVs. We showed that BEVs decrease cytotoxicity in an ex vivo oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) brain slice model of HI in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The minimum therapeutic dosage was determined to be 25 g BEVs with a therapeutic application time window of 4–24 h post-injury. At this therapeutic dosage, BEV treatment increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The morphology of microglia was also observed to shift from an amoeboid, inflammatory phenotype to a restorative, anti-inflammatory phenotype between 24–48 h of BEV exposure after OGD injury, indicating a shift in phenotype following BEV treatment. These results demonstrate the use of OWH brain slices to facilitate understanding of BEV activity and therapeutic potential in complex brain pathologies for treating neurological injury in neonates.
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2022
Differential expression of serum extracellular vesicle microRNAs and analysis of target-gene pathways in major depressive disorder
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) presents with both peripheral and central alterations, such that crosstalk between the periphery and the central nervous system could contribute to its aetio-pathophysiology. One putative mediating mechanism is circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their microRNA (miRNA) cargo. In this study, we investigated differential expression of the serum EV miRNome in MDD patients versus controls with the aims of identifying potential EV miRNA biomarkers and downstream target gene pathways. Methods miRNA-Sequencing was performed on serum EVs isolated from MDD patients (n = 42) and matched healthy Controls (n = 18). Differential expression analysis was conducted, followed by diagnostic power analysis of dysregulated EV miRNAs, and pathway analysis of their target genes. Results Of 1800 serum EV miRNAs detected consistently, 33 were differentially expressed in MDD and Control subjects, 17 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified an up-regulated and a down-regulated panel of EV miRNAs, each with additive diagnostic power as a differential biomarker for MDD. Predicted target gene-pathways were significantly enriched with respect to brain function, signal transduction and substance dependence ontology. Conclusions This study provides one of the first reports of dysregulation of the peripheral EV miRNome in MDD, including evidence for EV miRNAs as potential MDD biomarkers and identification of pathways via which they may contribute to MDD pathophysiology. Large-scale studies are required to confirm EV miRNome biomarker potential in MDD. Empirical evidence for involvement of the dysregulated EV miRNAs in the predicted target-gene pathways relevant to MDD pathophysiology is required.
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2022
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Metabolomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from Human Synovial Fluids
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent type of joint disease while the pathological mechanisms behind the disease development are not completely known yet. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) participating in various physiological and pathological processes have increasingly attracted attentions for their potential roles in inflammatory arthritis. In this work, we performed lipidomic analysis of EVs from human synovial fluids using three most applied EV isolation methods including ultracentrifugation (UC), polyethylene glycol mediated precipitation method (PEG) and size-exclusive chromatography (SEC). The lipidomic profiles of synovial EVs were then determined by UHPLC-MS technique targeting 12 classes of lipids with lipid standards. Further comparative analysis shows that the PEG method identified the most lipids but lipoprotein contamination was observed. The purity of EV products from UC was the highest as showing the least lipoprotein enriched lipids. Thus, UC might be the most suitable method for synovial EV lipidomic analysis. Investigation of synovial EVs from OA patients provides unique insights of OA initiation and maintenance, and the dysregulated EV-associated molecules might be potentially employed as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
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2022
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A Comparison of Blood Plasma Small Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment Strategies for Proteomic Analysis
Proteomic analysis of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) poses a significant challenge. A ‘gold-standard’ method for plasma sEV enrichment for downstream proteomic analysis is yet to be established. Methods were evaluated for their capacity to successfully isolate and enrich sEVs from plasma, minimise the presence of highly abundant plasma proteins, and result in the optimum representation of sEV proteins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma from four cattle (Bos taurus) of similar physical attributes and genetics were used. Three methods of sEV enrichment were utilised: ultracentrifugation (UC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and ultrafiltration (UF). These methods were combined to create four groups for methodological evaluation: UC + SEC, UC + SEC + UF, SEC + UC and SEC + UF. The UC + SEC method yielded the highest number of protein identifications (IDs). The SEC + UC method reduced plasma protein IDs compared to the other methods, but also resulted in the lowest number of protein IDs overall. The UC + SEC + UF method decreased sEV protein ID, particle number, mean and mode particle size, particle yield, and did not improve purity compared to the UC + SEC method. In this study, the UC + SEC method was the best method for sEV protein ID, purity, and overall particle yield. Our data suggest that the method and sequence of sEV enrichment strategy impacts protein ID, which may influence the outcome of biomarker discovery studies.
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2022
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Intranasal Administration of Self-Oriented Nanocarriers Based on Therapeutic Exosomes for Synergistic Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
The treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been hindered by the complex pathologies and multiple membrane barriers during drug delivery. Although exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for PD, MSC-derived exosomes alone could not fully meet the therapeutic requirements due to their limitation in therapy and delivery. Here, we develop a self-oriented nanocarrier called PR-EXO/PP@Cur that combines therapeutic MSC-derived exosomes with curcumin. PR-EXO/PP@Cur can be self-oriented across the multiple membrane barriers and directly release drugs into the cytoplasm of target cells after intranasal administration. With enhanced accumulation of drugs in the action site, PR-EXO/PP@Cur achieves three-pronged synergistic treatment to deal with the complex pathologies of PD by reducing α-synuclein aggregates, promoting neuron function recovery, and alleviating the neuroinflammation. After treatment with PR-EXO/PP@Cur, the movement and coordination ability of PD model mice are significantly improved. These results show that PR-EXO/PP@Cur has great prospects in treatment of PD or other neurodegenerative diseases.
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicles from Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Effectively Separated by Sepharose CL-6B—Comparison of Four Gravity-Flow Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a versatile group of cell-secreted membranous nanoparticles present in body fluids. They have an exceptional diagnostic potential due to their molecular content matching the originating cells and accessibility from body fluids. However, methods for EV isolation are still in development, with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) emerging as a preferred method. Here we compared four types of SEC to isolate EVs from the CSF of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. A pool of nine CSF samples was separated by SEC columns packed with Sepharose CL-6B, Sephacryl S-400 or Superose 6PG and a ready-to-use qEV10/70 nm column. A total of 46 fractions were collected and analysed by slot-blot followed by Ponceau staining. Immunodetection was performed for albumin, EV markers CD9, CD81, and lipoprotein markers ApoE and ApoAI. The size and concentration of nanoparticles in fractions were determined by tunable resistive pulse sensing and EVs were visualised by transmission electron microscopy. We show that all four SEC techniques enabled separation of CSF into nanoparticle- and free protein-enriched fractions. Sepharose CL-6B resulted in a significantly higher number of separated EVs while lipoproteins were eluted together with free proteins. Our data indicate that Sepharose CL-6B is suitable for isolation of EVs from CSF and their separation from lipoproteins.
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2022
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GFP-tagging of extracellular vesicles for rapid process development
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) act as nano-scale molecular messengers owing to their capacity to shuttle functional macromolecular cargo between cells. This intrinsic ability to deliver bioactive cargo has sparked great interest in the use of EVs as novel therapeutic delivery vehicles; investments totaling over $2 billion in 2020 alone were reported for therapeutic EVs. One of the bottlenecks facing the production of EVs is the lack of rapid and high throughput analytics to aid process development. Here CHO cells have been designed and engineered to express GFP-tagged EVs via fusion to CD81. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of parent cell characterization to ensure lack of non-fused GFP for the effective use of this quantitative approach. The fluorescent nature of resulting vesicles allowed for rapid quantification of concentration and yield across the EV purification process. In this manner, the degree of product loss was deduced by mass balance analysis of ultrafiltration processing, reconciled up to 97% of initial feed mass. The use of GFP-tagging allowed for straightforward monitoring of vesicle elution from chromatography separations and detection via western blotting. Collectively, this work illustrates the utility of GFP-tagged EVs as a quantitative and accessible tool for accelerated process development.
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2022
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Anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 effect of extracellular vesicles released from mesenchymal stem cells
As of 10 December 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by SARS‐CoV‐2 accounted for 267 million people with up to 5.3 million deaths worldwide (https://covid19.who.int). Since late 2019, much progress has been made in response to the COVID‐19 pandemic, including the rapid developments of effective vaccines and the treatment guidelines consisting of antiviral drugs, immunomodulators, and critical care support (https://covid19.who.int). However, SARS‐CoV‐2 evolves over time as its genome has a high mutation rate that leads to reasonable concerns of breakthrough infection due to immune escape and resistant strain emergence under antiviral pressure (Lipsitch et al., 2021; Szemiel et al., 2021). A newly emerging Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant rings alarms around the globe that, perhaps, the COVID‐19 war has just begun. Relentless efforts should be made to advance our knowledge and treatment regimens against COVID‐19. These included studies of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy that aimed to mitigate cytokine storm and promote tissue repair in severely ill patients with COVID‐19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (Hashemian et al., 2021; Meng et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2021). Nevertheless, as extensively discussed in a recent review by Dr. Phillip W. Askenase of Yale University School of Medicine, the immunomodulatory and regenerative effects of MSC therapy are mediated through MSC‐derived extracellular vesicles (MSC‐EVs) (Askenase, 2020), while the use of MSC‐EVs has less safety concerns of thromboembolism, arrhythmia and malignant transformation. In this direction, MSC‐EV investigations for COVID‐19 treatment would be more appealing and undeniable if MSC‐EVs also exhibit anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 effects. A previous study revealed that MSC‐EVs pertained antiviral activity against influenza virus in a preclinical model (Khatri et al., 2018). It is known that MSCs are highly resistant to viral infections (Wu et al., 2018), including SARS‐CoV‐2 (Avanzini et al., 2021). We, therefore, hypothesized that the EVs released from MSCs could inhibit SARS‐CoV‐2 infection.
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2022
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Urinary miRNA Profiles in Chronic Kidney Injury—Benefits of Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment and miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Renal Fibrosis, Glomerular Injury, and Endothelial Dysfunction
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression and play an important role in physiological homeostasis and disease. In biofluids, miRNAs can be found in protein complexes or in extracellular vesicles (EVs). Altered urinary miRNAs are reported as potential biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this context, we compared established urinary protein biomarkers for kidney injury with urinary miRNA profiles in obese ZSF1 and hypertensive renin transgenic rats. Additionally, the benefit of urinary EV enrichment was investigated in vivo and the potential association of urinary miRNAs with renal fibrosis in vitro. Kidney damage in both rat models was confirmed by histopathology, proteinuria, and increased levels of urinary protein biomarkers. In total, 290 miRNAs were elevated in obese ZSF1 rats compared with lean controls, whereas 38 miRNAs were altered in obese ZSF1 rats during 14–26 weeks of age. These 38 miRNAs correlated better with disease progression than established urinary protein biomarkers. MiRNAs increased in obese ZSF1 rats were associated with renal inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerular injury. Eight miRNAs were also changed in urinary EVs of renin transgenic rats, including one which might play a role in endothelial dysfunction. EV enrichment increased the number and detection level of several miRNAs implicated in renal fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results show the benefit of EV enrichment for miRNA detection and the potential of total urine and urinary EV-associated miRNAs as biomarkers of altered kidney physiology, renal fibrosis and glomerular injury, and disease progression in hypertension and obesity-induced CKD.
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2022
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Proteomic analysis distinguishes extracellular vesicles produced by cancerous versus healthy pancreatic organoids
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced and released by both healthy and malignant cells and bear markers indicative of ongoing biological processes. In the present study we utilized high resolution flow cytometry to detect EVs in the plasma of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in the supernatants of PDAC and healthy control (HC) pancreatic organoid cultures. Using ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography, PDAC and HC pancreatic organoid EVs were isolated for mass spectrometry analysis. Proteomic and functional protein network analysis showed a striking distinction in that EV proteins profiled in pancreatic cancer organoids were involved in vesicular transport and tumorigenesis while EV proteins in healthy organoids were involved in cellular homeostasis. Thus, the most abundant proteins identified in either case represented non-overlapping cellular programs. Tumor-promoting candidates LAMA5, SDCBP and TENA were consistently upregulated in PDAC EVs. Validation of specific markers for PDAC EVs versus healthy pancreatic EVs will provide the biomarkers and enhanced sensitivity necessary to monitor early disease or disease progression, with or without treatment. Moreover, disease-associated changes in EV protein profiles provide an opportunity to investigate alterations in cellular programming with disease progression.
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2022
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A new strategy to count and sort neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles: Validation in infectious disorders
Newly recognized polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) functions include the ability to release subcellular mediators such as neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) involved in immune and thrombo-inflammatory responses. Elevation of their plasmatic level has been reported in a variety of infectious and cardiovascular disorders, but the clinical use of this potential biomarker is hampered by methodological issues. Although flow cytometry (FCM) is currently used to detect NDEVs in the plasma of patients, an extensive characterization of NDEVs has never been done. Moreover, their detection remains challenging because of their small size and low antigen density. Therefore, the objective of the present study was first to establish a surface antigenic signature of NDEVs detectable by FCM and therefore to improve their detection in biological fluids by developing a strategy allowing to overcome their low fluorescent signal and reduce the background noise. By testing a large panel of 54 antibody specificities already reported to be positive on PMNs, we identified a profile of 15 membrane protein markers, including 4 (CD157, CD24, CD65 and CD66c) never described on NDEVs. Among them, CD15, CD66b and CD66c were identified as the most sensitive and specific markers to detect NDEVs by FCM. Using this antigenic signature, we developed a new strategy combining the three best antibodies in a cocktail and reducing the background noise by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This strategy allowed a significant improvement in NDEVs enumeration in plasma from sepsis patients and made it feasible to efficiently sort NDEVs from COVID-19 patients. Altogether, this work opens the door to a more valuable measurement of NDEVs as a potential biomarker in clinical practice. A similar strategy could also be applied to improve detection by FCM of other rare subpopulations of EVs generated by tissues with limited access, such as vascular endothelium, cancer cells or placenta
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2022
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Cucumber-Derived Exosome-like Vesicles and PlantCrystals for Improved Dermal Drug Delivery
(1) Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered to be efficient nanocarriers for improved drug delivery and can be derived from mammalian or plant cells. Cucumber-derived EVs are not yet described in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce and characterize cucumber-derived EVs and to investigate their suitability to improve the dermal penetration efficacy of a lipophilic active ingredient (AI) surrogate. (2) Methods: The EVs were obtained by classical EVs isolation methods and by high pressure homogenization (HPH). They were characterized regarding their physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties. (3) Results: utilization of classical isolation and purification methods for EVs resulted in cucumber-derived EVs. Their dermal penetration efficacy for the AI surrogate was 2-fold higher when compared to a classical formulation and enabled a pronounced transdermal penetration into the viable dermis. HPH resulted in submicron sized particles composed of a mixture of disrupted plant cells. A successful isolation of pure EVs from this mixture was not possible with classical EVs isolation methods. The presence of EVs was, therefore, proven indirectly. For this, the lipophilic drug surrogate was admixed to the cucumber juice either prior to or after HPH. Admixing of the drug surrogate to the cucumber prior to the HPH resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the dermal penetration efficacy, whereas the addition of the AI surrogate to the cucumber after HPH was not able to improve the penetration efficacy. (4) Conclusions: Results, therefore, indicate that HPH causes the formation of EVs in which AI can be incorporated. The formation of plant EVs by HPH was also indicated by zeta potential analysis.
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2022
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Melanoma-derived extracellular vesicles mediate lymphatic remodelling and impair tumour immunity in draining lymph nodes
Tumour-draining lymph nodes (LNs) undergo massive remodelling including expansion of the lymphatic sinuses, a process that has been linked to lymphatic metastasis by creation of a pre-metastatic niche. However, the signals leading to these changes have not been completely understood. Here, we found that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from melanoma cells are rapidly transported by lymphatic vessels to draining LNs, where they selectively interact with lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) as well as medullary sinus macrophages. Interestingly, uptake of melanoma EVs by LN-resident LECs was partly dependent on lymphatic VCAM-1 expression, and induced transcriptional changes as well as proliferation of those cells. Furthermore, melanoma EVs shuttled tumour antigens to LN LECs for cross-presentation on MHC-I, resulting in apoptosis induction in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, our data identify EV-mediated melanoma—LN LEC communication as a new pathway involved in tumour progression and tumour immune inhibition, suggesting that EV uptake or effector mechanisms in LECs might represent a new target for melanoma therapy.
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2022
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A functional corona around extracellular vesicles enhances angiogenesis, skin regeneration and immunomodulation
Nanoparticles can acquire a plasma protein corona defining their biological identity. Corona functions were previously considered for cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here we demonstrate that nano-sized EVs from therapy-grade human placental-expanded (PLX) stromal cells are surrounded by an imageable and functional protein corona when enriched with permissive technology. Scalable EV separation from cell-secreted soluble factors via tangential flow-filtration (TFF) and subtractive tandem mass-tag (TMT) proteomics revealed significant enrichment of predominantly immunomodulatory and proangiogenic proteins. Western blot, calceinbased flow cytometry, super-resolution and electron microscopy verified EV identity. PLX-EVs partly protected corona proteins from protease digestion. EVs significantly ameliorated human skin regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo, induced differential signalling in immune cells, and dose-dependently inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro. Corona removal by size-exclusion or ultracentrifugation abrogated angiogenesis. Re-establishing an artificial corona by cloaking EVs with fluorescent albumin as a model protein or defined proangiogenic factors was depicted by superresolution microscopy, electron microscopy and zeta-potential shift, and served as a proof-of-concept. Understanding EV corona formation will improve rational EVinspired nano-therapy design.
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2022
ev vr
Synergy of Human Platelet-Derived Extracellular Vesicles with Secretome Proteins Promotes Regenerative Functions
Platelet-rich plasma is a promising regenerative therapeutic with controversial efficacy. We and others have previously demonstrated regenerative functions of human platelet lysate (HPL) as an alternative platelet-derived product. Here we separated extracellular vesicles (EVs) from soluble factors of HPL to understand the mode of action during skin-organoid formation and immune modulation as model systems for tissue regeneration. HPL-EVs were isolated by tangential-flow filtration (TFF) and further purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) separating EVs from (lipo)protein-enriched soluble fractions. We characterized samples by tunable resistive pulse sensing, western blot, tandem mass-tag proteomics and super-resolution microscopy. We evaluated EV function during angiogenesis, wound healing, organoid formation and immune modulation. We characterized EV enrichment by TFF and SEC according to MISEV2018 guidelines. Proteomics showed three major clusters of protein composition separating TSEC-EVs from HPL clustering with TFF soluble fractions and TFF-EVs clustering with TSEC soluble fractions, respectively. HPL-derived TFF-EVs promoted skin-organoid formation and inhibited T-cell proliferation more efficiently than TSEC-EVs or TSEC-soluble fractions. Recombining TSEC-EVs with TSEC soluble fractions re-capitulated TFF-EV effects. Zeta potential and super-resolution imaging further evidenced protein corona formation on TFF-EVs. Corona depletion on SEC-EVs could be artificially reconstituted by TSEC late fraction add-back. In contrast to synthetic nanoparticles, which commonly experience reduced function after corona formation, the corona-bearing EVs displayed improved functionality. We conclude that permissive isolation technology, such as TFF, and better understanding of the mechanism of EV corona function are required to realize the complete potential of platelet-based regenerative therapies.
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2022
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Circulating cardiomyocyte-derived extracellular vesicles reflect cardiac injury during systemic inflammatory response syndrome in mice
The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is increased under cellular stress and cardiomyocyte damaging conditions. However, whether the cardiomyocyte-derived EVs eventually reach the systemic circulation and whether their number in the bloodstream reflects cardiac injury, remains unknown. Wild type C57B/6 and conditional transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by cardiomyocytes were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). EVs were separated both from platelet-free plasma and from the conditioned medium of isolated cardiomyocytes of the left ventricular wall. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were determined by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. The presence of GFP + cardiomyocyte-derived circulating EVs was monitored by flow cytometry and cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. In LPS-treated mice, systemic inflammation and the consequent cardiomyopathy were verified by elevated plasma levels of TNFα, GDF-15, and cardiac troponin I, and by a decrease in the ejection fraction. Furthermore, we demonstrated elevated levels of circulating small- and medium-sized EVs in the LPS-injected mice. Importantly, we detected GFP+ cardiomyocyte-derived EVs in the circulation of control mice, and the number of these circulating GFP+ vesicles increased significantly upon intraperitoneal LPS administration (P = 0.029). The cardiomyocyte-derived GFP+ EVs were also positive for intravesicular troponin I (cTnI) and muscle-associated glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM). This is the first direct demonstration that cardiomyocyte-derived EVs are present in the circulation and that the increased number of cardiac-derived EVs in the blood reflects cardiac injury in LPS-induced systemic inflammation (SIRS).
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2022
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Storage conditions determine the characteristics of red blood cell derived extracellular vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released during the storage of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and might play adverse or beneficial roles throughout the utilization of blood products (transfusion). Knowledge of EV release associated factors and mechanism amends blood product management. In the present work the impact of storage time and medium (blood preserving additive vs isotonic phosphate buffer) on the composition, size, and concentration of EVs was studied using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS) and freeze-fraction combined transmission electron micrography (FF-TEM). The spectroscopic protein-to-lipid ratio based on amide and the C–H stretching band intensity ratio indicated the formation of various vesicle subpopulations depending on storage conditions. After short storage, nanoparticles with high relative protein content were detected. Spectral analysis also suggested differences in lipid and protein composition, too. The fingerprint region (from 1300 to 1000 cm−1) of the IR spectra furnishes additional information about the biomolecular composition of RBC-derived EVs (REVs) such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactose, glucose, and oxidized hemoglobin. The difference between the vesicle subpopulations reveals the complexity of the REV formation mechanism. IR spectroscopy, as a quick, cost-effective, and label-free technique provides valuable novel biochemical insight and might be used complementary to traditional omics approaches on EVs.
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2022
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Evidence for Effects of Extracellular Vesicles on Physical, Inflammatory, Transcriptome and Reward Behaviour Status in Mice
Immune-inflammatory activation impacts extracellular vesicles (EVs), including their miRNA cargo. There is evidence for changes in the EV miRNome in inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. This mouse study investigated: (1) effects of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chronic social stress (CSS) on plasma EV miRNome; and (2) physiological, transcriptional, and behavioural effects of peripheral or central delivered LPS-activated EVs in recipient mice. LPS or CSS effects on the plasma EV miRNome were assessed by using microRNA sequencing. Recipient mice received plasma EVs isolated from LPS-treated or SAL-treated donor mice or vehicle only, either intravenously or into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), on three consecutive days. Bodyweight, spleen or NAc transcriptome and reward (sucrose) motivation were assessed. LPS and CSS increased the expression of 122 and decreased expression of 20 plasma EV miRNAs, respectively. Peripheral LPS-EVs reduced bodyweight, and both LPS-EVs and SAL-EVs increased spleen expression of immune-relevant genes. NAc-infused LPS-EVs increased the expression of 10 immune-inflammatory genes. Whereas motivation increased similarly across test days in all groups, the effect of test days was more pronounced in mice that received peripheral or central LPS-EVs compared with other groups. This study provides causal evidence that increased EV levels impact physiological and behavioural processes and are of potential relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders.
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2022
Novel modification of Luminex assay for characterization of extracellular vesicle populations in biofluids.
Most approaches to extracellular vesicle (EV) characterization focus on EV size or density. However, such approaches provide few clues regarding EV origin, molecular composition, and function. New methods to characterize the EV surface proteins may aid our understanding of their origin, physiological roles, and biomarker potential. Recently developed immunoassays for intact EVs based on ELISA, NanoView, SIMOA and MesoScale platforms are highly sensitive, but have limited multiplexing capabilities, whereas MACSPlex FACS enables the detection of multiple EV surface proteins, but requires significant quantities of purified EVs, which limits its adoption. Here, we describe a novel Luminex-based immunoassay, which combines multiplexing capabilities with high sensitivity and, importantly, bypasses the enrichment and purification steps that require larger sample volumes. We demonstrate the method’s specificity for detecting EV surface proteins using multiple EV depletion techniques, EVs of specific cellular origin isolated from culture media, and by co-localization with established EV surface markers. Using this novel approach, we elucidate differences in the tetraspanin profiles of the EVs carrying erythrocyte and neuron markers. Using size exclusion chromatography, we show that plasma EVs of putative neuronal and tissue macrophage origin are eluted in fractions distinct from those derived from erythrocytes, or from their respective cultured cells. In conclusion, our novel multiplexed assay differentiates between EVs from erythrocytes, macrophages, and neurons, and offers a new means for capture, classification, and profiling of EVs from diverse sources.
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2022
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Real time imaging of single extracellular vesicle pH regulation in a microfluidic cross-flow filtration platform
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous structures carrying transmembrane proteins and luminal cargo. Their complex cargo requires pH stability in EVs while traversing diverse body fluids. We used a filtration-based platform to capture and stabilize EVs based on their size and studied their pH regulation at the single EV level. Dead-end filtration facilitated EV capture in the pores of an ultrathin (100 nm thick) and nanoporous silicon nitride (NPN) membrane within a custom microfluidic device. Immobilized EVs were rapidly exposed to test solution changes driven across the backside of the membrane using tangential flow without exposing the EVs to fluid shear forces. The epithelial sodium-hydrogen exchanger, NHE1, is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein tasked with the maintenance of cytoplasmic pH at neutrality. We show that NHE1 identified on the membrane of EVs is functional in the maintenance of pH neutrality within single vesicles. This is the first mechanistic description of EV function on the single vesicle level.
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2022
Using genetically modified extracellular vesicles as a non-invasive strategy to evaluate brain-specific cargo
The lack of techniques to trace brain cell behavior in vivo hampers the ability to monitor status of cells in a living brain. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanosized membrane-surrounded vesicles, released by virtually all brain cells might be able to report their status in easily accessible biofluids, such as blood. EVs communicate among tissues using lipids, saccharides, proteins, and nucleic acid cargo that reflect the state and composition of their source cells. Currently, identifying the origin of brain-derived EVs has been challenging, as they consist of a rare population diluted in an overwhelming number of blood and peripheral tissue-derived EVs. Here, we developed a sensitive platform to select out pre-labelled brain-derived EVs in blood as a platform to study the molecular fingerprints of brain cells. This proof-of-principle study used a transducible construct tagging tetraspanin (TSN) CD63, a membrane-spanning hallmark of EVs equipped with affinity, bioluminescent, and fluorescent tags to increase detection sensitivity and robustness in capture of EVs secreted from transduced cells into biofluids. Our platform enables unprecedented efficient isolation of neural EVs from the blood. These EVs derived from pre-labelled mouse brain cells or engrafted human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs) were submitted to multiplex analyses, including transcript and protein levels, in compliance with the multibiomolecule EV carriers. Overall, our novel strategy to track brain-derived EVs in a complex biofluid opens up new avenues to study EVs released from pre-labelled cells in near and distal compartments into the biofluid source.
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2022
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Multielectrode Spectroscopy Enables Rapid and Sensitive Molecular Profiling of Extracellular Vesicles
Detecting protein markers in extracellular vesicles (EVs) is becoming a useful tool for basic research and clinical diagnoses. Most EV protein assays, however, require lengthy processes─conjugating affinity ligands onto sensing substrates and affixing EVs with additional labels to maximize signal generation. Here, we present an iPEX (impedance profiling of extracellular vesicles) system, an all-electrical strategy toward fast, multiplexed EV profiling. iPEX adopts one-step electropolymerization to rapidly functionalize sensor electrodes with antibodies; it then detects EV proteins in a label-free manner through impedance spectroscopy. The approach streamlines the entire EV assay, from sensor preparation to signal measurements. We achieved (i) fast immobilization of antibodies (<3 min) per electrode; (ii) high sensitivity (500 EVs/mL) without secondary labeling; and (iii) parallel detection (quadruple) in a single chip. A potential clinical utility was demonstrated by directly analyzing plasma samples from glioblastoma multiforme patients.
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2022
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Blood-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Associated miR-3182 Detects Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
With five-year survival rates as low as 3%, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The severity of the disease at presentation is accredited to the lack of early detection capacities, resulting in the reliance on low-throughput diagnostic measures, such as tissue biopsy and imaging. Interest in the development and use of liquid biopsies has risen, due to non-invasive sample collection, and the depth of information it can provide on a disease. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) as viable liquid biopsies are of particular interest due to their potential as cancer biomarkers. To validate the use of sEVs as cancer biomarkers, we characterised cancer sEVs using miRNA sequencing analysis. We found that miRNA-3182 was highly enriched in sEVs derived from the blood of patients with invasive breast carcinoma and NSCLC. The enrichment of sEV miR-3182 was confirmed in oncogenic, transformed lung cells in comparison to isogenic, untransformed lung cells. Most importantly, miR-3182 can successfully distinguish early-stage NSCLC patients from those with benign lung conditions. Therefore, miR-3182 provides potential to be used for the detection of NSCLC in blood samples, which could result in earlier therapy and thus improved outcomes and survival for patients.
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2022
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P2RX7 inhibition reduces breast cancer induced osteolytic lesions-implications for bone metastasis
Breast cancer metastasis to bone is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients and remains an unmet clinical need. Purinergic signalling via the P2X7 receptor (P2RX7) in the primary tumour microenvironment is associated with progression of several cancers. It has also now become evident that intra-tumoural hypoxia facilitates cancer metastasis and reduces patient survival. In this study, we present data suggesting that hypoxia regulates the expression of P2RX7 in the primary tumour microenvironment; and importantly, inhibition with a selective antagonist (10mg/kg A740003) increased cancer cell death via apoptosis in a E0771/C57BL-6J syngeneic murine model. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography demonstrated reduced number of osteolytic lesions and lesion area following P2RX7 inhibition in absence of overt metastases by decreasing osteoclast numbers. We also demonstrate that activation of P2RX7 plays a role in the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from breast cancer cells. Mass-spectrometric analyses showed a distinct protein signature for EVs derived from hypoxic compared with normoxic cancer cells which elicit specific responses in bone cells that are associated with pre-metastatic niche formation. Thus, inhibiting P2RX7 provides a novel opportunity to preferentially target the hypoxic breast cancer cells preventing tumour progression and subsequent metastasis to bone
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2022
ev vr
ISOLATION METHODS OF LARGE AND SMALL EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES DERIVED FROM CARDIOVASCULAR PROGENITORS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Since the discovery of the beneficial therapeutical effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs), these agents have been attracting great interest as next-generation therapies. EVs are nanosized membrane bodies secreted by all types of cells that mediate cell–cell communication. Although the classification of different subpopulations of EVs can be complex, they are broadly divided into microvesicles and exosomes based on their biogenesis and in large and small EVs based on their size. As this is an emerging field, current investigations are focused on basic aspects such as the more convenient method for EV isolation. In the present paper, we used cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) to study and compare different cell culture conditions for EV isolation as well as two of the most commonly employed purification methods: ultracentrifugation (UC) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Large and small EVs were separately analysed. We found that serum starvation of cells during the EV collecting period led to a dramatic decrease in EV secretion and major cell death. Regarding the isolation method, our findings suggest that UC and SEC gave similar EV recovery rates. Separation of large and small EV-enriched subpopulations was efficiently achieved with both purification protocols although certain difference in sample heterogeneity was observed. Noteworthy, while calnexin was abundant in large EVs, ALIX and CD63 were mainly found in small EVs. Finally, when the functionality of EVs was assessed on primary culture of adult murine cardiac fibroblasts, we found that EVs were taken up by these cells, which resulted in a pronounced reduction in the proliferative and migratory capacity of the cells. Specifically, a tendency towards a larger effect of SEC-related EVs was observed. No differences could be found between large and small EVs. Altogether, these results contribute to establish the basis for the use of EVs as therapeutic platforms, in particular in regenerative fields.
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2022
Encapsulation of doxorubicin prodrug in heat-triggered liposomes overcomes off-target activation for advanced prostate cancer therapy
L-377,202 prodrug consists of doxorubicin (Dox) conjugated to a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) peptide substrate that can be cleaved by enzymatically active PSA at the tumor site. Despite the initial promise in phase I trial, further testing of L-377,202 (herein called Dox-PSA) was ceased due to some degree of non-specific activation and toxicity concerns. To improve safety of Dox-PSA, we encapsulated it into low temperature-sensitive liposomes (LTSL) to bypass systemic activation, while maintaining its biological activity upon controlled release in response to mild hyperthermia (HT). A time-dependent accumulation of activated prodrug in the nuclei of PSA-expressing cells exposed to mild HT was observed, showing that Dox-PSA was efficiently released from the LTSL, cleaved by PSA and entering the cell nucleus as free Dox. Furthermore, we have shown that Dox-PSA loading in LTSL can block its biological activity at 37°C, while the combination with mild HT resulted in augmented cytotoxicity in both 2D and 3D PC models compared to the free Dox-PSA. More importantly, Dox-PSA encapsulation in LTSL prolonged its blood circulation and reduced Dox accumulation in the heart of C4-2B tumor-bearing mice over the free Dox-PSA, thus significantly improving Dox-PSA therapeutic window. Finally, Dox-PSA-loaded LTSL combined with HT significantly delayed tumor growth at a similar rate as mice treated with free Dox-PSA in both solid and metastatic PC tumor models. This indicates this strategy could block the systemic cleavage of Dox-PSA without reducing its efficacy in vivo, which could represent a safer option to treat patients with locally advanced PC. Statement of significance This study investigates a new tactic to tackle non-specific cleavage of doxorubicin PSA-activatable prodrug (L-377,202) to treat advanced prostate cancer. In the present study, we report a nanoparticle-based approach to overcome the non-specific activation of L-377,202 in the systemic circulation. This includes encapsulating Dox-PSA in low temperature-sensitive liposomes to prevent its premature hydrolysis and non-specific cleavage. This class of liposomes offers payload protection against degradation in plasma, improved pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting, and an efficient and controlled drug release triggered by mild hyperthermia (HT) (∼42°C). We believe that this strategy holds great promise in bypassing any systemic toxicity concerns that could arise from the premature activation of the prodrug whilst simultaneously being able to control the spatiotemporal context of Dox-PSA cleavage and metabolism.
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2021
ex nm
Optimised Electroporation for Loading of Extracellular Vesicles with Doxorubicin
The clinical use of chemotherapeutics is limited by several factors, including low cellular uptake, short circulation time, and severe adverse effects. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been suggested as a drug delivery platform with the potential to overcome these limitations. EVs are cellderived, lipid bilayer nanoparticles, important for intercellular communication. They can transport bioactive cargo throughout the body, surmount biological barriers, and target a variety of tissues. Several small molecule drugs have been successfully incorporated into the lumen of EVs, permitting efficient transport to tumour tissue, increasing therapeutic potency, and reducing adverse effects. However, the cargo loading is often inadequate and refined methods are a prerequisite for successful utilisation of the platform. By systematically evaluating the effect of altered loading parameters for electroporation, such as total number of EVs, drug to EV ratio, buffers, pulse capacitance, and field strength, we were able to distinguish tendencies and correlations. This allowed us to design an optimised electroporation protocol for loading EVs with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The loading technique demonstrated improved cargo loading and EV recovery, as well as drug potency, with a 190-fold increased response compared to naked doxorubicin.
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2021
Six Biomarkers Expressed Stably in Urinary Exosomes During All Life Stages-As the Reference Markers in Urinary Quantification
Background Urinary extracellular exosomes (uEVs) have been identified as a novel, stable and no-invasive source of biomarkers. However, the potential clinical value of uEVs is limited by the lack of standard quantitative proteomics data. It is necessary to uncover ubiquitous and stable proteins of uEVs as the reference markers in urinary quantification. Samples and methods The samples from 210 healthy individuals (3~90 years old), were divided into seven different stages of life. The uEVs samples were identified by LC-MS/MS and data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods. Eight stably expressed uEVs proteins were obtained by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, 42 samples were used to validate by Western blot, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. Results A total of 3,002 proteins and 1,393 co-expression uEVs proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. The bioinformatics analysis showed 1,393 co-expression proteins mostly enriched in endocytosis. Eight proteins were stably expressed throughout the seven age stages (p<0.05). Furthermore, RAB8A, RAB8B, Semaphorin-5A, Plexin-B2, JAMA, and STUB1 were validated by Western blot. Above all, RAB8A and RAB8B are the most stably expressed proteins in different age stages. Conclusion RAB8A, RAB8B, Semaphorin-5A, Plexin-B2, JAMA, and STUB1 were expressed stably proteins throughout the age stages. These six proteins might be the standard reference markers in the analysis of urine exosomal proteomics. RAB8A and RAB8B have been validated are the putative reference markers
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2021
ev
Applications and Biological Functions of Exosomes: A Comprehensive Review
Exosomes are also known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) which is bounded by a membrane mostly seen in eukaryotic cells secreted within the endosomal compartment along with some of the selected composition of RNA, proteins, lipids and DNA. They are capable of transferring signals among cells therefore it is used as a mediator for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes helps in the excretion of cellular waste from the body. Exosomes possess various widespread activity in many of the biological functions such as transferring the biomolecules like enzymes, proteins, ribonucleic acid, lipids and also in the regulation of various pathological and physiological process in various diseases. Exosomes are released in to the in vitro growth medium with the help of cultured cells. They are said to be identified in coined matrix and tissue matrix. They are also identified in some of the biological fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine, blood. Exosomes are considered as promising biomarkers in identification and treatment of many diseases as they contribute a lot in the diagnosis of various therapies. The efficacy and stability of imaging probes and therapeutics are enhanced by its biocompatible nature. Exosomes play a major role because of their use in the field of clinical application. It is important to understand the molecular mechanism behind their function and transport in order to explore more about exosomes. Here we discuss about the review and advancement done in the field of exosomes along with their biomedical applications, isolation techniques and biological functions.
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2021
ev
Human neural cell type‐specific extracellular vesicle proteome defines disease‐related molecules associated with activated astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease brain
In neurodegenerative diseases, extracellular vesicles (EVs) transfer pathogenic molecules and are consequently involved in disease progression. We have investigated the proteomic profiles of EVs that were isolated from four different humaninduced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cell types (excitatory neurons, astrocytes, microglia-like cells, and oligodendrocyte-like cells). Novel cell type-specific EV protein markers were then identified for the excitatory neurons (ATP1A3, NCAM1), astrocytes (LRP1, ITGA6), microglia-like cells (ITGAM, LCP1), and oligodendrocytelike cells (LAMP2, FTH1), as well as 16 pan-EV marker candidates, including integrins and annexins. To further demonstrate how cell-type-specific EVs may be involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we performed protein co-expression network analysis and conducted cell type assessments for the proteomes of brain-derived EVs from the control, mild cognitive impairment, and AD cases. A protein module enriched in astrocyte-specific EV markers was most significantly associated with the AD pathology and cognitive impairment, suggesting an important role in AD progression. The hub protein from this module, integrin-β1 (ITGB1), was found to be significantly elevated in astrocyte-specific EVs enriched from the total brain-derived AD EVs and associated with the brain β-amyloid and tau load in independent cohorts. Thus, our study provides a featured framework and rich resource for the future analyses of EV functions in neurodegenerative diseases in a cell type-specific manner.
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2021
ev
Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived exosomal miR-18b promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis by regulating TCEAL7
Studies have shown that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an irreplaceable role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Therefore, exploring the action and mechanism of CAFs on tumor cells is particularly important. In this study, we compared the effects of CAFs-derived exosomes and normal fibroblasts (NFs)-derived exosomes on breast cancer cells migration and invasion. The results showed that exosomes from both CAFs and NFs could enter into breast cancer cells and CAFs-derived exosomes had a more enhancing effect on breast cancer cells migration and invasion than NFs-derived exosomes. Furthermore, microRNA (miR)-18b was upregulated in CAFs-derived exosomes, and CAFs-derived exosomes miR-18b can promote breast cancer cell migration and metastasis by specifically binding to the 3'UTR of Transcription Elongation Factor A Like 7 (TCEAL7). The miR-18b-TCEAL7 pathway promotes nuclear Snail ectopic activation by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), thereby inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoting cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, CAFs-derived exosomes miR-18b could promote mouse xenograft model tumor metastasis. Overall, our findings suggest that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-18b promote nuclear Snail ectopic by targeting TCEAL7 to activate the NF-κB pathway, thereby inducing EMT, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting CAFs-derived exosome miR-18b may be a potential treatment option to overcome breast cancer progression.
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2021
ev
Tim4-Functionalized HBEV-Chip by Isolating Plasma-Derived Phosphatidylserine-Positive Small Extracellular Vesicles for Pan-Cancer Screening
Thanks to containing tumor-related molecules, small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are emerging as biomarkers in tumor liquid biopsy and commonly employed to diagnose a specific cancer. However, a pan-cancer screening method for pre-symptomatic patients is crucial to achieving the early cancer detection. Herein, a lipid-protein capture system on herringbone (HB) microfluidic chip (HBEV-Chips) to isolate multiple tumor-derived sEVs is constructed. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is abnormally surface-supposed on tumor-derived sEVs and binds T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing protein 4 (Tim4) in calcium-dependent manner. PS+ sEVs isolated by the HBEV-Chips is perform on liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and it is found that PS+ sEVs are highly correlated with tumor-related pathway (P < 0.05), such as Cdc42 protein signal transduction, neuropilin signaling pathway, and Wnt signaling pathway. And it is further validated in clinical sample and found that PS+sEV number shows statistical difference between cancer patients and healthy donors in plasma (P < 0.01) and has efficient diagnostic power (area under curve = 0.86), suggesting PS+sEV as potential biomarker for pan-cancer screening. The Tim-4 functionalized device facilitates the early multiple cancer detection, providing the potential to be used as a rapid-screening tool in clinical setting.
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2021
ev
The emerging role of small extracellular vesicles in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid as diagnostics for periodontitis
Periodontitis is a highly prevalent multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease associated with a destructive host immune-inflammatory response to microbial dysbiosis. Current clinical diagnosis is reliant on measuring past periodontal tissue loss, with a lack of molecular biomarkers to accurately diagnose periodontitis activity in ‘real-time’. Thus, discovery of new classes of diagnostic biomarkers is of critical importance in periodontology. Small extracellular vesicles (<200 nm in diameter; sEVs) from oral biofluids (saliva and gingival crevicular fluid—GCF) are lipid-encapsulated bilayered vesicles and have recently emerged as a potential source of biomarkers for periodontal disease (gingivitis and periodontitis), due to the cargo of protein, genetic material and lipids derived from their parent cells. There is limited information on the isolation and characterisation methods of saliva/GCF-sEVs or the characterisation of sEVs cargo as biomarkers for periodontitis. In this review, we detail the composition of sEVs and summarise their isolation and characterisation from saliva and GCF. The potential role of saliva and GCF-derived sEVs in periodontitis diagnosis is also explored. It is proposed that sEVs cargo, including protein, microRNA, message RNA and DNA methylation, are potential biomarkers for periodontitis with good diagnostic power (area under the curve—AUC > 0.9).
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2021
ev
CD24 and IgM Stimulation of B Cells Triggers Transfer of Functional B Cell Receptor to B Cell Recipients Via Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated nanoparticles that carry bioactive cargo, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Once taken up by target cells, EVs can modify the physiology of the recipient cells. In past studies, we reported that engagement of the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor CD24 on B lymphocytes (B cells) causes the release of EVs. However, a potential function for these EVs was not clear. Thus, we investigated whether EVs derived from CD24 or IgM-stimulated donor WEHI-231 murine B cells can transfer functional cargo to recipient cells. We employed a model system where donor cells expressing palmitoylated GFP (WEHI-231-GFP) were cocultured, after stimulation, with recipient cells lacking either IgM (WEHI-303 murine B cells) or CD24 (CD24 knockout mouse bone marrow B cells). Uptake of lipid-associated GFP, IgM, or CD24 by labeled recipient cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that stimulation of either CD24 or IgM on the donor cells caused the transfer of lipids, CD24, and IgM to recipient cells. Importantly, we found that the transferred receptors are functional in recipient cells, thus endowing recipient cells with a second BCR or sensitivity to anti-CD24-induced apoptosis. In the case of the BCR, we found that EVs were conclusively involved in this transfer, whereas in the case in the CD24 the involvement of EVs is suggested. Overall, these data show that extracellular signals received by one cell can change the sensitivity of neighboring cells to the same or different stimuli, which may impact B cell development or activation.
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2021
ev
Circulating extracellular vesicles of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients have higher RAC1 and induce recapitulation of nephrotic syndrome phenotype in …
Since previous research suggests a role of a circulating factor in the pathogenesis of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS), we speculated that circulating plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a candidate source of such a soluble mediator. Here, we aimed to characterize and try to delineate the effects of these EVs in vitro. Plasma EVs from 20 children with steroid-sensitive NS in relapse and remission, 10 healthy controls, and 6 disease controls were obtained by serial ultracentrifugation. Characterization of these EVs was performed by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Major proteins from plasma EVs were identified via mass spectrometry. Gene Ontology classification analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were performed on selectively expressed EV proteins during relapse. Immortalized human podocyte culture was used to detect the effects of EVs on podocytes. The protein content and particle number of plasma EVs were significantly increased during NS relapse. Relapse NS EVs selectively expressed proteins that involved actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Among these, the level of RAC-GTP was significantly increased in relapse EVs compared with remission and disease control EVs. Relapse EVs were efficiently internalized by podocytes and induced significantly enhanced motility and albumin permeability. Moreover, relapse EVs induced significantly higher levels of RAC-GTP and phospho-p38 and decreased the levels of synaptopodin in podocytes. Circulating relapse EVs are biologically active molecules that carry active RAC1 as cargo and induce recapitulation of the NS phenotype in podocytes in vitro.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Up to now, the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the pathogenesis of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS) has not been studied. Here, we found that relapse NS EVs contain significantly increased active RAC1, induce enhanced podocyte motility, and increase expression of RAC-GTP and phospho-p38 expression in vitro. These results suggest that plasma EVs are biologically active molecules in the pathogenesis of NS.
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2021
ev vr
The Origin of Plasma-Derived Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Study
The gastrointestinal tract harbors the gut microbiota, structural alterations of which (dysbiosis) are linked with an increase in gut permeability (“leaky gut”), enabling luminal antigens and bacterial products such as nanosized bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) to access the circulatory system. Blood-derived BEVs contain various cargoes and may be useful biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of disease status and relapse in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To progress this concept, we developed a rapid, cost-effective protocol to isolate BEV-associated DNA and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify bacterial origins of the blood microbiome of healthy individuals and patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing successfully identified the origin of plasma-derived BEV DNA. The analysis showed that the blood microbiota richness, diversity, or composition in IBD, healthy control, and protocol control groups were not significantly distinct, highlighting the issue of ‘kit-ome’ contamination in low-biomass studies. Our pilot study provides the basis for undertaking larger studies to determine the potential use of blood microbiota profiling as a diagnostic aid in IBD.
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2021
ev
Extracellular Vesicles Protect the Neonatal Lung from Hyperoxic Injury Through the Epigenetic and Transcriptomic Reprogramming of Myeloid Cells
Rationale: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)–small extracellular vesicle (MEx) treatment has shown promise in experimental models of neonatal lung injury. The molecular mechanisms by which MEx afford beneficial effects remain incompletely understood. Objectives: To investigate the therapeutic mechanism of action through assessment of MEx biodistribution and impact on immune cell phenotypic heterogeneity. Methods: MEx were isolated from the conditioned medium of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly–derived MSCs. Newborn mice were exposed to hyperoxia (HYRX, 75% O2) from birth and returned to room air at Postnatal Day 14 (PN14). Mice received either a bolus intravenous MEx dose at PN4 or bone marrow–derived myeloid cells (BMDMy) pretreated with MEx. Animals were killed at PN4, PN7, PN14, or PN28 to characterize MEx biodistribution or for assessment of pulmonary parameters. The therapeutic role of MEx-educated BMDMy was determined in vitro and in vivo. Measurements and Main Results: MEx therapy ameliorated core histological features of HYRX-induced neonatal lung injury. Biodistribution and mass cytometry studies demonstrated that MEx localize in the lung and interact with myeloid cells. MEx restored the apportion of alveolar macrophages in the HYRX-injured lung and concomitantly suppressed inflammatory cytokine production. In vitro and ex vivo studies revealed that MEx promoted an immunosuppressive BMDMy phenotype. Functional assays demonstrated that the immunosuppressive actions of BMDMy are driven by phenotypically and epigenetically reprogrammed monocytes. Adoptive transfer of MEx-educated BMDMy, but not naive BMDMy, restored alveolar architecture, blunted fibrosis and pulmonary vascular remodeling, and improved exercise capacity. Conclusions: MEx ameliorate hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury though epigenetic and phenotypic reprogramming of myeloid cells.
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2021
ev nm
The Past, the Present, and the Future of the Size Exclusion Chromatography in Extracellular Vesicles Separation
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous particles secreted by all cell types (including virus infected and uninfected cells) into the extracellular milieu. EVs carry, protect, and transport a wide array of bioactive cargoes to recipient/target cells. EVs regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in recipient cells and are important in therapeutics/drug delivery. Despite these great attributes of EVs, an efficient protocol for EV separation from biofluids is lacking. Numerous techniques have been adapted for the separation of EVs with size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-based methods being the most promising. Here, we review the SEC protocols used for EV separation, and discuss opportunities for significant improvements, such as the development of novel particle purification liquid chromatography (PPLC) system capable of tandem purification and characterization of biological and synthetic particles with near-single vesicle resolution. Finally, we identify future perspectives and current issues to make PPLC a tool capable of providing a unified, automated, adaptable, yet simple and affordable particle separation resource.
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2021
ev
The impact of storage on extracellular vesicles: A systematic study
Mounting evidence suggests that storage has an impact on extracellular vesicles (EVs) properties. While −80◦C storage is a widespread approach, some authors proposed improved storage strategies with conflicting results. Here, we designed a systematic study to assess the impact of −80◦C storage and freeze-thaw cycles on EVs. We tested the differences among eight storage strategies and investigated the possible fusion phenomena occurring during storage. EVs were collected from human plasma and murine microglia culture by size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation, respectively. The analysis included: concentration, size and zeta potential (tunable resistive pulse sensing), contaminant protein assessment; flow cytometry for the analysis of two single fluorescent-tagged EVs populations (GFP and mCherry), mixed before preservation. We found that −80◦C storage reduces EVs concentration and sample purity in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, it increases the particle size and size variability and modifies EVs zeta potential, with a shift of EVs in sizecharge plots. None of the tested conditions prevented the observed effects. Freezethaw cycles lead to an EVs reduction after the first cycle and to a cycle-dependent increase in particle size. With flow cytometry, after storage, we observed a significant population of double-positive EVs (GFP+-mCherry+). This observation may suggest the occurrence of fusion phenomena during storage. Our findings show a significant impact of storage on EVs samples in terms of particle loss, purity reduction and fusion phenomena leading to artefactual particles. Depending on downstream analyses and experimental settings, EVs should probably be processed from fresh, non-archival, samples in majority of cases.
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2021
ev vr
A possible role of gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (nES GEMMA) in extracellular vesicle research
The emerging role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as biomarkers and their envisioned therapeutic use require advanced techniques for their detailed characterization. In this context, we investigated gas-phase electrophoresis on a nano electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (nES GEMMA, aka nES differential mobility analyzer, nES DMA) as an alternative to standard analytical techniques. In gas-phase electrophoresis, single-charged, surface-dry, native, polydisperse, and aerosolized analytes, e.g., proteins or bio-nanoparticles, are separated according to their electrophoretic mobility diameter, i.e., globular size. Subsequently, monodisperse particles are counted after a nucleation step in a supersaturated atmosphere as they pass a focused laser beam. Hence, particle number concentrations are obtained in accordance with recommendations of the European Commission for nanoparticle characterization (2011/696/EU from October 18th, 2011). Smaller sample constituents (e.g., co-purified proteins) can be detected next to larger ones (e.g., vesicles). Focusing on platelet-derived EVs, we compared different vesicle isolation techniques. In all cases, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) confirmed the presence of vesicles. However, nES GEMMA often revealed a significant co-purification of proteins from the sample matrix, precluding gas-phase electrophoresis of less-diluted samples containing higher vesicle concentrations. Therefore, mainly peaks in the protein size range were detected. Mass spectrometry revealed that these main contaminants belonged to the group of globulins and coagulation-related components. An additional size exclusion chromatography (SEC) step enabled the depletion of co-purified, proteinaceous matrix components, while a label-free quantitative proteomics approach revealed no significant differences in the detected EV core proteome. Hence, the future in-depth analysis of EVs via gas-phase electrophoresis appears feasible. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs)with/without additional size exclusion chromatographic (SEC) purification were subjected to nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and gas-phase electrophoresis (nES GEMMA). The latter revealed presence of co-purified proteins, targetable via mass spectrometry (MS). MS also revealed that SEC did not influence EV protein content. To conclude, nES GEMMA is a valuable tool for quality control of EV-containing samples under native conditions allowing for detection of co-purified proteins from complex matrices.
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2021
ev nm
A complete proteomic profile of human and bovine milk exosomes by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
Background: The present study investigates the proteomic content of milk-derived exosomes. A detailed description of the content of milk exosomes is essential to improve our understanding of the various components of milk and their role in nutrition. Methods: The exosomes used in this study were isolated as previously described and characterized by their morphology, particle concentration, and the presence of exosomal markers. Human and bovine milk exosomes were evaluated using Information-Dependent Acquisition (IDA) Mass Spectrometry. A direct comparison is made between their proteomic profiles. Results: IDA analyses revealed similarities and differences in protein content. About 229 and 239 proteins were identified in the human and bovine milk exosome proteome, respectively, of which 176 and 186 were unique to each species. Fifty-three proteins were common in both groups. These included proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions. Most notably, the 4 abundant milk proteins lactadherin, butyrophilin, perilipin-2, and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were present in the top 20 list for both human and bovine milk exosomes. Conclusion: The milk exosome protein profiles we have provided are crucial new information for the field of infant nutrition. They provide new insight into the components of milk from both humans and bovines.
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2021
ev nm vr
Enhancing the Stabilization Potential of Lyophilization for Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are an emerging technology as immune therapeutics and drug delivery vehicles. However, EVs are usually stored at −80 °C which limits potential clinical applicability. Freeze-drying of EVs striving for long-term stable formulations is therefore studied. The most appropriate formulation parameters are identified in freeze-thawing studies with two different EV types. After a freeze-drying feasibility study, four lyophilized EV formulations are tested for storage stability for up to 6 months. Freeze-thawing studies revealed improved colloidal EV stability in presence of sucrose or potassium phosphate buffer instead of sodium phosphate buffer or phosphate-buffered saline. Less aggregation and/or vesicle fusion occurred at neutral pH compared to slightly acidic or alkaline pH. EVs colloidal stability can be most effectively preserved by addition of low amounts of poloxamer 188. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone failed to preserve EVs upon freeze-drying. Particle size and concentration of EVs are retained over 6 months at 40 °C in lyophilizates containing 10 mm K- or Na-phosphate buffer, 0.02% poloxamer 188, and 5% sucrose. The biological activity of associated beta-glucuronidase is maintained for 1 month, but decreased after 6 months. Here optimized parameters for lyophilization of EVs that contribute to generate long-term stable EV formulations are presented.
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2021
vr nm
A SARS-CoV-2 targeted siRNA-nanoparticle therapy for COVID-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in humans. Despite several emerging vaccines, there remains no verifiable therapeutic targeted specifically to the virus. Here we present a highly effective small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2 infection using a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery system. Multiple siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the SARS-CoV2 virus were screened, and three candidate siRNAs emerged that effectively inhibit the virus by greater than 90% either alone or in combination with one another. We simultaneously developed and screened two novel LNP formulations for the delivery of these candidate siRNA therapeutics to the lungs, an organ that incurs immense damage during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Encapsulation of siRNAs in these LNPs followed by in vivo injection demonstrated robust repression of virus in the lungs and a pronounced survival advantage to the treated mice. Our LNP-siRNA approaches are scalable and can be administered upon the first sign of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. We suggest that an siRNA-LNP therapeutic approach could prove highly useful in treating COVID-19 disease as an adjunctive therapy to current vaccine strategies.
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2021
ev nm vr
Emerging technologies and commercial products in Exosome-Based Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis
Academic and industrial groups worldwide have reported technological advances in exosome-based cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the potential translation of these emerging technologies for research and clinical settings remains unknown. This work overviews the role of exosomes in cancer diagnosis and prognosis, followed by a survey on emerging exosome technologies, particularly microfluidic advances for the isolation and detection of exosomes in cancer research. The advantages and drawbacks of each of the technologies used for the isolation, detection and engineering of exosomes are evaluated to address their clinical challenges for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, commercial platforms for exosomal detection and analysis are introduced, and their performance and impact on cancer diagnosis and prognosis are assessed. Also, the risks associated with the further development of the next generation of exosome devices are discussed. The outcome of this work could facilitate recognizing deliverable Exo-devices and technologies with unprecedented functionality and predictable manufacturability for the next-generation of cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
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2021
ev vr
A magnetic bead-mediated selective adsorption strategy for extracellular vesicle separation and purification
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated particles with critical biomedical functions, including mediating intercellular communication, assisting tumor metastasis, and carrying protein and microRNA biomarkers. The downstream applications of EVs are greatly influenced by the quality of the isolated EVs. However, almost none of the separation methods can simultaneously achieve both high yield and high purity of the isolated EVs, thus making the isolation of EVs an essential challenge in EV research. Here, we developed a magnetic bead-mediated selective adsorption strategy (MagExo) for easy-to-operate EV isolation. Benefited from the presence of an adsorption window between EVs and proteins under the effect of a hydrophilic polymer, EVs tend to adsorb on the surface of magnetic beads selectively and can be separated from biological fluids with high purity by simple magnetic separation. The proposed method was used for EV isolation from plasma and cell culture media (CCM), with two times higher yield and comparable purity of the harvested EVs to that obtained by ultracentrifugation (UC). Downstream applications in proteomics analysis showed 86.6% (plasma) and 86.5% (CCM) of the analyzed proteins were matched with the ExoCarta database, which indicates MagExo indeed enriches EVs efficiently. Furthermore, we found the target RNA amount of the isolated EVs by MagExo were almost dozens and hundred times higher than the gold standard DG-UC and ultracentrifugation (UC) methods, respectively. All the results show that MagExo is a reliable, easy, and efficient approach to harvest EVs for a wide variety of downstream applications with minimized sample usage. Statement of Significance Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are presently attracting increasing interest among clinical and scientific researchers. Although the downstream applications of EVs are recognized to be greatly affected by the quality of the isolated EVs, almost none of the separation methods can simultaneously achieve high yield and high purity of the isolated EVs; this makes the isolation of EVs an essential challenge in EV research. In the present work, we proposed a simple and easy-to-operate method (MagExo) for the separation and purification of EVs based on the phenomenon that EVs can be selectively adsorbed on the surface of magnetic microspheres in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer. The performance of MagExo was comparable to or even better than that of gold standard methods and commercial kits, with two times higher yield and comparable purity of the harvested EVs to that achieved with ultracentrifugation (UC); this could meet the requirements of various EV-associated downstream applications. In addition, MagExo can be easily automated by commercial liquid workstations, thus significantly improving the isolation throughput and paving a new way in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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2021
ev nm
A method to study extracellular vesicles secreted in vitro by cultured cells with minimum sample processing and extracellular vesicle loss
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in a multitude of physiological functions and play important roles in health and disease. The study of EV secretion and EV characterization remains challenging due to the small size of these particles, a lack of universal EV markers, and sample loss or technical artifacts that are often associated with EV separation techniques. We developed a method for in-cell EV labeling with fluorescent lipids (DiI), followed by DiI-labelled EV characterization in the conditioned medium by imaging flow cytometry (IFC). Direct IFC analysis of EVs in the conditioned medium, after removal of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris, significantly reduces sample processing and loss compared to established methods for EV separation, resulting in improved detection of quantitative changes in EV secretion and subpopulations compared to protocols that rely on EV separation by ultracentrifugation. In conclusion, our optimized protocol for EV labeling and analysis reduces EV sample processing and loss, and is well suited for cell biology studies that focus on modulation of EV secretion by cells in culture.
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2021
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A novel protein signature from plasma extracellular vesicles for non-invasive differential diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology often leading to respiratory failure. Over half of IPF patients present with discordant features of usual interstitial pneumonia on high-resolution computed tomography at diagnosis which warrants surgical lung biopsy to exclude the possibility of other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive biomarkers for expediting the differential diagnosis of IPF. Methods Using mass spectrometry, we performed proteomic analysis of plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) in a cohort of subjects with IPF, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, and healthy subjects (HS). A five-protein signature was identified by lasso regression and was validated in an independent cohort using ELISA. We evaluated the concordance between plasma EV proteome and the lung transcriptome data. Lastly, we compared the molecular pathways overrepresented in IPF by differentially expressed proteins and transcripts from EVs and lung tissues, respectively. Results The five-protein signature derived from mass spectrometry data showed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.915 (95%CI: 0.819-1.011) and 0.958 (95%CI: 0.882-1.034) for differentiating IPF from other ILDs and from HS, respectively. We also found that the EV protein expression profiles mirrored their corresponding mRNA expressions in IPF lungs. Further, we observed an overlap in the EV proteome- and lung mRNA-associated molecular pathways. Conclusions We discovered a plasma EV-based protein signature for differential diagnosis of IPF and validated this signature in an independent cohort. The signature needs to be tested in large prospective cohorts to establish its clinical utility. Competing Interest Statement AKP is employed with Izon Science US Ltd. The company has no role in design of the study and acquisition of experimental data and interpretation. All other authors have no conflict of interests. Funding Statement This work was supported by UT System Rising STARs award and core funds from UTHSCT, Tyler, Texas, to NVK. DN received funding from NIH (R01 GM083122). Cryo-TEM is supported by Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas grant RR140082 to DN. Author Declarations I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained. Yes The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below: The study was approved by institutional review boards of University of Pittsburgh (IRB STUDY19040326 and STUDY20030223), Brigham and Womens hospital (IRB2012P000840), Hiroshima University (IRBM326) and University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler (IRB 20-019 & 0000370). All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived. Yes I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable. Yes
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2021
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Aberrant expression of a novel circular RNA in pancreatic cancer
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded, covalently closed RNA molecules that are produced from pre-mRNAs through a process known as back-splicing. Although circRNAs are expressed under specific conditions, current understanding of their comprehensive expression status is still limited. Here, we performed a large-scale circRNA profiling analysis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, using circular RNA-specific RNA sequencing. We identified more than 40,000 previously unknown circRNAs, some of which were upregulated in PDAC tissues, compared with normal pancreatic tissues. We determined the full-length sequence of a circRNA upregulated in PDAC, which was derived from two noncoding RNA loci on chromosome 12. The novel circRNA, named circPDAC RNA, was not expressed in normal human cells, but was expressed in PDAC and other carcinoma cells. While postulated biological functions, such as peptide production from the circPDAC RNA, were not detected, its aberrant expression was confirmed in other PDAC tissues and in serum from a PDAC patient. These results demonstrate that comprehensive studies are necessary to reveal the expression status of circRNAs and that the circPDAC RNA identified here might serve as a novel biomarker for cancers, including PDAC.
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2021
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An SPRi-based biosensor pilot study: Analysis of multiple circulating extracellular vesicles and hippocampal volume in Alzheimer's disease
One of the main hurdles in the study of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the lack of easily accessible and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis, the prediction of the disease progression rate and the evaluation of rehabilitative and pharmacological treatments. Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale particles released by body cells, studied as promising biomarkers of AD as they are involved in the onset and progression of the disease. In the strive for a reliable and sensitive method to analyze EVs, we applied our recently developed biosensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) technology for the identification and profiling of neural EVs populations circulating in the plasma of 10 AD patients and 10 healthy subjects. The SPRi-array was designed to separate simultaneously EVs released by neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, and to evaluate the presence and the relative amount of specific surface molecules related to pathological processes including translocator protein (TSPO), β-Amyloid and ganglioside M1. As results, significant variations in the relative amount and cargoes of specific brain-derived populations of EVs were observed comparing EVs coming from AD patients and healthy subjects, finding the main differences in the activation phenotype of microglia EVs, in the lipid moieties on generic EVs and in the β-Amyloid expression on surfaces of neuronal EVs. Besides, the demonstrated correlation of SPRi data with Magnetic Resonance Imaging analysis, provided support for using the SPRi-based biosensor for the evaluation of neurodegeneration detecting and characterizing circulating EVs as peripheral biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of progression and rehabilitation treatments in AD patients.
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2021
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Antioxidative Effects of Carrot-Derived Nanovesicles in Cardiomyoblast and Neuroblastoma Cells
Oxidative stress is implicated in many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Because an increased level of oxidative stress causes apoptosis, it is necessary to inhibit cellular responses to oxidative stress. In this study, Carex, a nanovesicle from carrot, was isolated and investigated as a novel biomaterial with antioxidative function in cardiomyoblasts and neuroblastoma cells. A high concentration of nanovesicles was purified from carrots, using size-exclusion chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. The characterization of Carex demonstrated that it had properties similar to those of extracellular vesicles. Carex showed low cytotoxicity in both H9C2 cardiomyoblasts and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, when a high level of Carex was delivered to the cells. Carex was further investigated for its antioxidative and apoptotic effects, and it significantly inhibited ROS generation and apoptosis in vitro in myocardial infarction and Parkinson’s disease models. Carex inhibited the reduction of antioxidative molecule expression, including Nrf-2, HO-1, and NQO-1, in both models. Considering its antioxidative function and high production yield, Carex is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of myocardial infarction as well as Parkinson’s disease. Thus, the results demonstrated in this study will contribute to an exploration of a novel drug, using nanovesicles from plants, including carrots.
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2021
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Assembly and Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2): Evaluation Using Virus-Like Particles
Research on infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is currently restricted to BSL-3 laboratories. SARS-CoV2 virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a BSL-1, replication-incompetent system that can be used to evaluate virus assembly and virus-cell entry processes in tractable cell culture conditions. Here, we describe a SARS-CoV2 VLP system that utilizes nanoluciferase (Nluc) fragment complementation to track assembly and entry. We utilized the system in two ways. Firstly, we investigated the requirements for VLP assembly. VLPs were produced by concomitant synthesis of three viral membrane proteins, spike (S), envelope (E), and matrix (M), along with the cytoplasmic nucleocapsid (N). We discovered that VLP production and secretion were highly dependent on N proteins. N proteins from related betacoronaviruses variably substituted for the homologous SARS-CoV2 N, and chimeric betacoronavirus N proteins effectively supported VLP production if they contained SARS-CoV2 N carboxy-terminal domains (CTD). This established the CTDs as critical features of virus particle assembly. Secondly, we utilized the system by investigating virus-cell entry. VLPs were produced with Nluc peptide fragments appended to E, M, or N proteins, with each subsequently inoculated into target cells expressing complementary Nluc fragments. Complementation into functional Nluc was used to assess virus-cell entry. We discovered that each of the VLPs were effective at monitoring virus-cell entry, to various extents, in ways that depended on host cell susceptibility factors. Overall, we have developed and utilized a VLP system that has proven useful in identifying SARS-CoV2 assembly and entry features.
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2021
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Bioinspired artificial exosomes based on lipid nanoparticles carrying let-7b-5p promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of target genes. Proangiogenic small extracellular vesicles (sEVs; popularly identified with the name “exosomes”) with a composite cargo of miRNAs are secreted by cultured stem cells and present in human biological fluids. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) represent an advanced platform for clinically approved delivery of RNA therapeutics. In this study, we aimed to (1) identify the miRNAs responsible for sEV-induced angiogenesis; (2) develop the prototype of bioinspired “artificial exosomes” (AEs) combining LNPs with a proangiogenic miRNA, and (3) validate the angiogenic potential of the bioinspired AEs. We previously reported that human sEVs from bone marrow (BM)-CD34+ cells and pericardial fluid (PF) are proangiogenic. Here, we have shown that sEVs secreted from saphenous vein pericytes and BM mesenchymal stem cells also promote angiogenesis. Analysis of miRNA datasets available in-house or datamined from GEO identified the let-7 family as common miRNA signature of the proangiogenic sEVs. LNPs with either hsa-let-7b-5p or cyanine 5 (Cy5)-conjugated Caenorhabditis elegans miR-39 (Cy5-cel-miR-39; control miRNA) were prepared using microfluidic micromixing. let-7b-5p-AEs did not cause toxicity and transferred functionally active let-7b-5p to recipient endothelial cells (ECs). let-7b-AEs also improved EC survival under hypoxia and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Bioinspired proangiogenic AEs could be further developed into innovative nanomedicine products targeting ischemic diseases.
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2021
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Cancer Cells Shuttle Extracellular Vesicles Containing Oncogenic Mutant p53 Proteins to the Tumor Microenvironment
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed by cancer cells play a major role in mediating the transfer of molecular information by reprogramming the tumor microenvironment (TME). TP53 (encoding the p53 protein) is the most mutated gene across many cancer types. Mutations in TP53 not only result in the loss of its tumor-suppressive properties but also results in the acquisition of novel gain-of-functions (GOF) that promote the growth of cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that GOF mutant p53 proteins can be transferred via EVs to neighboring cancer cells and to macrophages, thus modulating them to release tumor supportive cytokines. Our data from pancreatic, lung, and colon carcinoma cell lines demonstrate that the mutant p53 protein can be selectively sorted into EVs. More specifically, mutant p53 proteins in EVs can be taken up by neighboring cells and mutant p53 expression is found in non-tumor cells in both human cancers and in non-human tissues in human xenografts. Our findings shed light on the intricate methods in which specific GOF p53 mutants can promote oncogenic mechanisms by reprogramming and then recruiting non-cancerous elements for tumor progression.
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2021
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Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Exosomal miR-106a Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by Down-regulation of TCEAL7
Studies have shown that cancer-associated broblasts (CAFs) play an irreplaceable role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Therefore, exploring the action and mechanism of CAFs on tumor cells is particularly important for designing new and effective treatments and improving prognosis of tumors. For exosomes have been shown to play vital roles in intercellular communication, in this study, we compared the effects of CAFs-derived exosomes and NFs-derived exosomes on breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. The results showed that exosomes from both CAFs and NFs could enter into breast cancer cells and CAFs-derived exosomes had a more enhancing effect on breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion than NFs-derived exosomes. Furthermore, it was found that the expression levels of miR-106a in exosomes derived from CAFs were signicantly up-regulated than that of NFsderived exosomes and what’s more, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that miR-106a can promote breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis by specically binding to the 3'UTR of TCEAL7. It is inspiring to nd that the miR-106a-TCEAL7 pathway promotes Snail nuclear ectopic activation by activating NF-κB, thereby inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. Moreover, a mouse xenograft model conrmed that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-106a could promote tumor metastasis. The above data shows that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-106a promote Snail nuclear ectopic by targeting TCEAL7 to activate the NF-κB pathway, thereby inducing EMT, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting CAFs-derived exosome miR-106a may be a potential treatment option to overcome breast cancer progression.
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2021
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Centrosome amplification mediates small extracellular vesicle secretion via lysosome disruption
Bidirectional communication between cells and their surrounding environment is critical in both normal and pathological settings. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which facilitate the horizontal transfer of molecules between cells, are recognized as an important constituent of cell-cell communication. In cancer, alterations in EV secretion contribute to the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. Here, we show that centrosome amplification is associated with and sufficient to promote small extracellular vesicle (SEV) secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. This is a direct result of lysosomal dysfunction, caused by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) downstream of extra centrosomes. We propose that defects in lysosome function could promote multivesicular body fusion with the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing SEV secretion. Furthermore, we find that SEVs secreted in response to amplified centrosomes are functionally distinct and activate pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These activated PSCs promote the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in heterotypic 3D cultures. We propose that SEVs secreted by cancer cells with amplified centrosomes influence the bidirectional communication between the tumor cells and the surrounding stroma to promote malignancy.
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2021
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Characterization of extracellular vesicles and synthetic nanoparticles with four orthogonal single‐particle analysis platforms
We compared four orthogonal technologies for sizing, counting, and phenotyping of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic particles. The platforms were: single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensing (SP-IRIS) with fluorescence, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with fluorescence, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), and nanoflow cytometry measurement (NFCM). EVs from the human T lymphocyte line H9 (high CD81, low CD63) and the promonocytic line U937 (low CD81, high CD63) were separated from culture conditioned medium (CCM) by differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) or a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot (WB). Mixtures of synthetic particles (silica and polystyrene spheres) with known sizes and/or concentrations were also tested. MRPS and NFCM returned similar particle counts, while NTA detected counts approximately one order of magnitude lower for EVs, but not for synthetic particles. SP-IRIS events could not be used to estimate particle concentrations. For sizing, SP-IRIS, MRPS, and NFCM returned similar size profiles, with smaller sizes predominating (per power law distribution), but with sensitivity typically dropping off below diameters of 60 nm. NTA detected a population of particles with a mode diameter greater than 100 nm. Additionally, SP-IRIS, MRPS, and NFCM were able to identify at least three of four distinct size populations in a mixture of silica or polystyrene nanoparticles. Finally, for tetraspanin phenotyping, the SP-IRIS platform in fluorescence mode was able to detect at least two markers on the same particle, while NFCM detected either CD81 or CD63. Based on the results of this study, we can draw conclusions about existing single-particle analysis capabilities that may be useful for EV biomarker development and mechanistic studies.
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2021
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Characterization of feces-derived bacterial membrane vesicles and the impact of their origin on the inflammatory response
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex microbiome, which interacts in a variety of ways with the host. There is compelling evidence that gut microbial dysbiosis, defined as an alteration of diversity and abundance in intestinal microbes, is an etiological factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Membrane vesicles (MVs), which are nano-sized particles released by bacteria, have been found to interact with the host and modulate the development and function of the immune system. As a result MVs have been suggested to play a critical role in both health and disease. In this study we developed a method to isolate, characterize and assess the immunoreactivity of heterogeneous populations of MVs from fecal samples (fMVs) of healthy volunteers. We successfully isolated 2*109-2*1010 particles/ml from 0.5 gram of feces by using a combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) from 10 fecal samples. Bead-based flowcytometry in combination with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) provided a reliable method for (semi-)quantitative determination of fMVs originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of fMVs. Real time 16s PCR on bacterial cell fractions or isolated fMVs DNA of the most common phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) revealed differences in the relative abundance between bacteria and the fMVs. Moreover, fMVs evoke the release of TNF- by THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent matter. Also, a significant positive correlation was found between Actinobacteria/-Proteobacteria derived vesicles and the release of TNF-. It has become increasingly clear that fMVs could provide an additional layer to the definition of homeostasis or dysbiosis of the microbiota. The current study supports their potential involvement in the intestinal homeostasis or inflammatory disorders and provides putative interesting incentives for future research.
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2021
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Circulating Extracellular Vesicle Cargo as Bioinformants of 'at-risk'Carotid Artery Stenosis
Objectives Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Managing patients with asymptomatic disease remains challenging, given the lack of reliable tests to identify the subgroup of patients prone to plaque progression and stroke. Given the functional and diagnostic roles of extracellular vesicle (EV) contents, we hypothesized that plasma EV-derived microRNA (miRNA) differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods EVs were isolated via serial centrifugation followed by enrichment using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) (qEVoriginal columns 70 nm; Izon Science Ltd). EV isolation was confirmed according to MISEV 2018 guidelines: Western blot analysis of common EV markers (CD63, CD81, Alix), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Lipoprotein contamination was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of individual SEC fractions (R&D Systems; DAPA10, DAPB00). Next-generation sequencing was performed on EVs (HTG Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.), and differential miRNA expression evaluated using Partek Genomics Suite software (version 8.0). Results Twelve patient plasma samples were collected (n = 6 symptomatic; n = 6 asymptomatic). The average age of the cohort was 70.0 ± 5.7 years (asymptomatic, 67.0 ± 5.5 vs symptomatic, 72.5 ± 5.5 years). All patients had severe stenoses with similar peak systolic velocity (asymptomatic 403.2 ± 84.43 vs symptomatic 371.6 ± 175.25; P = .50) and internal carotid artery (ICA):common carotid artery (CCA) ratios (asymptomatic, 5.36 ± 1.07 vs symptomatic, 7.3 ± 5.00; P = .50). CD63 expression confirmed EV enrichment in fractions 7 to 10, with minimal lipoprotein contamination. EV isolation was further confirmed by CD81 and Alix expression (n = 3 patient samples per group). Cryo-TEM identified EVs as bi-layered nanoparticles with electron dense cores (Fig 1). NTA revealed no significant differences in EV concentration or size between groups (n = 3; P > .05). Principal component and heatmap analysis of miRNA sequencing data revealed symptomatic carotid plasma samples clustered together, whereas asymptomatic samples were either starkly different (n = 5) or approximated the symptomatic profiles (n = 1), suggesting a disease gradient (Fig 2). When symptomatic carotid plasma EV-miRNA profiles were compared with asymptomatic specimens, 190 miRNAs were differentially expressed, with miRNA-654-5p and miRNA-127-3p being the most upregulated, and downregulated, respectively (P < .05, fold-change −2< or >2, excluding miRNA with counts <100). Gene set enrichment identified regulation of protein metabolic processes, and negative regulation of cell communication, signaling, and signal transduction as predicted targets of differentially expressed EV-miRNA (P-value < .05). Conclusions Plasma EV-miRNA profiles may differentiate symptomatic vs asymptomatic carotid stenosis and, together with clinical characteristics, may be used in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients.
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2021
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Circulating extracellular vesicles from patients with acute chest syndrome disrupt adherens junctions between endothelial cells
Background Small cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can affect endothelial function. We previously found that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have greater numbers of circulating EVs than subjects without the disease, and the EVs differentially disrupt endothelial integrity in vitro. Because endothelial disruption is a critical component of acute chest syndrome (ACS), we hypothesized that EVs isolated during ACS would induce greater endothelial damage than those isolated at baseline. Methods Nine pediatric subjects had plasma isolated at baseline and during ACS from which EVs were isolated. Cultured microvascular endothelial cells were treated with EVs and then studied by immunofluorescence microscopy to localize VE-cadherin and F-actin. Results The EVs had a diameter of 95 nm. They contained CD63 and flotillin-1, which were increased in SCD patients (5–13-fold compared to control) and further increased between baseline and ACS (24–57%). The EVs contained hemoglobin, glycophorin A, and ferritin. Treatment with baseline EVs caused modest separation of endothelial cells, while ACS EVs caused substantial disruptions of the endothelial cell monolayers. EVs from subjects with ACS also caused a 50% decrease in protein levels of VE-cadherin. Conclusions These results suggest that circulating EVs can modulate endothelial integrity contributing to the development of ACS in SCD patients by altering cadherin-containing intercellular junctions. Impact - Sickle cell disease patients have circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that modulate endothelial integrity by altering cadherin-containing intercellular junctions. - - Disruption is more severe by EVs obtained during acute chest syndrome (ACS). - - These results expand our knowledge of the pathophysiology of acute chest syndrome and the vasculopathies of sickle cell disease.
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2021
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Comparative proteome profiling in exosomes derived from porcine colostrum versus mature milk reveals distinct functional proteomes
Exosomes are membranous vesicles of endocytic origin, recently been considered as major players in cell-cell communication. Milk is highly complex, and diverse biocomponents provide adequate nutrition, transfer immunity, and promote adequate neonate development. Milk exosomes are suggested to have a key role in these processes, yet to be further explored, and the alteration of the exosomes' cargo in different stages of lactation stages is important for understanding the factors relevant in nursing and also for improving milk replacer products both for humans and animals. We isolated exosomes from porcine milk in different lactation stages and analyzed their content using a TMT-based high-resolution quantitative proteomic approach. Exosomes were isolated using ultracentrifugation coupled with size exclusion chromatography to enrich milk-derived exosomes in samples obtained at day 0, 7, and 14 after parturition, and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blotting. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed different proteome profiles for colostrum exosomes and milk exosomes. The functional analysis highlighted pathways related to the regulation of homeostasis to be upregulated in colostrum exosomes, and pathways such as endothelial cell development and lipid metabolism to be upregulated in mature milk exosomes. This study endorses the importance of exosomes as active biocomponents of milk and provides knowledge for future studies exploring their role in the regulation of immunity and growth of the newborn.
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2021
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Comparative study of commercial protocols for high recovery of high-purity mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle isolation and their efficient labeling with fluorescent dyes
The extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as carriers for therapeutic molecules and drugs to target disordered tissues. This aimed to compare the protocols used for isolation of MSC-derived EVs by comparing EV collection conditions and three commercial purification kits. We also determined appropriate fluorescent dyes for labeling EVs. MSC-derived EVs were efficiently secreted during cell growth and highly purified by the phosphatidyl serine-based affinity kit. Although the EV membrane was more efficiently labeled with the fluorescent dye PKH67 compared to other probes, the efficiency was not enough to accurately analyze the endothelial cellular uptake of EVs. Results verified the easy protocol for isolating and fluorescently labeling EVs with commercial reagents and kits, but meanwhile, further modification of the protocol is required in order to scale up the amount of EVs derived from MSCs using fluorescent probes. Graphical Abstract The extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as carriers for therapeutic molecules and drugs. This aimed to compare the protocols used for isolation of EVs by comparing EV collection conditions and three commercial purification kits. MSC-derived EVs were efficiently secreted during cell growth and highly purified by the phosphatidyl serine-based affinity kit. Results verified the easy protocol for isolating and fluorescently labeling EVs with commercial reagents and kits, but meanwhile, further modification of the protocol is required in order to scale up the amount of EVs derived from MSCs using fluorescent probes.
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2021
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Comparison and optimization of nanoscale extracellular vesicle imaging by scanning electron microscopy for accurate size-based profiling and morphological analysis
Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been found to play a key role in intercellular communication, offering opportunities for both disease diagnostics and therapeutics. However, lying below the diffraction limit and also being highly heterogeneous in their size, morphology and abundance, these vesicles pose significant challenges for physical characterization. Here, we present a direct visual approach for their accurate morphological and size-based profiling by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To achieve that, we methodically examined various process steps and developed a protocol to improve the throughput, conformity and image quality while preserving the shape of EVs. The study was performed with small EVs (sEVs) isolated from a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line as well as from human serum, and the results were compared with those obtained from nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). While the comparison of the sEV size distributions showed good agreement between the two methods for large sEVs (diameter > 70 nm), the microscopy based approach showed a better capacity for analyses of smaller vesicles, with higher sEV counts compared to NTA. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of identifying non-EV particles based on size and morphological features. The study also showed process steps that can generate artifacts bearing resemblance with sEVs. The results therefore present a simple way to use a widely available microscopy tool for accurate and high throughput physical characterization of EVs.
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2021
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Comparison of isolation methods using commercially available kits for obtaining extracellular vesicles from cow milk
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important for delivering biologically active substances to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. Milk-derived EV are widely known because of their potential for immune enhancement. However, procedures for isolating milk-derived EV have not been fully established. To obtain pure milk-derived EV and accurately reveal their function, such procedures must be established. The aim of the present study was to compare methods using commercially available kits for isolating milk-derived EV. Initially, we investigated procedures to remove casein, which is the major obstacle in determining milk-derived EV purity. We separated whey using centrifugation only, acetic acid precipitation, and EDTA precipitation. Then, we isolated milk-derived EV by ultracentrifugation, membrane affinity column, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), polymer-based isolation, or phosphatidylserine-affinity isolation. Using EV count per milligram of protein, which is a good indicator of purity, we determined that acetic acid precipitation was the best method for removing casein. Using nanoparticle tracking analysis, protein quantity analysis, and RNA quantity analysis, we comprehensively compared each isolation method for its purity and yield. We found that SEC-based qEV column (Izon Science) could collect purer milk-derived EV at higher quantities. Thus, a combination of acetic acid precipitation and qEV can effectively isolate high amounts of pure extracellular vesicles from bovine milk.
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2021
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Comprehensive analysis and comparison of proteins in salivary exosomes of climacteric and adolescent females
Currently, it is difficult to extract exosomes with stable physicochemical properties from saliva. Furthermore, due to inadequate availability of basic data, the application of salivary exosomes as a diagnostic material is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate an easier method for extraction of exosomes from whole saliva and compared proteins in salivary exosomes derived from subjects of two age groups. Salivary exosomes were extracted from nine females (56.7 ± 1.17 years old; climacteric or 19.9 ± 0.20 years old; adolescent) using commercial reagents and kits and detected using western blotting with anti-exosome marker antibodies. Exosome particle size and exosome-containing proteins were identified using NanoSight® and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. In addition, an efficient method of exosome extraction from saliva using a reagent and without the use of an ultracentrifuge was shown. Our results showed a higher total protein content and larger particle size in climacteric exosomes than in adolescent exosomes. However, adolescent exosomes showed a larger variety of proteins (780 proteins) than the climacteric exosomes (573 proteins). Altogether, 893 proteins were identified in the salivary exosomes. Although viral process-, ribosome- and structural molecule-related proteins were higher in the adolescent exosomes, the levels of major salivary proteins such as immunoglobulins and amylase, were higher in the climacteric exosomes than in the adolescent exosomes. The data presented, which show the fundamental protein composition of salivary exosomes and the changes that occur with age, are beneficial in both diagnostic and biotechnological applications.
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2021
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Current Methods for the Isolation of Urinary Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles released into extracellular space by almost all cell types, and found in body fluids like blood, urine, and saliva. Mounting evidence has demonstrated the clinical potential of EVs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools to analyse physiological/pathological processes due to their ability to transport biomolecules secreted from diverse tissues of an individual. For example, the urinary EVs (uEVs), released from all regions of the kidney’s nephron and from other cells that line the urinary tract, retain proteomic and transcriptomic markers specific to their cell of origin representing a valuable tool for kidney disease diagnosis. Despite the numerous efforts in developing suitable methods to separate EVs from biofluids, providing material of high purity and low variability poses a limit to clinical translation. This chapter focuses on advantages and disadvantages of several EV isolation methodologies, and provides examples of uEV isolation protocols based on time, cost, and equipment considerations, as well as the sample requirements for any downstream analyses.
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2021
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Defining candidate mRNA and protein EV biomarkers to discriminate ccRCC and pRCC from non-malignant renal cells in vitro
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for over 400,000 new cases and 175,000 deaths annually. Diagnostic RCC biomarkers may prevent overtreatment in patients with early disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a promising source of RCC biomarkers because EVs carry proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) among other biomolecules. We aimed to identify biomarkers and assess biological functions of EV cargo from clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), and benign kidney cell lines. EVs were enriched from conditioned cell media by size exclusion chromatography. The EV proteome was assessed using Tandem Mass Tag mass spectrometry (TMT-MS) and NanoString nCounter technology was used to profile 770 cancer-related mRNA present in EVs. The heterogeneity of protein and mRNA abundance and identification highlighted the heterogeneity of EV cargo, even between cell lines of a similar pathological group (e.g., ccRCC or pRCC). Overall, 1726 proteins were quantified across all EV samples, including 181 proteins that were detected in all samples. In the targeted profiling of mRNA by NanoString, 461 mRNAs were detected in EVs from at least one cell line, including 159 that were present in EVs from all cell lines. In addition to a shared EV cargo signature, pRCC, ccRCC, and/or benign renal cell lines also showed unique signatures. Using this multi-omics approach, we identified 34 protein candidate pRCC EV biomarkers and 20 protein and 8 mRNA candidate ccRCC EV biomarkers for clinical validation.
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2021
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Detection of Tumor-Associated Membrane Receptors on Extracellular Vesicles from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients via Immuno-PCR
Precision cancer medicine for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased patient survival. Nevertheless, targeted agents towards tumor-associated membrane receptors only result in partial remission for a limited time, calling for approaches which allow longitudinal treatment monitoring. Rebiopsy of tumors in the lung is challenging, and metastatic lesions may have heterogeneous signaling. One way ahead is to use liquid biopsies such as circulating tumor DNA or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) secreted by the tumor into blood or other body fluids. Herein, an immuno-PCR-based detection of the tumor-associated membrane receptors EGFR, HER2, and IGF-1R on CD9-positive sEVs from NSCLC cells and pleural effusion fluid (PE) of NSCLC patients is developed utilizing DNA conjugates of antibody mimetics and affibodies, as detection agents. Results on sEVs purified from culture media of NSCLC cells treated with anti-EGFR siRNA, showed that the reduction of EGFR expression can be detected via immuno-PCR. Protein profiling of sEVs from NSCLC patient PE samples revealed the capacity to monitor EGFR, HER2, and IGF-1R with the immuno-PCR method. We detected a significantly higher EGFR level in sEVs derived from a PE sample of a patient with an EGFR-driven NSCLC adenocarcinoma than in sEVs from PE samples of non-EGFR driven adenocarcinoma patients or in samples from patients with benign lung disease. In summary, we have developed a diagnostic method for sEVs in liquid biopsies of cancer patients which may be used for longitudinal treatment monitoring to detect emerging bypassing resistance mechanisms in a noninvasive way.
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2021
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Development of fast, reliable and automated isolation and fractionation methods for nanosized subpopulations of human biomacromolecules
This doctoral thesis describes the development of fast, reliable and automated isolation and fractionation methods for nanosized subpopulations of human biomacromolecules. The focus of the study was on subpopulations of lipoproteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are important in the detection of different diseases, such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and may even possess therapeutic potential. In the thesis, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) with selective antibodies immobilized on the monolithic disk columns were utilized for the selective isolation of biomacromolecules from human plasma, while asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF or AF4) was able to fractionate relevant subpopulations of biomacromolecules (e.g., small dense low-density lipoproteins, exomeres, and exosomes) from the isolates. Continuous flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PF-ACE) were employed to study the affinity of the interactions between the antibody and lipoproteins. The first step was to develop a method to study interactions between antibody and lipoproteins to select a high affinity antibody useful for the isolation of lipoprotein subpopulations by IAC. The interaction data obtained with PF-ACE was analyzed to determine the heterogeneity of the interactions with adsorption energy distribution calculations, while the QCM data was processed with interaction maps. The affinity constants obtained with QCM and PF-ACE agreed well with each other. Next, the IAC methods were developed to capture EVs of different cellular origins from human plasma using anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (mAb), while anti-CD61 mAb was exploited to capture platelet-derived EVs. The anti-apolipoprotein B-100 (anti-apoB-100) mAb was exploited to immunocapture apoB-100 containing lipoproteins. The anti-apoB-100 mAb was also characterized by the PF-ACE and QCM studies. Appropriate elution conditions were found for the IAC methods, which has often been an issue with magnetic beads-based immunoaffinity methods. Since IAC allowed selective isolation of EVs and lipoproteins, a size-based separation to their subpopulations with AsFlFFF was introduced as a successive step. This enabled additional characterization of subpopulations by nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blotting, electron microscopy, capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescent detection, zeta potential measurements, as well as free amino acids and glucose analysis with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, IAC was successfully on-line coupled to AsFlFFF, resulting in quick and automated isolation and fractionation of the subpopulations of EVs and lipoproteins. The constructed IAC-AsFlFFF system was able to process reliably 18–38 samples in 24 h with only minor operator involvement, resulting in highly reproducible and gentle fractionation of EV subpopulations in the size range of exomeres and exosomes. Polymeric monolithic disk columns were utilized for the first time for the IAC-based isolation of EVs and their subpopulations from human plasma, and for the detection of exomeres in CD9+ EVs and CD61+ platelet-derived EVs from human plasma samples. The results demonstrated that CD61+ EVs are potentially taking part in gluconeogenesis based on free amino acids and glucose present as cargo.
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2021
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Dually targeted bioinspired nanovesicle delays advanced prostate cancer tumour growth in vivo
Prostate cancer (PC) is second-leading cancer in men, with limited treatment options available for men with advanced and metastatic PC. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been exploited as therapeutic targets in PC due to their upregulation in the advanced stages of the disease. To date, several PSA- and PSMA-activatable prodrugs have been developed to reduce the systemic toxicity of existing chemotherapeutics. Bioinspired nanovesicles have been exploited in drug delivery, offering prolonged drug blood circulation and higher tumour accumulation. For the first time, this study describes the engineering of dually targeted PSA/PSMA nanovesicles for advanced PC. PSMA-targeted bioinspired hybrids were prepared by hydrating a lipid film with anti-PSMA-U937 cell membranes and DOX-PSA prodrug, followed by extrusion. The bioinspired hybrids were characterised using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, Dot blot, flow cytometry and Western blot. Cellular binding and toxicity studies in PC cancer cell lines were carried out using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and resazurin assay. Finally, tumour targeting and therapeutic efficacy studies were performed in solid and metastatic C4-2B-tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, our PSMA-targeted hybrids demonstrated high cell uptake in PSMA-expressing cells with significant accumulation in solid and metastatic C4-2B tumour tissues following intravenous administration. More promisingly, our dually targeted PSA/PSMA hybrid significantly slowed down the C4-2B tumour growth in vivo, compared to free DOX-PSA and non-targeted PSA-hybrid. Our PSA/PSMA bioinspired hybrid could offer a highly selective treatment for advanced PC with lower side effects. Statement of significance This study investigates a new approach to treat prostate cancer using dually targeted bioinspired nanovesicle . Our bioinspired vesicles are made mainly of a human blood cell membrane with a ligand recognising a specific marker (PSMA) on the surface of the prostate cancer cells. The present work describes the successful loading of a doxorubicin prodrug linked to a PSA- activatable peptide into these targeted bioinspired nanovesicle , where the active PSA enzyme presents in these cells converts the drug to its active form. Our dually targeted PSA/PSMA hybrid vesicles has successfully improved site-specific prodrug delivery to tackle advanced prostate cancer, offering a novel and effective prostate cancer treatment.
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2021
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Epithelial IL-33 appropriates exosome trafficking for secretion in chronic airway disease
IL-33 is a key mediator of chronic airway disease driven by type 2 immune pathways, yet the nonclassical secretory mechanism for this cytokine remains undefined. We performed a comprehensive analysis in human airway epithelial cells, which revealed that tonic IL-33 secretion is dependent on the ceramide biosynthetic enzyme neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2). IL-33 is cosecreted with exosomes by the nSMase2-regulated multivesicular endosome (MVE) pathway as surface-bound cargo. In support of these findings, human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specimens exhibited increased epithelial expression of the abundantly secreted IL33Δ34 isoform and augmented nSMase2 expression compared with non-COPD specimens. Using an Alternaria-induced airway disease model, we found that the nSMase2 inhibitor GW4869 abrogated both IL-33 and exosome secretion as well as downstream inflammatory pathways. This work elucidates a potentially novel aspect of IL-33 biology that may be targeted for therapeutic benefit in chronic airway diseases driven by type 2 inflammation. Keywords: Immunology, Pulmonology Keywords: COPD, Cellular immune response, Cytokines
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2021
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Estradiol driven metabolism in transwomen associates with reduced circulating extracellular vesicle microRNA-224/452
Objective Sex steroid hormones like estrogens have a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. In transwomen, gender-affirming hormone therapy like estradiol (in combination with antiandrogenic compounds) could affect metabolism as well. Given that the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, this study assessed circulating estradiol-driven microRNAs (miRs) in transwomen and their regulation of genes involved in metabolism in mice. Methods Following plasma miR-sequencing (seq) in a transwomen discovery (n = 20) and validation cohort (n = 30), we identified miR-224 and miR-452. Subsequent systemic silencing of these miRs in male C57Bl/6 J mice (n = 10) was followed by RNA-seq-based gene expression analysis of brown and white adipose tissue in conjunction with mechanistic studies in cultured adipocytes. Results Estradiol in transwomen lowered plasma miR-224 and -452 carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) while their systemic silencing in mice and cultured adipocytes increased lipogenesis (white adipose) but reduced glucose uptake and mitochondrial respiration (brown adipose). In white and brown adipose tissue, differentially expressed (miR target) genes are associated with lipogenesis (white adipose) and mitochondrial respiration and glucose uptake (brown adipose). Conclusion This study identified an estradiol-drive post-transcriptional network that could potentially offer a mechanistic understanding of metabolism following gender-affirming estradiol therapy.
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2021
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Evidence of Immune Modulators in the Secretome of the Equine Tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata
Anoplocephala perfoliata is a neglected gastro-intestinal tapeworm, commonly infecting horses worldwide. Molecular investigation of A. perfoliata is hampered by a lack of tools to better understand the host–parasite interface. This interface is likely influenced by parasite derived immune modulators released in the secretome as free proteins or components of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, adult RNA was sequenced and de novo assembled to generate the first A. perfoliata transcriptome. In addition, excretory secretory products (ESP) from adult A. perfoliata were collected and EVs isolated using size exclusion chromatography, prior to proteomic analysis of the EVs, the EV surface and EV depleted ESP. Transcriptome analysis revealed 454 sequences homologous to known helminth immune modulators including two novel Sigma class GSTs, five α-HSP90s, and three α-enolases with isoforms of all three observed within the proteomic analysis of the secretome. Furthermore, secretome proteomics identified common helminth proteins across each sample with known EV markers, such as annexins and tetraspanins, observed in EV fractions. Importantly, 49 of the 454 putative immune modulators were identified across the secretome proteomics contained within and on the surface of EVs in addition to those identified in free ESP. This work provides the molecular tools for A. perfoliata to reveal key players in the host–parasite interaction within the horse host.
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2021
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Evidence of Immune Modulators in the Secretome of the Equine Tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata. Pathogens 2021, 10, 912
Anoplocephala perfoliata is a neglected gastro-intestinal tapeworm, commonly infecting horses worldwide. Molecular investigation of A. perfoliata is hampered by a lack of tools to better understand the host–parasite interface. This interface is likely influenced by parasite derived immune modulators released in the secretome as free proteins or components of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, adult RNA was sequenced and de novo assembled to generate the first A. perfoliata transcriptome. In addition, excretory secretory products (ESP) from adult A. perfoliata were collected and EVs isolated using size exclusion chromatography, prior to proteomic analysis of the EVs, the EV surface and EV depleted ESP. Transcriptome analysis revealed 454 sequences homologous to known helminth immune modulators including two novel Sigma class GSTs, five α-HSP90s, and three α-enolases with isoforms of all three observed within the proteomic analysis of the secretome. Furthermore, secretome proteomics identified common helminth proteins across each sample with known EV markers, such as annexins and tetraspanins, observed in EV fractions. Importantly, 49 of the 454 putative immune modulators were identified across the secretome proteomics contained within and on the surface of EVs in addition to those identified in free ESP. This work provides the molecular tools for A. perfoliata to reveal key players in the host–parasite interaction within the horse host.
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2021
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Exosome-mediated mRNA delivery for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination
Background In less than a year from its zoonotic entry into the human population, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 45 million people, caused 1.2 million deaths, and induced widespread societal disruption. Leading SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates immunize with the viral spike protein delivered on viral vectors, encoded by injected mRNAs, or as purified protein. Here we describe a different approach to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development that uses exosomes to deliver mRNAs that encode antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Approach Exosomes were purified and loaded with mRNAs designed to express (i) an artificial fusion protein, LSNME, that contains portions of the viral spike, nucleocapsid, membrane, and envelope proteins, and (ii) a functional form of spike. The resulting combinatorial vaccine, LSNME/SW1, was injected into thirteen weeks-old, male C57BL/6J mice, followed by interrogation of humoral and cellular immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins, as well as hematological and histological analysis to interrogate animals for possible adverse effects. Results Immunized mice developed CD4+, and CD8+ T-cell reactivities that respond to both the SARS-CoV-2 nucelocapsid protein and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These responses were apparent nearly two months after the conclusion of vaccination, as expected for a durable response to vaccination. In addition, the spike-reactive CD4+ T-cells response was associated with elevated expression of interferon gamma, indicative of a Th1 response, and a lesser induction of interleukin 4, a Th2-associated cytokine. Vaccinated mice showed no sign of altered growth, injection-site hypersensitivity, change in white blood cell profiles, or alterations in organ morphology. Consistent with these results, we also detected moderate but sustained anti-nucleocapsid and anti-spike antibodies in the plasma of vaccinated animals. Conclusion Taken together, these results validate the use of exosomes for delivering functional mRNAs into target cells in vitro and in vivo, and more specifically, establish that the LSNME/SW1 vaccine induced broad immunity to multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Competing Interest Statement S.J.G is a paid consultant for Capricor, holds equity in Capricor, and is co-inventor of intellectual property licensed by Capricor. S.J.T. is co-inventor of intellectual property licensed by Capricor. C.G. is co-inventor of intellectual property licensed by Capricor. N.A. is an employee of Capricor.
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2021
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Exosomes for Wound Treatment: Purification Optimization, Bioactive Components Identification and Drug Loading
The application of exosomes as therapeutic agents and drug delivery systems has gained increasing popularity over the last decades owing to their natural functions in intercellular communication processes. Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles of endosomal origin, which are constitutively released by cells into the extracellular space. They consist of functional proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, which enable them to imitate the biological functions of their producing parent cells. While proteins and nucleic acids have been identified as key players in the biological activity of exosomes, potential contributions of constitutional lipids to these effects remain largely unknown. Moreover, the purification process of exosomes continues to be a critical issue in exosome research since the definition of standardized exosome purification conditions is still pending. Several isolation methods are currently available, yet their potential impact on the exosome functionality has been rarely assessed in sufficient detail. Finally, when investigated as drug delivery platforms, mostly hydrophobic drugs have been loaded into exosomes, therefore leaving the loading capacity of current processes for hydrophilic classical drugs largely unaddressed. Furthermore, the impact of the loading methods on the exosome integrity and intrinsic bioactivity remains incompletely understood as the vesicle characterization is often restricted to analyzing their basic physicochemical properties and cellular uptake as well as monitoring the drug response. This thesis is aimed at addressing central questions related to the characterization of stem cell-derived exosomes as therapeutic entities and drug carriers, mainly in the context of wound healing. The major objectives specifically encompass 1) the optimization of exosome production and purification parameters, and an investigation of their effect on the exosome properties, 2) the identification of the role of selected exosomal components in processes required for wound healing, and 3) a comprehensive appraisal of the impact of several drug loading methods on the exosome integrity and functionality. Chapter 1 introduces the research field of exosomes and presents currently available purification methods. Moreover, the therapeutic applications of stem cell-derived exosomes are portrayed, focusing on their potential use in wound healing. Chapter 2 presents a synopsis of currently available synthetic carriers and exosomes as drug delivery platforms. In addition, drug encapsulation techniques for exosomes are presented and discussed. In Chapter 3, a standardized exosome preparation protocol is described. Special attention was paid to the interplay between production/purification conditions and exosome 2 characteristics to ultimately establish the optimal conditions delivering a high yield of bioactive exosomes. Subsequently, the activity of stem cell-derived exosomes in skin wound healing was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. The potential involvement of the transmembrane enzyme CD73 and exosomal lipids in the wound healing-promoting effects of stem cell exosomes was reported. It was found that the extent of the different exosome components’ activities was dependent on the target cell type. Specifically, CD73 contributed significantly to the in vitro migratory/mitogenic activity of stem cell exosomes on keratinocytes, but had no effect on endothelial cells. Exosomal lipids, on the other hand, were involved in the in vitro and in vivo activity of stem cell exosomes in blood vessel formation and maturation, but did not promote proliferation/migration of keratinocytes or fibroblasts in vitro. Chapter 4 explores processes for the encapsulation of non-membrane permeable hydrophilic low molecular weight compounds (i.e. pyranine and pentoxifylline) into exosomes. The loading efficiency of several methods was compared, and the osmotic shock procedure was identified as the most efficient one. Subsequently, the potential impact of the loading processes on the functionality of stem cell-derived exosomes was assessed using physicochemical characterization and biological activity methods. Only two out of five tested encapsulation processes (i.e. freeze-thawing and osmotic shock) preserved the structural and biological integrity of stem cell exosomes. In Chapter 5, the main findings of the current work are recapitulated and discussed. In addition, an outlook on yet unsolved challenges in the exosome research area is provided.
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2021
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Experimental Evaluation of an Interferometric Light Microscopy Particle Counter for Titering and Characterization of Virus Preparations
Virus particle concentration is a critical piece of information for virology, viral vaccines and gene therapy research. We tested a novel nanoparticle counting device, “Videodrop”, for its efficacy in titering and characterization of virus particles. The Videodrop nanoparticle counter is based on interferometric light microscopy (ILM). The method allows the detection of particles under the diffraction limit capabilities of conventional light microscopy. We analyzed lenti-, adeno-, and baculovirus samples in different concentrations and compared the readings against traditional titering and characterization methods. The tested Videodrop particle counter is especially useful when measuring high-concentration purified virus preparations. Certain non-purified sample types or small viruses may be impossible to characterize or may require the use of standard curve or background subtraction methods, which increases the duration of the analysis. Together, our testing shows that Videodrop is a reasonable option for virus particle counting in situations where a moderate number of samples need to be analyzed quickly.
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2021
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Extracellular vesicle analysis allows for identification of invasive IPMN
Background and Aims Advances in cross-sectional imaging have resulted in increased detection of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and their management remains controversial. At present, there is no reliable noninvasive method to distinguish between indolent and high risk IPMNs. We performed extracellular vesicle (EV) analysis to identify markers of malignancy in an attempt to better stratify these lesions. Methods Using a novel ultrasensitive digital extracellular vesicle screening technique (DEST), we measured putative biomarkers of malignancy (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, Das-1, STMN1, TSP1, TSP2, EGFR, EpCAM, GPC1, WNT-2, EphA2, S100A4, PSCA, MUC13, ZEB1, PLEC1, HOOK1, PTPN6, and FBN1) in EV from patient-derived cell lines and then on circulating EV obtained from peripheral blood drawn from patients with IPMNs. We enrolled a total of 133 patients in two separate cohorts: a clinical discovery cohort (n = 86) and a validation cohort (n = 47). Results From 16 validated EV proteins in plasma samples collected from the discovery cohort, only MUC5AC showed significantly higher levels in high-grade lesions. Of the 11 patients with invasive IPMN (inv/HG), 9 had high MUC5AC expression in plasma EV of the 11 patients with high-grade dysplasia alone, only 1 had high MUC5AC expression (sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%). These findings were corroborated in a separate validation cohort. The addition of MUC5AC as a biomarker to imaging and high-risk stigmata allowed detection of all cases requiring surgery, whereas imaging and high-risk stigmata alone would have missed 5 of 14 cases (36%). Conclusions MUC5AC in circulating EV can predict the presence of invasive carcinoma within IPMN. This approach has the potential to improve the management and follow-up of patients with IPMN including avoiding unnecessary surgery.
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2021
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Extracellular vesicle‐mediated endothelial apoptosis and EV‐associated proteins correlate with COVID‐19 disease severity
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has lead to a global pandemic with a rising toll in infections and deaths. Better understanding of its pathogenesis will greatly improve the outcomes and treatment of affected patients. Here we compared the inflammatory and cardiovascular disease-related protein cargo of circulating large and small extracellular vesicles (EVs) from 84 hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with different stages of disease severity. Our findings reveal significant enrichment of proinflammatory, procoagulation, immunoregulatory and tissue-remodelling protein signatures in EVs, which remarkably distinguished symptomatic COVID-19 patients from uninfected controls with matched comorbidities and delineated those with moderate disease from those who were critically ill. Specifically, EN-RAGE, followed by TF and IL-18R1, showed the strongest correlation with disease severity and length of hospitalization. Importantly, EVs from COVID-19 patients induced apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in the order of disease severity. In conclusion, our findings support a role for EVs in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease and underpin the development of EV-based approaches to predicting disease severity, determining need for patient hospitalization and identifying new therapeutic targets.
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2021
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Extracellular vesicles, lipids, and lipoproteins in early pregnant sheep
In sheep, pregnancy establishment encompasses conceptus elongation, implantation, and placentation. These events are regulated by factors present within the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) from the endometrial epithelium and the conceptus itself that affect proliferation, migration, attachment, and adhesion of the conceptus trophectoderm. As the peri-implantation period is especially susceptible to pregnancy loss, it is essential to understand the various components and functional roles of substances within the ULF. The central hypothesis of this dissertation is that lipids and lipid associated macromolecules are components of the ULF and mediate endometrial-embryonic crosstalk and regulate conceptus development. This work sought to identify, characterize, and/or determine the roles of: (1) extracellular vesicles (EVs); (2) lipids and metabolites; (3) prostaglandins (PGs); and (4) apolipoproteins present within the ULF of ewes during early gestation. Collectively, the present studies established that: (1) EVs increase within the ULF during the estrous cycle but are depleted in the uterine lumen of pregnant ewes due to uptake by the elongating conceptus; (2) the lipid and protein cargo of uterine EVs is diverse and altered by pregnancy; (3) uterine EVs regulate cellular processes in the conceptus trophectoderm and endometrium including cell proliferation and secretions; (4) various lipids (specifically phospholipids, ceramides, and triglycerides) and metabolites are elevated in the ULF of pregnant ewes; (5) the conceptus lipidome and metabolome is distinct from the ULF and endometrium suggesting selective uptake of ULF substances; (6) the production of PGs by PTGS2 in the conceptus is not required for conceptus elongation; (7) the secretion of APOA1 by the conceptus does not mobilize endometrial lipids into the ULF and is not required for early pregnancy development or survival. Collectively, these studies highlight the complex and dynamic composition of the ULF and support the overall hypothesis that lipids and lipid-associated macromolecules are critical components of the ULF that mediate conceptus-endometrial crosstalk and regulate important developmental processes in the conceptus. Future investigation and expansion of these findings will fill crucial gaps in our knowledge of early pregnancy events and may provide biomarkers or help develop therapies to improve pregnancy outcomes and reproductive efficiency in agricultural species.
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2021
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General and mild modification of food-derived extracellular vesicles for enhanced cell targeting
Food-derived extracellular vesicles (FDEVs) have attracted increasing attention as potential delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents due to their desirable features such as excellent biocompatibility, easy accessibility and cost effectiveness. However, the intrinsic targeting capability of FDEVs is unsatisfactory compared to artificial nanoparticles or other source-derived EVs, which calls for efficient surface engineering strategies to equip them with specific ligands. Here we report a general and mild modification method via reduction of disulfide groups to maleimide reactive thiols. Taking milk-derived EVs (mEVs) as a model system, we demonstrated the feasibility for tethering various ligands on the surface without compromising the vesicular structures. Building an ultra-sensitive nano-flow cytometer (nFCM), the heterogeneous nature of the functionalized samples was revealed, and a magnetic separation approach was proposed accordingly to remove the as-observed non-EV particles. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity experiments provided direct evidence showing an enhanced cell targeting and cargo delivery capability of the ligand conjugated mEVs. In addition, the in vivo imaging further proved the applicability of transferrin conjugation for increased tumor enrichment of mEVs. Collectively, this general and mild ligand conjugation method enables an efficient surface functionalization of FDEVs, which is of vital importance for enhanced targeting delivery.
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2021
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Genetically-engineered anti-PSMA exosome mimetics targeting advanced prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo
The present work describes the engineering of anti-PSMA peptide-decorated exosome mimetics (EMs) targeting advanced prostate cancer (PC). The targeted EMs were produced from anti-PSMA peptide, WQPDTAHHWATL, expressing U937 monoblastic cells, followed by successive extrusion cycles. The engineered EMs were nanosized, produced at a high yield, and displayed the anti-PSMA peptide, exosomal markers and monocytes proteins on their surface. As anticipated, PSMA-EMs showed increased cellular internalization in PSMA positive PC cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B), compared to unmodified EMs. Most importantly, higher tumour targeting was observed in solid C4-2B tumours, following intravenous administration, confirming their targeting ability in vivo. Overall, our study indicates that the engineered anti-PSMA peptide-targeted EMs can be a promising drug delivery system for advanced PC. Graphical abstract Monoblastic U937 cells were transfected by nucleofection to express the PSMA targeting peptide on their membrane surface. The cells were extruded to produce the PSMA-targeted exosome mimetics with active targeting properties and improved internalization in PSMA expressing tumour in vitro and in vivo.
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2021
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Higher prevalence of Bacteroides fragilis in Crohn's disease exacerbations and strain-dependent increase of epithelial resistance
Bacteroides fragilis has previously been linked to Crohn’s disease (CD) exacerbations, but results are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms unknown. This study investigates the epidemiology of B. fragilis and its virulence factors bft (enterotoxin) and ubiquitin among 181 CD patients and the impact on the intestinal epithelial barrier in vitro. The prevalence of B. fragilis was significantly higher in active (n = 69/88, 78.4%) as compared to remissive (n = 58/93, 62.4%, p = 0.018) CD patients. Moreover, B. fragilis was associated with intestinal strictures. Interestingly, the intestinal barrier function, as examined by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements of Caco-2 monolayers, increased when exposed to secretomes of bft-positive (bft-1 and bft-2 isotype; increased TEER ∼160%, p < 0.001) but not when exposed to bft-negative strains. Whole metagenome sequencing and metabolomics, respectively, identified nine coding sequences and two metabolites that discriminated TEER-increasing from non-TEER-increasing strains. This study revealed a higher B. fragilis prevalence during exacerbation. Surprisingly, bft-positive secretomes increased epithelial resistance, but we excluded Bft as the likely causative factor.
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2021
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Identification and characterization of hADSC‐derived exosome proteins from different isolation methods
Exosomes are secreted into the extracellular space by most cell types and contain various molecular constituents, which play roles in many biological processes. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into a variety of cell types and secrete a series of paracrine factors through exosomes. ADSC-derived exosomes have shown diagnostic and therapeutic potential in many clinical diseases. The molecular components are critical for their mechanisms. Several methods have been developed for exosome purification, including ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, density gradient purification, size-based isolation, polymer precipitation and immuno-affinity purification. Thus, we employed four methods to isolate exosomes from the hADSC culture medium, including ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, ExoQuick-TC precipitation and ExoQuick-TC ULTRA isolation. Following exosome isolation, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis of the exosome proteins using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labelling, combined with 2D-LC-MS/MS. There were 599 universal and 138 stably expressed proteins in hADSC-derived exosomes. We proved that these proteins were potential hADSC-derived exosomes markers, including CD109, CD166, HSPA4, TRAP1, RAB2A, RAB11B and RAB14. From the quantitative proteomic analysis, we demonstrated that hADSC-derived exosome protein expression varied, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, in the different isolation methods. Pathway analysis and proliferation, migration and endothelial tube formation assays showed varying effects in cells stimulated with hADSC-derived exosomes from different isolation methods. Our study revealed that different isolation methods might introduce variations in the protein composition in exosomes, which reflects their effects on biological function. The pros and cons of these methods are important points to consider for downstream research applications.
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2021
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Immunomagnetic Sequential Ultrafiltration (iSUF) platform for enrichment and purification of extracellular vesicles from biofluids
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from tumor cells have the potential to provide a much-needed source of non-invasive molecular biomarkers for liquid biopsies. However, current methods for EV isolation have limited specificity towards tumor-derived EVs that limit their clinical use. Here, we present an approach called immunomagnetic sequential ultrafiltration (iSUF) that consists of sequential stages of purification and enrichment of EVs in approximately 2 h. In iSUF, EVs present in different volumes of biofluids (0.5–100 mL) can be significantly enriched (up to 1000 times), with up to 99% removal of contaminating proteins (e.g., albumin). The EV recovery rate by iSUF for cell culture media (CCM), serum, and urine corresponded to 98.0% ± 3.6%, 96.0% ± 2.0% and 94.0% ± 1.9%, respectively (p > 0.05). The final step of iSUF enables the separation of tumor-specific EVs by incorporating immunomagnetic beads to target EV subpopulations. Serum from a cohort of clinical samples from metastatic breast cancer (BC) patients and healthy donors were processed by the iSUF platform and the isolated EVs from patients showed significantly higher expression levels of BC biomarkers (i.e., HER2, CD24, and miR21).
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2021
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Importance of between and within Subject Variability in Extracellular Vesicle Abundance and Cargo when Performing Biomarker Analyses
Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) have emerged as a potential rich source of biomarkers in human blood and present the intriguing potential for a ‘liquid biopsy’ to track disease and the effectiveness of interventions. Recently, we have further demonstrated the potential for EV derived biomarkers to account for variability in drug exposure. This study sought to evaluate the variability in abundance and cargo of global and liver-specific circulating sEV, within (diurnal) and between individuals in a cohort of healthy subjects (n = 10). We present normal ranges for EV concentration and size and expression of generic EV protein markers and the liver-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1) in samples collected in the morning and afternoon. EV abundance and cargo was generally not affected by fasting, except CD9 which exhibited a statistically significant increase (p = 0.018). Diurnal variability was observed in the expression of CD81 and ASGR1, which significantly decreased (p = 0.011) and increased (p = 0.009), respectively. These results have potential implications for study sampling protocols and normalisation of biomarker data when considering the expression of sEV derived cargo as a biomarker strategy. Specifically, the novel finding that liver-specific EVs exhibit diurnal variability in healthy subjects should have broad implications in the study of drug metabolism and development of minimally invasive biomarkers for liver disease.
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2021
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Importance of extracellular vesicle secretion at the blood–cerebrospinal fluid interface in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
Increasing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported that the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interface, formed by the choroid plexus epithelial (CPE) cells, releases an increased amount of EVs into the CSF in response to peripheral inflammation. Here, we studied the importance of CP-mediated EV release in AD pathogenesis. We observed increased EV levels in the CSF of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice which correlated with high amyloid beta (Aβ) CSF levels at this age. The intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ oligomers (AβO) in wild-type mice revealed a significant increase of EVs in the CSF, signifying that the presence of CSF-AβO is sufficient to induce increased EV secretion. Using in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we identified the CP as a major source of the CSF-EVs. Interestingly, AβO-induced, CP-derived EVs induced pro-inflammatory effects in mixed cortical cultures. Proteome analysis of these EVs revealed the presence of several pro-inflammatory proteins, including the complement protein C3. Strikingly, inhibition of EV production using GW4869 resulted in protection against acute AβO-induced cognitive decline. Further research into the underlying mechanisms of this EV secretion might open up novel therapeutic strategies to impact the pathogenesis and progression of AD.
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2021
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Internalization and Trafficking of CSPG-Bound Recombinant VAR2CSA Lectins in Cancer Cells
Proteoglycans are proteins that are modified with glycosaminoglycan chains. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are currently being exploited as targets for drug-delivery in various cancer indications, however basic knowledge on how CSPGs are internalized in tumor cells is lacking. In this study we took advantage of a recombinant CSPG-binding lectin VAR2CSA (rVAR2) to track internalization and cell fate of CSPGs in tumor cells. We found that rVAR2 is internalized into cancer cells via multiple internalization mechanisms after initial docking on cell surface CSPGs. Regardless of the internalization pathway used, CSPG-bound rVAR2 was trafficked to the early endosomes in an energy-dependent manner but not further transported to the lysosomal compartment. Instead, internalized CSPG-bound rVAR2 proteins were secreted with exosomes to the extracellular environment in a strictly chondroitin sulfate-dependent manner. In summary, our work describes the cell fate of rVAR2 proteins in tumor cells after initial binding to CSPGs, which can be further used to inform development of rVAR2-drug conjugates and other therapeutics targeting CSPGs.
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2021
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Investigating The Role Of Extracellular Vesicles And MicroRNA-155 In Cerebrovascular Function In Inflammation
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is an early feature of several central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and is characterised by increased leukocyte migration to the CNS and increased paracellular permeability of brain endothelial cells (BECs). The mechanisms by which the BBB actively participates in the inflammatory events that contribute to the progression of many CNS diseases is still poorly understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Endothelial cell-derived EVs are upregulated in circulating blood in different pathologies (e.g. multiple sclerosis) and systemic inflammation. TNFα-stimulated BECs secrete a higher number of EVs, which carry a pro-inflammatory cargo. However, the role of cerebrovascular EVs modulating inflammation at the BBB is still unclear. In this project, EVs secreted from BECs were characterised based on number, size and RNA cargo. Indeed, BECs secreted higher number of EVs in inflammation that carried pro-inflammatory modulators (e.g. miRNA-155). Uptake of EVs by NVU cells and their role in BEC function was investigated. Interestingly, EVs decreased transendothelial resistance and increased T cell adhesion to BECs via up-regulation of adhesion molecules. TNFα/IFNγ–mediated BECs dysfunction is partially modulated by miRNA-155. However, the mechanism by which miRNA-155 modulates T cell adhesion remains to be elucidated. WNK1 was identified as possible target of miRNA-155 and shown to modulate T cell adhesion. Finally, unexpected increased polydipsia in female aged miRNA-155 knock-out mice was investigated but this unexpected phenotype was attributed to a miRNA-155-independent pathway. Results from this work constitute the first evidence that BEC-derived EVs modulate BBB function in inflammation, which is likely to be a mechanism of the cells to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling in the vasculature. Additionally, this work has demonstrated endothelial WNK1 as a modulator of T cell adhesion. Genotyping tissue from miRNA-155 KO mice will serve for future identification of novel modulators of water balance.
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2021
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Isolation and characterization of equine uterine extracellular vesicles: a comparative methodological study
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified in the uterine fluid in different species and have been pointed as key players in the embryo-maternal dialogue, maternal recognition of pregnancy and establishment of pregnancy. However, little is known about the uterine EVs in the mare. Therefore, the present study aimed at characterizing EVs from uterine lavage of cyclic mares by comparing five EVs isolation methods and the combination of them: (1) ultracentrifugation (UC); (2) concentration of lavage volume by Centricon ultrafiltration (CE); (3) the use of CE with different washing steps (phosphate-buffered saline with or without trehalose); (4) size-exclusion chromatography with iZON-qEV columns, and (5) a combination of the methods with best results based on EVs yield, purity, and protein cargo profiles. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting confirmed the isolation of EVs by all methods but with quantitative and qualitative differences. Mass spectrometry provided differences in protein profiles between methods, number of identified proteins, and protein classes. Our results indicate that the combination of CE/trehalose/iZON/UC is an optimal method to isolate equine uterine EVs with good yield and purity that can be applied in future studies to determine the role of equine uterine EVs in embryo-maternal interactions.
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2021
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Isolation methodology is essential to the evaluation of the extracellular vesicle component of the senescence‐associated secretory phenotype
A hallmark of senescence is the acquisition of an enhanced secretome comprising inflammatory mediators and tissue remodelling agents – the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Through the SASP, senescent cells are hypothesised to contribute to both ageing and pathologies associated with age. Whilst soluble factors have been the most widely investigated components of the SASP, there is growing evidence that small extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise functionally important constituents. Thus, dissecting the contribution of the soluble SASP from the vesicular component is crucial to elucidating the functional significance of senescent cell derived EVs. Here, we take advantage of a systematic proteomics based approach to determine that soluble SASP factors co-isolate with EVs following differential ultracentrifugation (dUC). We present size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a method for separation of the soluble and vesicular components of the senescent secretome and thus EV purification. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SEC EVs isolated from senescent cells contribute to non-cell autonomous paracrine senescence. Therefore, this work emphasises the requirement for methodological rigor due to the propensity of SASP components to co-isolate during dUC and provides a framework for future investigations of the vesicular component of the SASP.
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2021
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Isolation of cabbage exosome-like nanovesicles and investigation of their biological activities in human cells
There are extensive studies on the applications of extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced in cell culture for therapeutic drug development. However, large quantities of EVs are needed for in vivo applications, which requires high production costs and time. Thus, the development of new EV sources is essential to facilitate their use. Accordingly, plant-derived exosome-like nanovesicles are an emerging alternative for culture-derived EVs. Until now, however, few studies have explored their biological functions and uses. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate biological activities of plant-derived exosome-like nanovesicles and harness vesicles for biomedical applications. Herein, cabbage and red cabbage were used as nanovesicle sources owing to their easy cultivation. First, an efficient method for nanovesicle isolation from cabbage (Cabex) and red cabbage (Rabex) was developed. Furthermore, isolated nanovesicles were characterized, and their biological functions were assessed. Both Cabex and Rabex promoted mammalian cell proliferation and, interestingly, suppressed inflammation in immune cells and apoptosis in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Finally, therapeutic drugs were encapsulated in Cabex or Rabex and successfully delivered to human cells, demonstrating the potential of these vesicles as alternative drug delivery vehicles. Overall, the current results provide strong evidence for the wide application of Cabex and Rabex as novel therapeutic biomaterials.
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2021
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Isolation of extracellular vesicles with combined enrichment methods
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are currently of tremendous interest in many research disciplines and EVs have potential for development of EV diagnostics or therapeutics. Most well-known single EV isolation methods have their particular advantages and disadvantages in terms of EV purity and EV yield. Combining EV isolation methods provides additional potential to improve the efficacy of both purity and yield. This review assesses the contribution and efficacy of using combined EV isolation methods by performing a two-step systematic literature analysis from all papers applying EV isolation in the year 2019. This resulted in an overview of the various methods being applied for EV isolations. A second database was generated for all studies within the first database that fairly compared multiple EV isolation methods by determining both EV purity and EV yield after isolation. From these databases it is shown that the most used EV isolation methods are not per definition the best methods based on EV purity or EV yield, indicating that more factors play a role in the choice which EV isolation method to choose than only the efficacy of the method. From the included studies it is shown that ~60% of all the included EV isolations were performed with combined EV isolation methods. The majority of EV isolations were performed with differential ultracentrifugation alone or in combination with differential ultrafiltration. When efficacy of EV isolation methods was determined in terms of EV purity and EV yield, combined EV isolation methods clearly outperformed single EV isolation methods, regardless of the type of starting material used. A recommended starting point would be the use of size-exclusion chromatography since this method, especially when combined with low-speed centrifugation, resulted in the highest EV purity, while still providing a reasonable EV yield.
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2021
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Isolation of intact extracellular vesicles from cryopreserved samples
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as promising candidates in biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Protected by the lipid bilayer, the molecular content of EVs in diverse biofluids are protected from RNases and proteases in the surrounding environment that may rapidly degrade targets of interests. Nonetheless, cryopreservation of EV-containing samples to -80°C may expose the lipid bilayer to physical and biological stressors which may result in cryoinjury and contribute to changes in EV yield, function, or molecular cargo. In the present work, we systematically evaluate the effect of cryopreservation at -80°C for a relatively short duration of storage (up to 12 days) on plasma- and media-derived EV particle count and/or RNA yield/quality, as compared to paired fresh controls. On average, we found that the plasma-derived EV concentration of stored samples decreased to 23% of fresh samples. Further, this significant decrease in EV particle count was matched with a corresponding significant decrease in RNA yield whereby plasma-derived stored samples contained only 47–52% of the total RNA from fresh samples, depending on the extraction method used. Similarly, media-derived EVs showed a statistically significant decrease in RNA yield whereby stored samples were 58% of the total RNA from fresh samples. In contrast, we did not obtain clear evidence of decreased RNA quality through analysis of RNA traces. These results suggest that samples stored for up to 12 days can indeed produce high-quality RNA; however, we note that when directly comparing fresh versus cryopreserved samples without cryoprotective agents there are significant losses in total RNA. Finally, we demonstrate that the addition of the commonly used cryoprotectant agent, DMSO, alongside greater control of the rate of cooling/warming, can rescue EVs from damaging ice formation and improve RNA yield.
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2021
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Isolation, Extraction and Deep-Sequencing Analysis of Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) from Human Plasma
Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) are secreted by nearly all cell types and are now known to play multiple physiological roles. Human plasma, a readily available sample for biomedical analysis, was reported to contain various subpopulations of exRNA, some of which are most likely components of plasma ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), while others are encapsulated into extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different size, origin, and composition. Unbiased analysis of exRNA composition can be performed with prefractionation of plasma exRNA followed by library preparation, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. In addition to “mature,” adaptor ligation-competent RNA species (5′-P/3′-OH), human plasma contains a substantial proportion of degraded RNA fragments, featuring 5′-OH/3′-P or cyclophosphate extremities, which can be made competent for ligation using appropriate treatment. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based precipitation kits for EV isolation yield a fraction that is highly contaminated by large RNPs and EV-associated RNAs. Purer EV preparations are obtained by using Proteinase K and RNase A treatment, as well as by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC).
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2021
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Measuring particle concentration of multimodal synthetic reference materials and extracellular vesicles with orthogonal techniques: Who is up to the challenge?
The measurement of physicochemical properties of polydisperse complex biological samples, for example, extracellular vesicles, is critical to assess their quality, for example, resulting from their production and isolation methods. The community is gradually becoming aware of the need to combine multiple orthogonal techniques to perform a robust characterization of complex biological samples. Three pillars of critical quality attribute characterization of EVs are sizing, concentration measurement and phenotyping. The repeatable measurement of vesicle concentration is one of the key‐challenges that requires further efforts, in order to obtain comparable results by using different techniques and assure reproducibility. In this study, the performance of measuring the concentration of particles in the size range of 50–300 nm with complementary techniques is thoroughly investigated in a step‐by step approach of incremental complexity. The six applied techniques include multi‐angle dynamic light scattering (MADLS), asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with multi‐angle light scattering (AF4‐MALS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), and high‐sensitivity nano flow cytometry (nFCM). To achieve comparability, monomodal samples and complex polystyrene mixtures were used as particles of metrological interest, in order to check the suitability of each technique in the size and concentration range of interest, and to develop reliable post‐processing data protocols for the analysis. Subsequent complexity was introduced by testing liposomes as validation of the developed approaches with a known sample of physicochemical properties closer to EVs. Finally, the vesicles in EV containing plasma samples were analysed with all the tested techniques. The results presented here aim to shed some light into the requirements for the complex characterization of biological samples, as this is a critical need for quality assurance by the EV and regulatory community. Such efforts go with the view to contribute to both, set‐up reproducible and reliable characterization protocols, and comply with the Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) requirements.
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2021
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Milk exosomes with enhanced mucus penetrability for oral delivery of siRNA
Bovine milk-derived exosomes have recently emerged as a promising nano-vehicle for the encapsulation and delivery of macromolecular biotherapeutics. Here we engineer high purity bovine milk exosomes (mExo) with modular surface tunability for oral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). We utilize a low-cost enrichment method combining casein chelation with differential ultracentrifugation followed by size exclusion chromatography, yielding mExo of high concentration and purity. Using in vitro models, we demonstrate that negatively charged hydrophobic mExos can penetrate multiple biological barriers to oral drug delivery. A hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating was introduced on the mExo surface via passive, stable hydrophobic insertion of a conjugated lipid tail, which significantly reduced mExo degradation in acidic gastric environment and enhanced their permeability through mucin by over 3× compared to unmodified mExo. Both mExo and PEG-mExo exhibited high uptake by intestinal epithelial cells and mediated functional intracellular delivery of siRNA, thereby suppressing the expression of the target green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene by up to 70%. We also show that cationic chemical transfection is significantly more efficient in loading siRNA into mExo than electroporation. The simplicity of isolating high purity mExo in high concentrations and equipping them with tunable surface properties, demonstrated here, paves way for the development of mExo as an effective, scalable platform technology for oral drug delivery of siRNA.
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2021
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miR-212/132-Enriched Extracellular Vesicles Promote Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Pancreatic Beta Cells
Pancreatic beta cell transplantation is the ideal method for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and the generation of beta cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of patients is a promising strategy. In this study, we improved a previous strategy to produce beta cells using extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mature beta cells and differentiated beta cells from iPSCs (i-Beta cells), which secreted insulin under glucose stimulation in vitro and ameliorated hyperglycemia in vivo. Mechanistic analyses revealed that EV-carried microRNA (miR)-212/132 (EV-miR-212/132) directly bound to the 3′ UTR of FBW7 to prevent its translation and FBW7 combined with NGN3 to accelerate its proteasomal degradation. EV-miR-212/132 stabilized NGN3 expression to promote differentiation of endocrine cells from induced iPSCs. Moreover, NGN3 bound to PDX1 to enhance transcription of endogenous miR-212/132 and formed a positive regulatory circuit that maintained the functions of mature pancreatic beta cells. Conclusion: This study describes a novel approach for beta cell production and supports the use of iPSCs for cell replacement therapy of T1DM.
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2021
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Modulation of rumen microbes through extracellular vesicle released by the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi
Parasite derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed to play key roles in the establishment and maintenance of infection. Calicophoron daubneyi is a newly emerging parasite of livestock with many aspects of its underpinning biology yet to be resolved. This research is the first in-depth investigation of EVs released by adult C. daubneyi. EVs were successfully isolated using both differential centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and morphologically characterized though transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EV protein components were characterized using a GeLC approach allowing the elucidation of comprehensive proteomic profiles for both their soluble protein cargo and surface membrane bound proteins yielding a total of 378 soluble proteins identified. Notably, EVs contained Sigma-class GST and cathepsin L and B proteases, which have previously been described in immune modulation and successful establishment of parasitic flatworm infections. SEC purified C. daubneyi EVs were observed to modulate rumen bacterial populations by likely increasing microbial species diversity via antimicrobial activity. This data indicates EVs released from adult C. daubneyi have a role in establishment within the rumen through the regulation of microbial populations offering new routes to control rumen fluke infection and to develop molecular strategies to improve rumen efficiency.
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2021
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ev nm
Brain Tissue-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Mediated Therapy in the Neonatal Ischemic Brain
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) in the brain is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and can lead to irreparable tissue damage and cognition. Thus, investigating key mediators of the HI response to identify points of therapeutic intervention has significant clinical potential. Brain repair after HI requires highly coordinated injury responses mediated by cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Studies show that stem cell-derived EVs attenuate the injury response in ischemic models by releasing neuroprotective, neurogenic, and anti-inflammatory factors. In contrast to 2D cell cultures, we successfully isolated and characterized EVs from whole brain rat tissue (BEV) to study the therapeutic potential of endogenous EVs. We showed that BEVs decrease cytotoxicity in an ex vivo oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) brain slice model of HI in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The minimum therapeutic dosage was determined to be 25 g BEVs with a therapeutic application time window of 4–24 h post-injury. At this therapeutic dosage, BEV treatment increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The morphology of microglia was also observed to shift from an amoeboid, inflammatory phenotype to a restorative, anti-inflammatory phenotype between 24–48 h of BEV exposure after OGD injury, indicating a shift in phenotype following BEV treatment. These results demonstrate the use of OWH brain slices to facilitate understanding of BEV activity and therapeutic potential in complex brain pathologies for treating neurological injury in neonates.
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2022
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Engineering pro-angiogenic biomaterials via chemoselective extracellular vesicle immobilization
Nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a unique cellular derivative that reflect the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward tissue engineering and injury repair without the logistical and safety concerns of utilizing living cells. However, upon systemic administration in vivo,EVs undergo rapid clearance and typically lack controlled targeted delivery, thus reducing their effectiveness in therapeutic regenerative therapies. Here, we describe a strategy that enables long-term in vivo spatial EV retention by chemoselective immobilization of metabolically incoporated azido ligand-bearing EVs (azido-EVs) within a dibenzocyclooctyne-modified collagen hydrogel. MSC-derived azido-EVs exhibit comparable morphological and functional properties as their non-labeled EV counterparts and, when immobilized within collagen hydrogel implants via click chemistry, they elicited more robust host cell infiltration, angiogenic and immunoregulatory responses including vascular ingrowth and macrophage recruitment compared to ten times the higher dose required by non-immobilized EVs. We envision this technology will enable a wide range of applications to spatially promote vascularization and host integration relevant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
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2022
Comparison of Submicron Particle Counting Methods with a Heat Stressed Monoclonal Antibody: Effect of Electrolytes and Implications on Sample Preparation
Within this study, the performance and limitations of tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) was evaluated to characterize submicron particles in unstressed and heat stressed monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. These were compared with microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), resonant mass measurement (RMM), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). For TRPS and MRPS measurements, an adjustment of ionic strength was required to achieve suitable measurement conditions. The addition of electrolytes is potentially critical for protein formulations and therefore the effect of salt concentration and pH on submicron particle levels was further investigated. Heat stress caused a sharp increase in particle levels between 250-900 nm, observable by all four techniques. Due to reduced colloidal stability, indicated by increased attractive forces and reduced aggregation onset temperatures in the presence of sodium chloride, protein aggregation was observed in heat stressed mAb only after the addition of sodium chloride. Achieving adequate ionic strength by replacing sodium chloride with other electrolytes similarly resulted in reduced colloidal stability and protein aggregation. It is recommended that protein samples prone for aggregation in the presence of high ionic strength should not be analyzed by RPS measurements after the addition of electrolytes. However, protein samples containing already required ionic strength can be analyzed by any of the four techniques.
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2022
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A new transgene mouse model using an extravesicular EGFP tag enables affinity isolation of cell-specific extracellular vesicles
The in vivo function of cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenging to establish since cell-specific EVs are difficult to isolate and differentiate. We, therefore, created an EV reporter using truncated CD9 to display enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on the EV surface. CD9truc-EGFP expression in cells did not affect EV size and concentration but enabled co-precipitation of EV markers TSG101 and ALIX from the cell-conditioned medium by anti-GFP immunoprecipitation. We then created a transgenic mouse where CD9truc-EGFP was inserted in the inverse orientation and double-floxed, ensuring irreversible Cre recombinase-dependent EV reporter expression. We crossed the EV reporter mice with mice expressing Cre ubiquitously (CMV-Cre), in cardiomyocytes (αMHC-MerCreMer) and renal tubular epithelial cells (Pax8-Cre), respectively. The CD9truc-EGFP positive mice showed Cre-dependent EGFP expression, and plasma CD9truc-EGFP EVs were immunoprecipitated only from CD9truc-EGFP positive CD9truc-EGFPxCMV-Cre and CD9truc-EGFPxαMHC-Cre mice, but not in CD9truc-EGFPxPax8-Cre and CD9truc-EGFP negative mice. In urine samples, CD9truc-EGFP EVs were detected by immunoprecipitation only in CD9truc-EGFP positive CD9truc-EGFPxCMV-Cre and CD9truc-EGFPxPax8-Cre mice, but not CD9truc-EGFPxαMHC-Cre and CD9truc-EGFP negative mice. In conclusion, our EV reporter mouse model enables Cre-dependent EV labeling, providing a new approach to studying cell-specific EVs in vivo and gaining a unique insight into their physiological and pathophysiological function.
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2022
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Characterization of surface markers on extracellular vesicles isolated from lymphatic exudate from patients with breast cancer
Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among females world-wide. Recent research suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in the development of breast cancer metastasis. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in patients with known lymph node metastases, and after surgery large amounts of serous fluid are produced from the axilla. The overall aim was to isolate and characterize EVs from axillary serous fluid, and more specifically to determine if potential breast cancer biomarkers could be identified. Methods Lymphatic drain fluid was collected from 7 patients with breast cancer the day after ALND. EVs were isolated using size exclusion chromatography, quantified and detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, nano flow cytometry and western blot. The expression of 37 EV surface proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry using the MACSPlex Exosome kit. Results Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved after surgery from all 7 patients contained EVs. The isolated EVs were positive for the typical EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81 and Flotillin-1 while albumin was absent, indicating low contamination from blood proteins. In total, 24 different EV surface proteins were detected. Eleven of those proteins were detected in all patients, including the common EV markers CD9, CD63 and CD81, cancer-related markers CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, platelet markers CD41b, CD42a and CD62p as well as HLA-DR/DP/DQ. Furthermore, CD29 and CD146 were enriched in Her2+ patients compared to patients with Her2- tumors. Conclusions Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved from breast cancer patients after surgery contains EVs that can be isolated using SEC isolation. The EVs have several cancer-related markers including CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, proteins of potential interest as biomarkers as well as to increase the understanding of the mechanisms of cancer biology.
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2022
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Blood-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Associated miR-3182 Detects Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
With five-year survival rates as low as 3%, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The severity of the disease at presentation is accredited to the lack of early detection capacities, resulting in the reliance on low-throughput diagnostic measures, such as tissue biopsy and imaging. Interest in the development and use of liquid biopsies has risen, due to non-invasive sample collection, and the depth of information it can provide on a disease. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) as viable liquid biopsies are of particular interest due to their potential as cancer biomarkers. To validate the use of sEVs as cancer biomarkers, we characterised cancer sEVs using miRNA sequencing analysis. We found that miRNA-3182 was highly enriched in sEVs derived from the blood of patients with invasive breast carcinoma and NSCLC. The enrichment of sEV miR-3182 was confirmed in oncogenic, transformed lung cells in comparison to isogenic, untransformed lung cells. Most importantly, miR-3182 can successfully distinguish early-stage NSCLC patients from those with benign lung conditions. Therefore, miR-3182 provides potential to be used for the detection of NSCLC in blood samples, which could result in earlier therapy and thus improved outcomes and survival for patients.
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Bone Marrow in an Early Stage of Ionizing Radiation Damage Are Able to Induce Bystander Responses in the Bone Marrow
Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced bystander effects contribute to biological responses to radiation, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in mediating these effects. In this study we investigated the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived EVs in the bystander transfer of radiation damage. Mice were irradiated with 0.1Gy, 0.25Gy and 2Gy, EVs were extracted from the BM supernatant 24 h or 3 months after irradiation and injected into bystander mice. Acute effects on directly irradiated or EV-treated mice were investigated after 4 and 24 h, while late effects were investigated 3 months after treatment. The acute effects of EVs on the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell pools were similar to direct irradiation effects and persisted for up to 3 months, with the hematopoietic stem cells showing the strongest bystander responses. EVs isolated 3 months after irradiation elicited no bystander responses. The level of seven microRNAs (miR-33a-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-152-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-200c-5p, miR-375-3p and miR-669o-5p) was altered in the EVs isolated 24 hour but not 3 months after irradiation. They regulated pathways highly relevant for the cellular response to IR, indicating their role in EV-mediated bystander responses. In conclusion, we showed that only EVs from an early stage of radiation damage could transmit IR-induced bystander effects.
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2022
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P2RX7 inhibition reduces breast cancer induced osteolytic lesions-implications for bone metastasis
Breast cancer metastasis to bone is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients and remains an unmet clinical need. Purinergic signalling via the P2X7 receptor (P2RX7) in the primary tumour microenvironment is associated with progression of several cancers. It has also now become evident that intra-tumoural hypoxia facilitates cancer metastasis and reduces patient survival. In this study, we present data suggesting that hypoxia regulates the expression of P2RX7 in the primary tumour microenvironment; and importantly, inhibition with a selective antagonist (10mg/kg A740003) increased cancer cell death via apoptosis in a E0771/C57BL-6J syngeneic murine model. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography demonstrated reduced number of osteolytic lesions and lesion area following P2RX7 inhibition in absence of overt metastases by decreasing osteoclast numbers. We also demonstrate that activation of P2RX7 plays a role in the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from breast cancer cells. Mass-spectrometric analyses showed a distinct protein signature for EVs derived from hypoxic compared with normoxic cancer cells which elicit specific responses in bone cells that are associated with pre-metastatic niche formation. Thus, inhibiting P2RX7 provides a novel opportunity to preferentially target the hypoxic breast cancer cells preventing tumour progression and subsequent metastasis to bone
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2022
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Cholangiocyte-Derived Exosomal Long Noncoding RNA PICALM-AU1 Promotes Pulmonary Endothelial Cell EndMT in Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
Background: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an important clinical problem with limited understanding of disease pathologies. Exosome mediated cell-cell communication can modulate various cellular functions by transferring a variety of intracellular components to target cells. A new lncRNA PICALM-AU1 was found and upregulated in the liver of subjects with HPS. However, the expression and biological functions of the lncRNA PICALM-AU1 are still unknown. Methods: HPS rat model was constructed by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). RNA macroarray was used to analyze the expression differential lncRNAs in HPS rat liver. PICALM-AU1 expression in the serum exosome was measured in 56 HPS patients and in 73 patients with liver cirrhosis but not HPS. qPCR, Fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to analyze PICALM-AU1 expression and location. Virus derived PICALM-AU1 upregulation and down regulation were applied in rats and PMVECs cells. The effects of PICALM-AU1 on PMVECs was determined via CCK8 assay and transwell assay. PICALM-AU1 and miR144-3p relationship was analysis by Dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results: In this study, we found lncRNA PICALM-AU1 expressed in the cholangiocyte of liver, secreted as exosome into the serum. PICALM-AU1 carrying serum exosomes induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of PMVECs and promoted lung injury. Furthermore, overexpression of PICALM-AU1 significantly suppressed miR144-3p and subsequently induced ZEB1 expression. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings present a road map of targeting the newly identified cholangiocyte-derived exosomal lncRNA PICALM-AU1 plays a critical role in the pathologic angiogenesis of HPS by promoting EndMT and represents a potential therapeutic target for HPS.
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2021
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CD24 and IgM Stimulation of B Cells Triggers Transfer of Functional B Cell Receptor to B Cell Recipients Via Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated nanoparticles that carry bioactive cargo, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Once taken up by target cells, EVs can modify the physiology of the recipient cells. In past studies, we reported that engagement of the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor CD24 on B lymphocytes (B cells) causes the release of EVs. However, a potential function for these EVs was not clear. Thus, we investigated whether EVs derived from CD24 or IgM-stimulated donor WEHI-231 murine B cells can transfer functional cargo to recipient cells. We employed a model system where donor cells expressing palmitoylated GFP (WEHI-231-GFP) were cocultured, after stimulation, with recipient cells lacking either IgM (WEHI-303 murine B cells) or CD24 (CD24 knockout mouse bone marrow B cells). Uptake of lipid-associated GFP, IgM, or CD24 by labeled recipient cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that stimulation of either CD24 or IgM on the donor cells caused the transfer of lipids, CD24, and IgM to recipient cells. Importantly, we found that the transferred receptors are functional in recipient cells, thus endowing recipient cells with a second BCR or sensitivity to anti-CD24-induced apoptosis. In the case of the BCR, we found that EVs were conclusively involved in this transfer, whereas in the case in the CD24 the involvement of EVs is suggested. Overall, these data show that extracellular signals received by one cell can change the sensitivity of neighboring cells to the same or different stimuli, which may impact B cell development or activation.
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2021
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The impact of storage on extracellular vesicles: A systematic study
Mounting evidence suggests that storage has an impact on extracellular vesicles (EVs) properties. While −80◦C storage is a widespread approach, some authors proposed improved storage strategies with conflicting results. Here, we designed a systematic study to assess the impact of −80◦C storage and freeze-thaw cycles on EVs. We tested the differences among eight storage strategies and investigated the possible fusion phenomena occurring during storage. EVs were collected from human plasma and murine microglia culture by size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation, respectively. The analysis included: concentration, size and zeta potential (tunable resistive pulse sensing), contaminant protein assessment; flow cytometry for the analysis of two single fluorescent-tagged EVs populations (GFP and mCherry), mixed before preservation. We found that −80◦C storage reduces EVs concentration and sample purity in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, it increases the particle size and size variability and modifies EVs zeta potential, with a shift of EVs in sizecharge plots. None of the tested conditions prevented the observed effects. Freezethaw cycles lead to an EVs reduction after the first cycle and to a cycle-dependent increase in particle size. With flow cytometry, after storage, we observed a significant population of double-positive EVs (GFP+-mCherry+). This observation may suggest the occurrence of fusion phenomena during storage. Our findings show a significant impact of storage on EVs samples in terms of particle loss, purity reduction and fusion phenomena leading to artefactual particles. Depending on downstream analyses and experimental settings, EVs should probably be processed from fresh, non-archival, samples in majority of cases.
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2021
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Engineered nanomaterials: the challenges and opportunities for nanomedicines
The emergence of nanotechnology as a key enabling technology over the past years has opened avenues for new and innovative applications in nanomedicine. From the business aspect, the nanomedicine market was estimated to worth USD 293.1 billion by 2022 with a perception of market growth to USD 350.8 billion in 2025. Despite these opportunities, the underlying challenges for the future of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in nanomedicine research became a significant obstacle in bringing ENMs into clinical stages. These challenges include the capability to design bias-free methods in evaluating ENMs’ toxicity due to the lack of suitable detection and inconsistent characterization techniques. Therefore, in this literature review, the state-of-the-art of engineered nanomaterials in nanomedicine, their toxicology issues, the working framework in developing a toxicology benchmark and technical characterization techniques in determining the toxicity of ENMs from the reported literature are explored. Keywords: engineered nanomaterials, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, particle tracking analysis, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, Taylor dispersion analysis
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2021
ev nm vr
Enhancing the Stabilization Potential of Lyophilization for Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are an emerging technology as immune therapeutics and drug delivery vehicles. However, EVs are usually stored at −80 °C which limits potential clinical applicability. Freeze-drying of EVs striving for long-term stable formulations is therefore studied. The most appropriate formulation parameters are identified in freeze-thawing studies with two different EV types. After a freeze-drying feasibility study, four lyophilized EV formulations are tested for storage stability for up to 6 months. Freeze-thawing studies revealed improved colloidal EV stability in presence of sucrose or potassium phosphate buffer instead of sodium phosphate buffer or phosphate-buffered saline. Less aggregation and/or vesicle fusion occurred at neutral pH compared to slightly acidic or alkaline pH. EVs colloidal stability can be most effectively preserved by addition of low amounts of poloxamer 188. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone failed to preserve EVs upon freeze-drying. Particle size and concentration of EVs are retained over 6 months at 40 °C in lyophilizates containing 10 mm K- or Na-phosphate buffer, 0.02% poloxamer 188, and 5% sucrose. The biological activity of associated beta-glucuronidase is maintained for 1 month, but decreased after 6 months. Here optimized parameters for lyophilization of EVs that contribute to generate long-term stable EV formulations are presented.
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2021
ev nm
Engineered EVs for Oxidative Stress Protection
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly studied as vectors for drug delivery because they can transfer a variety of molecules across biological barriers. SerpinB3 is a serine protease inhibitor that has shown a protective anti-apoptotic function in a variety of stressful conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate protection from oxidative stress-induced damage, using extracellular vesicles that overexpress SerpinB3 (EVs-SB3) in order to enhance the effect of extracellular vesicles on cellular homeostasis. EVs-SB3s were obtained from HepG2 cells engineered to overexpress SerpinB3 and they revealed significant proteomic changes, mostly characterized by a reduced expression of other proteins compared with EVs from non-engineered cells. These EV preparations showed a significantly higher protection from H2O2 induced oxidative stress in both the hepatoma cell line and in primary cardiomyocytes, compared to cells treated with naïve EVs or SerpinB3 alone, used at the same concentration. In conclusion, the induction of SerpinB3 transgene expression results in the secretion of EVs enriched with the protein product that exhibits enhanced cytoprotective activity, compared with naïve EVs or the nude SerpinB3 protein.
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2021
vr nm
A SARS-CoV-2 targeted siRNA-nanoparticle therapy for COVID-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in humans. Despite several emerging vaccines, there remains no verifiable therapeutic targeted specifically to the virus. Here we present a highly effective small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2 infection using a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery system. Multiple siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the SARS-CoV2 virus were screened, and three candidate siRNAs emerged that effectively inhibit the virus by greater than 90% either alone or in combination with one another. We simultaneously developed and screened two novel LNP formulations for the delivery of these candidate siRNA therapeutics to the lungs, an organ that incurs immense damage during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Encapsulation of siRNAs in these LNPs followed by in vivo injection demonstrated robust repression of virus in the lungs and a pronounced survival advantage to the treated mice. Our LNP-siRNA approaches are scalable and can be administered upon the first sign of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. We suggest that an siRNA-LNP therapeutic approach could prove highly useful in treating COVID-19 disease as an adjunctive therapy to current vaccine strategies.
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2021
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Effects of Solidification Conditions on Grain Refinement Capacity of TiC in Directionally Solidified Ti6Al4V Alloy
In this study, the effects of solidification conditions on the grain refinement capacity of heterogeneous nuclei TiC in directionally solidified Ti6Al4V alloy were investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. Ti6Al4V powder with and without TiC particles in a Ti6Al4V sheath was melted and directionally solidified at various solidification rates via the floating zone melting method. In addition, by using the phase field method, the microstructural evolution of directionally solidified Ti6Al4V was simulated by varying the temperature gradient G and solidification rate V. As the solidification rate increased, the increment of the prior β grain number by TiC addition also increased. There are two reasons for this: first, the amount of residual potent heterogeneous nuclei TiC is larger. Second, the amount of TiC particles that can nucleate becomes larger. This is because increasing the constitutional undercooling ΔTc leads to the activation of a smaller radius of heterogeneous nuclei and a higher nucleation probability from each radius. At a cooling rate R higher than that in the floating zone melting experiment (R = 3 to 1000 K/s), the maximum degree of constitutional undercooling ΔTc,Max has a peak value, which suggests that constitutional undercooling ΔTc has a smaller contribution at higher cooling rates, such as those that occur during electron beam melting (EBM), including laser powder bed fusion (LPBF).
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2021
ev nm vr
Emerging technologies and commercial products in Exosome-Based Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis
Academic and industrial groups worldwide have reported technological advances in exosome-based cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the potential translation of these emerging technologies for research and clinical settings remains unknown. This work overviews the role of exosomes in cancer diagnosis and prognosis, followed by a survey on emerging exosome technologies, particularly microfluidic advances for the isolation and detection of exosomes in cancer research. The advantages and drawbacks of each of the technologies used for the isolation, detection and engineering of exosomes are evaluated to address their clinical challenges for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, commercial platforms for exosomal detection and analysis are introduced, and their performance and impact on cancer diagnosis and prognosis are assessed. Also, the risks associated with the further development of the next generation of exosome devices are discussed. The outcome of this work could facilitate recognizing deliverable Exo-devices and technologies with unprecedented functionality and predictable manufacturability for the next-generation of cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
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2021
ev
Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Therapeutic Application in Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Recently, many studies investigated the role of a specific type of stem cell named the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) in tissue regeneration and repair. EPCs represent a heterogeneous population of mononuclear cells resident in the adult bone marrow. EPCs can migrate and differentiate in injured sites or act in a paracrine way. Among the EPCs’ secretome, extracellular vesicles (EVs) gained relevance due to their possible use for cell-free biological therapy. They are more biocompatible, less immunogenic, and present a lower oncological risk compared to cell-based options. EVs can efficiently pass the pulmonary filter and deliver to target tissues different molecules, such as micro-RNA, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and non-coding RNAs. Their effects are often analogous to their cellular counterparts, and EPC-derived EVs have been tested in vitro and on animal models to treat several medical conditions, including ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, and acute kidney injury. EPC-derived EVs have also been studied for bone, brain, and lung regeneration and as carriers for drug delivery. This review will discuss the pre-clinical evidence regarding EPC-derived EVs in the different disease models and regenerative settings. Moreover, we will discuss the translation of their use into clinical practice and the possible limitations of this process.
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2021
ev vr
A magnetic bead-mediated selective adsorption strategy for extracellular vesicle separation and purification
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated particles with critical biomedical functions, including mediating intercellular communication, assisting tumor metastasis, and carrying protein and microRNA biomarkers. The downstream applications of EVs are greatly influenced by the quality of the isolated EVs. However, almost none of the separation methods can simultaneously achieve both high yield and high purity of the isolated EVs, thus making the isolation of EVs an essential challenge in EV research. Here, we developed a magnetic bead-mediated selective adsorption strategy (MagExo) for easy-to-operate EV isolation. Benefited from the presence of an adsorption window between EVs and proteins under the effect of a hydrophilic polymer, EVs tend to adsorb on the surface of magnetic beads selectively and can be separated from biological fluids with high purity by simple magnetic separation. The proposed method was used for EV isolation from plasma and cell culture media (CCM), with two times higher yield and comparable purity of the harvested EVs to that obtained by ultracentrifugation (UC). Downstream applications in proteomics analysis showed 86.6% (plasma) and 86.5% (CCM) of the analyzed proteins were matched with the ExoCarta database, which indicates MagExo indeed enriches EVs efficiently. Furthermore, we found the target RNA amount of the isolated EVs by MagExo were almost dozens and hundred times higher than the gold standard DG-UC and ultracentrifugation (UC) methods, respectively. All the results show that MagExo is a reliable, easy, and efficient approach to harvest EVs for a wide variety of downstream applications with minimized sample usage. Statement of Significance Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are presently attracting increasing interest among clinical and scientific researchers. Although the downstream applications of EVs are recognized to be greatly affected by the quality of the isolated EVs, almost none of the separation methods can simultaneously achieve high yield and high purity of the isolated EVs; this makes the isolation of EVs an essential challenge in EV research. In the present work, we proposed a simple and easy-to-operate method (MagExo) for the separation and purification of EVs based on the phenomenon that EVs can be selectively adsorbed on the surface of magnetic microspheres in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer. The performance of MagExo was comparable to or even better than that of gold standard methods and commercial kits, with two times higher yield and comparable purity of the harvested EVs to that achieved with ultracentrifugation (UC); this could meet the requirements of various EV-associated downstream applications. In addition, MagExo can be easily automated by commercial liquid workstations, thus significantly improving the isolation throughput and paving a new way in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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2021
ev nm
A method to study extracellular vesicles secreted in vitro by cultured cells with minimum sample processing and extracellular vesicle loss
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in a multitude of physiological functions and play important roles in health and disease. The study of EV secretion and EV characterization remains challenging due to the small size of these particles, a lack of universal EV markers, and sample loss or technical artifacts that are often associated with EV separation techniques. We developed a method for in-cell EV labeling with fluorescent lipids (DiI), followed by DiI-labelled EV characterization in the conditioned medium by imaging flow cytometry (IFC). Direct IFC analysis of EVs in the conditioned medium, after removal of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris, significantly reduces sample processing and loss compared to established methods for EV separation, resulting in improved detection of quantitative changes in EV secretion and subpopulations compared to protocols that rely on EV separation by ultracentrifugation. In conclusion, our optimized protocol for EV labeling and analysis reduces EV sample processing and loss, and is well suited for cell biology studies that focus on modulation of EV secretion by cells in culture.
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2021
ev
A new transgene mouse model using an extravesicular EGFP tag to elucidate the in vivo function of extracellular vesicles
The in vivo function of cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenging to establish since cell-specific EVs are difficult to isolate. We therefore created an EV reporter using CD9 to display enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on the EV surface. CD9-EGFP expression in cells did not affect EV size and concentration, but allowed for co-precipitation of EV markers TSG101 and ALIX from cell-conditioned medium by anti-GFP immunoprecipitation. We created a transgenic mouse where CD9-EGFP was inserted in the inverse orientation and double-floxed, ensuring Cre recombinase-dependent EV reporter expression. We crossed the EV reporter mice with mice expressing Cre ubiquitously (CMV- Cre), in cardiomyocytes (AMHC-Cre) and kidney epithelium (Pax8-Cre), respectively. The mice showed tissue-specific EGFP expression, and plasma and urine samples were used to immunoprecipitate EVs. CD9-EGFP EVs was detected in plasma samples from CMV-Cre/CD9-EGFP and AMHC-Cre/CD9-EGFP mice, but not in PAX8-Cre/CD9-EGFP mice. On the other hand, CD9-EGFP EVs were detected in urine samples from CMV-Cre/CD9-EGFP and PAX8-Cre/CD9-EGFP mice, but not AMHC-Cre/CD9-EGFP, indicating that plasma EVs are not filtered to the urine. In conclusion, our EV reporter mouse model enables Cre-dependent EV labeling, providing a new approach to study cell-specific EVs in vivo and gain new insight into their physiological and pathophysiological function.
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2021
ev
A novel protein signature from plasma extracellular vesicles for non-invasive differential diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology often leading to respiratory failure. Over half of IPF patients present with discordant features of usual interstitial pneumonia on high-resolution computed tomography at diagnosis which warrants surgical lung biopsy to exclude the possibility of other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Therefore, there is a need for non-invasive biomarkers for expediting the differential diagnosis of IPF. Methods Using mass spectrometry, we performed proteomic analysis of plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) in a cohort of subjects with IPF, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, and healthy subjects (HS). A five-protein signature was identified by lasso regression and was validated in an independent cohort using ELISA. We evaluated the concordance between plasma EV proteome and the lung transcriptome data. Lastly, we compared the molecular pathways overrepresented in IPF by differentially expressed proteins and transcripts from EVs and lung tissues, respectively. Results The five-protein signature derived from mass spectrometry data showed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.915 (95%CI: 0.819-1.011) and 0.958 (95%CI: 0.882-1.034) for differentiating IPF from other ILDs and from HS, respectively. We also found that the EV protein expression profiles mirrored their corresponding mRNA expressions in IPF lungs. Further, we observed an overlap in the EV proteome- and lung mRNA-associated molecular pathways. Conclusions We discovered a plasma EV-based protein signature for differential diagnosis of IPF and validated this signature in an independent cohort. The signature needs to be tested in large prospective cohorts to establish its clinical utility. Competing Interest Statement AKP is employed with Izon Science US Ltd. The company has no role in design of the study and acquisition of experimental data and interpretation. All other authors have no conflict of interests. Funding Statement This work was supported by UT System Rising STARs award and core funds from UTHSCT, Tyler, Texas, to NVK. DN received funding from NIH (R01 GM083122). Cryo-TEM is supported by Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas grant RR140082 to DN. Author Declarations I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained. Yes The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below: The study was approved by institutional review boards of University of Pittsburgh (IRB STUDY19040326 and STUDY20030223), Brigham and Womens hospital (IRB2012P000840), Hiroshima University (IRBM326) and University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler (IRB 20-019 & 0000370). All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived. Yes I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable. Yes
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2021
ev
A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles, which include exosomes, micro vesicles (MVs) and various-sized vesicles, released by healthy and diseased cells. EVs also include other vesicular structures, such as large apoptotic bodies (1–5 μm), as well as membrane particles (50–80 nm) originating from the plasma membrane. However, exosomes are nanosize (≈30–100 nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin that are bud-off by most types of cells and circulate in bodily fluids. Extracellular nanovesicles contain a large variety of biomolecules, including miRNA, RNA, DNA, proteins, signaling peptides and lipids, that can have diagnostic and therapeutic value. The spectrum of the existing scientific interest in extracellular nanovesicles is comprehensive, which ranges from understanding their functions and pathways to their potential clinical usage. EVs can be obtained from different body fluids with minimally invasive techniques (e.g., urine, plasma, serum), so they are most useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to the accurate diagnosis of various diseases, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause misinterpreted results. Over the last decade, a plethora of approaches have been developed for examining EVs using optical and non-optical tools. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Moreover, the isolation method that is most appropriate to maximize EVs recovery depends on the different experimental situations. This review explores the emerging use of micro and nano-technologies to isolate and characterize exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) from different biological samples, and the application of these technologies for the monitoring and diagnosis of different pathological conditions.
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2021
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A simple displacement aptamer assay on resistive pulse sensor for small molecule detection
A universal aptamer-based sensing strategy is proposed using DNA modified nanocarriers and Resistive Pulse Sensing (RPS) for the rapid (≤20 min) and label free detection of small molecules. The surface of a magnetic nanocarrier was first modified with a ssDNA (anchor) which is designed to be partially complimentary in sequence to the ssDNA aptamer. The aptamer and anchor form a stable dsDNA complex on the nanocarriers surface. Upon the addition of the target molecule, a conformational change takes place where the aptamer preferentially binds to the target over the anchor; causing the aptamer to be released into solution. The RPS measures the change in velocity of the nanocarrier as its surface changes from dsDNA to ssDNA, and its velocity is used as a proxy for the concentration of the target. The length of the aptamer and the ability to extract and preconcentrate the nanocarriers using a magnet, is shown to affect the sensitivity. We illustrate the versatility of the assay using the same anchor sequence and Aptamers to the antibiotic Moxifloxacin, and chemotherapeutics Imatinib and Irinotecan. In addition, the proposed assay can be easily extended to detect multiple analytes simultaneously, by utilizing nanocarriers with different diameters. Each sized particle is functionalised with a the same anchor but a unique aptamer. We illustrate this with the simultaneous detection of Imatinib and Moxifloxacin. The strategy could be easily adapted to a range of targets and unlike previous strategies that use aptamer modified nanocarriers, the signal is not dependent upon the tertiary structure of the aptamer-target interaction.
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2021
ev vr
Aberrant expression of a novel circular RNA in pancreatic cancer
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded, covalently closed RNA molecules that are produced from pre-mRNAs through a process known as back-splicing. Although circRNAs are expressed under specific conditions, current understanding of their comprehensive expression status is still limited. Here, we performed a large-scale circRNA profiling analysis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, using circular RNA-specific RNA sequencing. We identified more than 40,000 previously unknown circRNAs, some of which were upregulated in PDAC tissues, compared with normal pancreatic tissues. We determined the full-length sequence of a circRNA upregulated in PDAC, which was derived from two noncoding RNA loci on chromosome 12. The novel circRNA, named circPDAC RNA, was not expressed in normal human cells, but was expressed in PDAC and other carcinoma cells. While postulated biological functions, such as peptide production from the circPDAC RNA, were not detected, its aberrant expression was confirmed in other PDAC tissues and in serum from a PDAC patient. These results demonstrate that comprehensive studies are necessary to reveal the expression status of circRNAs and that the circPDAC RNA identified here might serve as a novel biomarker for cancers, including PDAC.
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2021
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Aberrant Membrane Structures in Hypervesiculating Escherichia coli Strain ΔmlaEΔnlpI Visualized by Electron Microscopy
Escherichia coli produces extracellular vesicles called outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by releasing a part of its outer membrane. We previously reported that the combined deletion of nlpI and mlaE, related to envelope structure and phospholipid accumulation in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, respectively, resulted in the synergistic increase of OMV production. In this study, the analysis of ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells using quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy (QFDE-EM) revealed that plasmolysis occurred at the tip of the long axis in cells and that OMVs formed from this tip. Plasmolysis was also observed in the single-gene knockout mutants ΔnlpI and ΔmlaE. This study has demonstrated that plasmolysis was induced in the hypervesiculating mutant E. coli cells. Furthermore, intracellular vesicles and multilamellar OMV were observed in the ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells. Meanwhile, the secretion of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytosol of the ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells was more than 100 times higher than that of WT and ΔnlpI, and about 50 times higher than that of ΔmlaE in the OMV fraction, suggesting that cytosolic components were incorporated into outer-inner membrane vesicles (OIMVs) and released into the extracellular space. Additionally, QFDE-EM analysis revealed that ΔmlaEΔnlpI sacculi contained many holes noticeably larger than the mean radius of the peptidoglycan (PG) pores in wild-type (WT) E. coli. These results suggest that in ΔmlaEΔnlpI cells, cytoplasmic membrane materials protrude into the periplasmic space through the peptidoglycan holes and are released as OIMVs.
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2021
ev
Adherence to minimal experimental requirements for defining extracellular vesicles and their functions
Rigorous measures are required to cope with the advance of extracellular vesicle (EV) research, from 183 studies published in 2012 to 2,309 studies published in 2020. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) guidelines in 2014, updated in 2018, for assuring and improving EV research quality. We performed a systematic review using a text mining approach to assess adherence to MISEV criteria. A keyword search was conducted in 5,093 accessible publications over the period 2012–2020 and analyzed the methodology used for EV isolation and characterization. We found a significant improvement over the years particularly regarding EV characterization where recent papers used a higher number of methods and EV markers to check for quantity and purity. Interestingly, we also found that EV papers using more methods and EV markers were cited more frequently. Papers citing MISEV criteria were more prone to use a higher number of characterization methods. We therefore established a concise checklist summarizing MISEV criteria to support EV researchers towards reaching the highest standards in the field.
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2021
ev
An integrated workflow for biomarker development using microRNAs in extracellular vesicles for cancer precision medicine
EV-miRNAs are microRNA (miRNA) molecules encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs), which play crucial roles in tumor pathogenesis, progression, and metastasis. Recent studies about EV-miRNAs have gained novel insights into cancer biology and have demonstrated a great potential to develop novel liquid biopsy assays for various applications. Notably, compared to conventional liquid biomarkers, EV-miRNAs are more advantageous in representing host-cell molecular architecture and exhibiting higher stability and specificity. Despite various available techniques for EV-miRNA separation, concentration, profiling, and data analysis, a standardized approach for EV-miRNA biomarker development is yet lacking. In this review, we performed a substantial literature review and distilled an integrated workflow encompassing important steps for EV-miRNA biomarker development, including sample collection and EV isolation, EV-miRNA extraction and quantification, high-throughput data preprocessing, biomarker prioritization and model construction, functional analysis, as well as validation. With the rapid growth of “big data”, we highlight the importance of efficient mining of high-throughput data for the discovery of EV-miRNA biomarkers and integrating multiple independent datasets for in silico and experimental validations to increase the robustness and reproducibility. Furthermore, as an efficient strategy in systems biology, network inference provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms and can be used to select functionally important EV-miRNAs to refine the biomarker candidates. Despite the encouraging development in the field, a number of challenges still hinder the clinical translation. We finally summarize several common challenges in various biomarker studies and discuss potential opportunities emerging in the related fields.
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2021
ev
An SPRi-based biosensor pilot study: Analysis of multiple circulating extracellular vesicles and hippocampal volume in Alzheimer's disease
One of the main hurdles in the study of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the lack of easily accessible and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis, the prediction of the disease progression rate and the evaluation of rehabilitative and pharmacological treatments. Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale particles released by body cells, studied as promising biomarkers of AD as they are involved in the onset and progression of the disease. In the strive for a reliable and sensitive method to analyze EVs, we applied our recently developed biosensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) technology for the identification and profiling of neural EVs populations circulating in the plasma of 10 AD patients and 10 healthy subjects. The SPRi-array was designed to separate simultaneously EVs released by neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, and to evaluate the presence and the relative amount of specific surface molecules related to pathological processes including translocator protein (TSPO), β-Amyloid and ganglioside M1. As results, significant variations in the relative amount and cargoes of specific brain-derived populations of EVs were observed comparing EVs coming from AD patients and healthy subjects, finding the main differences in the activation phenotype of microglia EVs, in the lipid moieties on generic EVs and in the β-Amyloid expression on surfaces of neuronal EVs. Besides, the demonstrated correlation of SPRi data with Magnetic Resonance Imaging analysis, provided support for using the SPRi-based biosensor for the evaluation of neurodegeneration detecting and characterizing circulating EVs as peripheral biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of progression and rehabilitation treatments in AD patients.
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2021
ev nm
Analysis of extracellular vesicles as a potential index for monitoring differentiation of neural lineage cells from induced pluripotent stem cells
To improve cell production efficacy, it is important to evaluate cell conditions during culture. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from various cells are involved in stem cell differentiation. As EVs carry information about their source cells, we hypothesized that they may serve as a noninvasive index of cell conditions. We evaluated changes in EV morphology, concentration, and microRNA (miRNA) and protein expression in culture supernatants during the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neural lineage cells, for application in regenerative medicine for Parkinson's disease. We observed EVs (50–150 nm) in culture supernatants of iPSCs and differentiated cells. The EVs expressed the exosome markers CD63, CD81, and CD9. Throughout differentiation, the EV concentration in the supernatants decreased, and EV miRNA and protein expression changed substantially. Especially, miR-106b, involved in neural stem cell differentiation and normal brain development, was considerably downregulated. CD63 expression correlated with the CORIN-positive cell rate, which is an index of differentiation. Thus, EV concentration and miRNA and protein expression may reflect the differentiation status of iPSCs. These findings pave the way for the development of novel and sensitive cell culture monitoring methods.
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2021
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Analyzing Inter-Leukocyte Communication and Migration In Vitro: Neutrophils Play an Essential Role in Monocyte Activation During Swarming
Neutrophils are known to be the first responders to infection or injury. However, as inflammation progresses, other leukocytes become increasingly important in inflammation propagation, tissue reconstruction, and inflammation resolution. In recent years, there has been an increase in publications that analyze neutrophil behavior in vitro, but there remains a gap in the literature for in vitro technologies that enable quantitatively measuring interactions between different types of human leukocytes. Here, we used an in vitro platform that mimics inflammation by inducing neutrophil swarming to analyze the behavior of various leukocytes in a swarming setting. Using human peripheral blood leukocytes isolated directly from whole blood, we found that myeloid cells and lymphoid cells had different migratory behaviors. Myeloid cells, which are predominately neutrophils, exhibited swarming behavior. This behavior was not seen with lymphoid cells. We perturbed the peripheral blood leukocyte system by adding exogenous leukotriene B4 (LTB4) to the medium. Notably, only the myeloid cell compartment was significantly changed by the addition of LTB4. Additionally, LTB4 had no significant impact on myeloid cell migration during the recruitment phase of swarming. To further investigate the myeloid cell compartment, we isolated neutrophils and monocytes to analyze their interaction on the platform. We found that neutrophils increase monocyte migration toward the bioparticle clusters, as measured through speed, chemotactic index, track straightness, and swarm size. These results were confirmed with in vivo mouse experiments, where monocyte accumulation only occurred when neutrophils were present. Additionally, we found that both neutrophils and monocytes release the monocyte chemoattractant proteins CCL2 and CCL3 in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles from swarming neutrophils caused monocyte activation. These findings suggest that neutrophils play an essential role in the onset of inflammation not only by sealing off the site of infection or injury, but also by recruiting additional leukocytes to the site.
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2021
ev
Analysis of Tumor-Derived Exosomes by Nanoscale Flow Cytometry
The study of tumor exosomes has gained relevance in the last decades due to their potential use for therapeutic and diagnostic application. Although there is extensive knowledge of exosome biology, some biological samples like tumor-derived exosomes have been difficult to characterize due to their complexity and heterogeneity. This distinctive feature makes difficult the identification of specific exosome subpopulations with a shared molecular signature that could allow for targeting of exosomes with therapeutic and diagnostic potential use in cancer patients. Nanoscale flow cytometry has lately emerged as an alternative tool that can be adapted to the study of nanoparticles, such as exosomes. However, the physicochemical properties of these particles are an important issue to consider as nanoparticles need the application of specific settings which differ from those used in conventional flow cytometry of cells. Therefore, in the last few years, one of the main aims has been the optimization of technical and experimental protocols to improve exosome analysis. In this chapter, we discuss several aspects of cytometric systems with a special emphasis in technical considerations of samples and equipment.
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2021
ev nm
Antioxidative Effects of Carrot-Derived Nanovesicles in Cardiomyoblast and Neuroblastoma Cells
Oxidative stress is implicated in many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Because an increased level of oxidative stress causes apoptosis, it is necessary to inhibit cellular responses to oxidative stress. In this study, Carex, a nanovesicle from carrot, was isolated and investigated as a novel biomaterial with antioxidative function in cardiomyoblasts and neuroblastoma cells. A high concentration of nanovesicles was purified from carrots, using size-exclusion chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. The characterization of Carex demonstrated that it had properties similar to those of extracellular vesicles. Carex showed low cytotoxicity in both H9C2 cardiomyoblasts and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, when a high level of Carex was delivered to the cells. Carex was further investigated for its antioxidative and apoptotic effects, and it significantly inhibited ROS generation and apoptosis in vitro in myocardial infarction and Parkinson’s disease models. Carex inhibited the reduction of antioxidative molecule expression, including Nrf-2, HO-1, and NQO-1, in both models. Considering its antioxidative function and high production yield, Carex is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of myocardial infarction as well as Parkinson’s disease. Thus, the results demonstrated in this study will contribute to an exploration of a novel drug, using nanovesicles from plants, including carrots.
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2021
ev
Applications of cell resealing to reconstitute microRNA loading to extracellular vesicles
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are cargo carried by extracellular vesicles (EVs) and are associated with cell–cell interactions. The response to the cellular environment, such as disease states, genetic/metabolic changes, or differences in cell type, highly regulates cargo sorting to EVs. However, morphological features during EV formation and secretion involving miRNA loading are unknown. This study developed a new method of EV loading using cell resealing and reconstituted the elementary miRNA-loading processes. Morphology, secretory response, and cellular uptake ability of EVs obtained from intact and resealed HeLa cells were comparable. Exogenously added soluble factors were introduced into multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and their subsequent secretion to the extracellular region occurred in resealed HeLa cells. In addition, miRNA transport to MVEs and miRNA encapsulation to EVs followed a distinct pathway regulated by RNA-binding proteins, such as Argonaute and Y-box binding protein 1, depending on miRNA types. Our cell-resealing system can analyze disease-specific EVs derived from disease model cells, where pathological cytosol is introduced into cells. Thus, EV formation in resealed cells can be used not only to create a reconstitution system to give mechanistic insight into EV encapsulation but also for applications such as loading various molecules into EVs and identifying disease-specific EV markers.
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2021
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Application of tunable resistive pulse sensing for the quantification of submicron particles in pharmaceutical monoclonal antibody preparations
Tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS, qNano Gold, IZON Ltd.) was investigated as a method to quantify submicron particles (SMPs) between 0.1 and 1 µm in solutions of biopharmaceuticals. To reduce sample dilution, a spiking-in approach was used to add the appropriate amount of electrolytes required for the measurement. For correct particle quantification, an electrolyte concentration of at least 50 mM sodium chloride was needed. Intra- and inter-nanopore variability were below 5% for size and below 10% for concentration measurements when analyzing polystyrene standard beads. Submicron particle counts in a stir stressed IgG1 monoclonal antibody formulation resulted in a non-symmetrical, almost bell-shaped size distribution with a maximum at 250 nm when using a NP300 nanopore (IZON Ltd.). It was shown that particle counts are heavily underestimated below 250 nm, and therefore it is recommended to quantify particle counts by TRPS in samples with heterogeneous particle size distributions (e.g., biopharmaceuticals) only starting from the maximum of the histogram towards the upper limit of detection.
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2021
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Assembly and Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2): Evaluation Using Virus-Like Particles
Research on infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is currently restricted to BSL-3 laboratories. SARS-CoV2 virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a BSL-1, replication-incompetent system that can be used to evaluate virus assembly and virus-cell entry processes in tractable cell culture conditions. Here, we describe a SARS-CoV2 VLP system that utilizes nanoluciferase (Nluc) fragment complementation to track assembly and entry. We utilized the system in two ways. Firstly, we investigated the requirements for VLP assembly. VLPs were produced by concomitant synthesis of three viral membrane proteins, spike (S), envelope (E), and matrix (M), along with the cytoplasmic nucleocapsid (N). We discovered that VLP production and secretion were highly dependent on N proteins. N proteins from related betacoronaviruses variably substituted for the homologous SARS-CoV2 N, and chimeric betacoronavirus N proteins effectively supported VLP production if they contained SARS-CoV2 N carboxy-terminal domains (CTD). This established the CTDs as critical features of virus particle assembly. Secondly, we utilized the system by investigating virus-cell entry. VLPs were produced with Nluc peptide fragments appended to E, M, or N proteins, with each subsequently inoculated into target cells expressing complementary Nluc fragments. Complementation into functional Nluc was used to assess virus-cell entry. We discovered that each of the VLPs were effective at monitoring virus-cell entry, to various extents, in ways that depended on host cell susceptibility factors. Overall, we have developed and utilized a VLP system that has proven useful in identifying SARS-CoV2 assembly and entry features.
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2021
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Astrocytes‐derived extracellular vesicles in motion at the neuron surface: Involvement of the prion protein
Astrocytes-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key players in glia-neuron communication. However, whether EVs interact with neurons at preferential sites and how EVs reach these sites on neurons remains elusive. Using optical manipulation to study single EV-neuron dynamics, we here show that large EVs scan the neuron surface and use neuronal processes as highways to move extracellularly. Large EV motion on neurites is driven by the binding of EV to a surface receptor that slides on neuronal membrane, thanks to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The use of prion protein (PrP)-coated synthetic beads and PrP knock out EVs/neurons points at vesicular PrP and its receptor(s) on neurons in the control of EV motion. Surprisingly, a fraction of large EVs contains actin filaments and has an independent capacity to move in an actin-mediated way, through intermittent contacts with the plasma membrane. Our results unveil, for the first time, a dual mechanism exploited by astrocytic large EVs to passively/actively reach target sites on neurons moving on the neuron surface.
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2021
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Bioinspired artificial exosomes based on lipid nanoparticles carrying let-7b-5p promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of target genes. Proangiogenic small extracellular vesicles (sEVs; popularly identified with the name “exosomes”) with a composite cargo of miRNAs are secreted by cultured stem cells and present in human biological fluids. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) represent an advanced platform for clinically approved delivery of RNA therapeutics. In this study, we aimed to (1) identify the miRNAs responsible for sEV-induced angiogenesis; (2) develop the prototype of bioinspired “artificial exosomes” (AEs) combining LNPs with a proangiogenic miRNA, and (3) validate the angiogenic potential of the bioinspired AEs. We previously reported that human sEVs from bone marrow (BM)-CD34+ cells and pericardial fluid (PF) are proangiogenic. Here, we have shown that sEVs secreted from saphenous vein pericytes and BM mesenchymal stem cells also promote angiogenesis. Analysis of miRNA datasets available in-house or datamined from GEO identified the let-7 family as common miRNA signature of the proangiogenic sEVs. LNPs with either hsa-let-7b-5p or cyanine 5 (Cy5)-conjugated Caenorhabditis elegans miR-39 (Cy5-cel-miR-39; control miRNA) were prepared using microfluidic micromixing. let-7b-5p-AEs did not cause toxicity and transferred functionally active let-7b-5p to recipient endothelial cells (ECs). let-7b-AEs also improved EC survival under hypoxia and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Bioinspired proangiogenic AEs could be further developed into innovative nanomedicine products targeting ischemic diseases.
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2021
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Biophysical and Computational Studies of Human Disease Related Proteins with a Single-Pass Transmembrane Helix
Single-pass transmembrane receptors (SPTMRs) are involved in essential processes of biophysical and pathological nature in the human. This membrane protein family includes receptor tyrosine kinases, integrins, and immunoreceptors, which play an important role in metabolism, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. SPTMR consists of several distinct domains including the extracellular domain (ECD), the transmembrane domain (TMD), and the intracellular domain (ICD) and exists as a monomer, homo- and/or heterodimer. Upon a ligand ligation through ECD, homo- or heterodimerization of SPTMR forms, followed by consequent modification of the ICDs, leading to the initiation of cellular signaling events. This activation requires interactions between TMD helices whose role in receptor activation becomes important. TMD is further highlighted by the discovery of mutations in the TMD or juxtamembrane domain (JMD) that are associated with human diseases. However, the details of cross-membrane signal transduction via SPTMRs have to be elucidated. Due to the high conformational flexibility of SPTMRs with their diverse structural composition, it is hard to characterize SPTMRs structurally. This drives us to work with only TMD helices of SPTMRs and focus on their interactions in the lipid bilayer environment. Our approach is the use of not only experimental data but also computational MD simulations to understand how TMD helices interact and how mutants associated with diseases affect the dimerization of TMD helices.
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2021
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes delay the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis through cartilage protection
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint degenerative disease. At present, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosome transplantation has more advantages, such as non-immunogenicity, non-tumorigenicity, convenient storage and transportation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes on osteoarthritis.  METHODS: (1) SD rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were extracted and identified by cell morphology and flow cytometry. Exosomes in the cell supernatant were extracted by ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, particle size and western blot assay. (2) Primary costal chondrocytes were extracted from suckling rats and cocultured with fluorescently labeled exosomes for 12 hours. The phagocytosis of chondrocytes was observed. In vitro chondrocyte damage was induced by interleukin-1β. PBS (100 μL) containing 50 μg exosomes was added for 24 hours. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type II collagen fiber α1 protein was detected by immunofluorescence to evaluate the protective effect of exosomes on injured chondrocytes. (3) The rat model of osteoarthritis was induced by iodoacetic acid in vivo. Exosomes were injected into the joint cavity, and the changes of joint structure of osteoarthritis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and safrane-fast green staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type II collagen fiber α1 protein was measured by immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the protective effect of exosomes on cartilage in vivo.  RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The extracted primary cells showed a typical fusiform shape and arranged radially. The extracted cells highly expressed CD73 and CD105, but slightly expressed CD45, CD34 and CD3. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the obtained particles showed a typical saucer-like morphology. The particle size was less than 100 nm. Meanwhile, nanoparticles showed positive expression of ALIX and HRS protein. (2) Typical red-stained particles could be observed in chondrocytes, which confirms that exosomes could be taken up by chondrocytes, and exosomes could promote chondrocyte type II collagen fiber α1 protein expression, but inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13, which confirmed that exosomes could attenuate the damage effect of interleukin-1β on chondrocytes. (3) Exosomes could promote the morphological recovery of damaged articular cartilage and the up-regulate type II collagen fiber α1 expression, while inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13, which also confirmed that exosomes can alleviate the effects of iodoacetic acid on articular cartilage damage. (4) Above findings results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes delay the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis through a chondroprotective mechanism.
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2021
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Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Proliferation, Invasion and Migration of Osteosarcoma Cells via the lncRNA MALAT1/miR-143/NRSN2/Wnt/β-Catenin Axis
Introduction Osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (BMSC-EVs) bear repair function for bone and cartilage. This study investigated the mechanism of BMSC-EVs in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Methods BMSC-EVs were isolated and identified. The effects of different concentrations of EVs on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated. LncRNA MALAT1 expression in osteosarcoma cells was detected. BMSCs were transfected with si-MALAT1 or si-NC. The binding relationships between MALAT1 and miR-143, and miR-143 and NRSN2 were verified. Levels of NRSN2 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway key proteins were detected. miR-143 mimic was transfected into EVs-treated osteosarcoma cells. Nude mice were injected with MG63 cells to verify the effect of EVs on osteosarcoma growth in vivo. Results BMSC-EVs facilitated proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells. BMSC-EVs carried MALAT1 into osteosarcoma cells. BMSC-EVs-treated osteosarcoma cells showed increased MALAT1 and NRSN2 expressions, decreased miR-143 expression, and activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. miR-143 mimic or si-MALAT1 reversed the effects of BMSC-EVs on osteosarcoma cells. In vivo experiment confirmed that BMSC-EVs promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Discussion BMSC-EVs promoted proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells via the MALAT1/miR-143/NRSN2/Wnt/β-catenin axis. This study might offer new insights into osteosarcoma management. Keywords: osteosarcoma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, extracellular vesicles, lncRNA MALAT1, miR-143, NRSN2, Wnt/β-catenin pathway
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2021
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Cancer Cells Shuttle Extracellular Vesicles Containing Oncogenic Mutant p53 Proteins to the Tumor Microenvironment
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed by cancer cells play a major role in mediating the transfer of molecular information by reprogramming the tumor microenvironment (TME). TP53 (encoding the p53 protein) is the most mutated gene across many cancer types. Mutations in TP53 not only result in the loss of its tumor-suppressive properties but also results in the acquisition of novel gain-of-functions (GOF) that promote the growth of cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that GOF mutant p53 proteins can be transferred via EVs to neighboring cancer cells and to macrophages, thus modulating them to release tumor supportive cytokines. Our data from pancreatic, lung, and colon carcinoma cell lines demonstrate that the mutant p53 protein can be selectively sorted into EVs. More specifically, mutant p53 proteins in EVs can be taken up by neighboring cells and mutant p53 expression is found in non-tumor cells in both human cancers and in non-human tissues in human xenografts. Our findings shed light on the intricate methods in which specific GOF p53 mutants can promote oncogenic mechanisms by reprogramming and then recruiting non-cancerous elements for tumor progression.
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2021
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Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Exosomal miR-106a Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by Down-regulation of TCEAL7
Studies have shown that cancer-associated broblasts (CAFs) play an irreplaceable role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Therefore, exploring the action and mechanism of CAFs on tumor cells is particularly important for designing new and effective treatments and improving prognosis of tumors. For exosomes have been shown to play vital roles in intercellular communication, in this study, we compared the effects of CAFs-derived exosomes and NFs-derived exosomes on breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. The results showed that exosomes from both CAFs and NFs could enter into breast cancer cells and CAFs-derived exosomes had a more enhancing effect on breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion than NFs-derived exosomes. Furthermore, it was found that the expression levels of miR-106a in exosomes derived from CAFs were signicantly up-regulated than that of NFsderived exosomes and what’s more, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that miR-106a can promote breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis by specically binding to the 3'UTR of TCEAL7. It is inspiring to nd that the miR-106a-TCEAL7 pathway promotes Snail nuclear ectopic activation by activating NF-κB, thereby inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. Moreover, a mouse xenograft model conrmed that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-106a could promote tumor metastasis. The above data shows that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-106a promote Snail nuclear ectopic by targeting TCEAL7 to activate the NF-κB pathway, thereby inducing EMT, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting CAFs-derived exosome miR-106a may be a potential treatment option to overcome breast cancer progression.
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2021
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Caracterización de partículas coloidales en el agua del suelo mediante detección sintonizable de pulsos resistivos
The transport of colloids in soil determines the fate of pollutants, nutrients and microorganisms in the environment and the contamination of groundwater. Colloidal retention mechanisms in soils depend on complex interactions between the soil pore walls and colloids. The hypothesis of this thesis is that the interaction of the particulate colloidal pollutants with the colloids present in the soil pore water has a dramatic influence on the transport of pollutants. This is due to the fact that the filtration of colloids in the porous medium depends on the size, shape and charge of the coatings and colloidal aggregates formed between the polluting particles and the suspended soil colloids. Improving the characterization of colloidal particulate pollutants in soil water can help to explain more precisely the role of soil as a filter for pollutants. Emerging technologies in particle characterization can represent an important advance in this characterization. Specifically, the tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) detection technology allows the real (non-hydrodynamic) size of individual particles to be determined with high precision in a polydisperse suspension between 40 nm and 3 micrometers, in addition to determining, also individually, their surface electrical potential. The new knowledge that this technique can provide could lead to a better understanding of the transport of particulate pollutants in the soil, which could improve the diagnosis of potential vulnerability of subsurface waters against pathogenic organisms, engineered nanoparticles and metals bound to colloids, as well as optimize the design of micro and nanopesticide formulations.
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2021
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Cardioprotection by remote ischemic conditioning is transferable by plasma and mediated by extracellular vesicles
Background Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) by brief periods of limb ischemia and reperfusion protects against ischemia–reperfusion injury. We studied the cardioprotective role of extracellular vesicles (EV)s released into the circulation after RIC and EV accumulation in injured myocardium. Methods We used plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after RIC (pre-PLA and post-PLA) to evaluate the transferability of RIC. Pre- and post-RIC plasma samples were separated into an EV enriched fraction (pre-EV + and post-EV +) and an EV poor fraction (pre-EV- and post-EV-) by size exclusion chromatography. Small non-coding RNAs from pre-EV + and post-EV + were purified and profiled by NanoString Technology. Infarct size was compared in Sprague–Dawley rat hearts perfused with isolated plasma and fractions in a Langendorff model. In addition, fluorescently labeled EVs were used to assess homing in an in vivo rat model. (ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT03380663) Results Post-PLA reduced infarct size by 15% points compared with Pre-PLA (55 ± 4% (n = 7) vs 70 ± 6% (n = 8), p = 0.03). Post-EV + reduced infarct size by 16% points compared with pre-EV + (53 ± 15% (n = 13) vs 68 ± 12% (n = 14), p = 0.03). Post-EV- did not affect infarct size compared to pre-EV- (64 ± 3% (n = 15) and 68 ± 10% (n = 16), p > 0.99). Three miRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-144-3p and miR-451a) that target the mTOR pathway were significantly up-regulated in the post-EV + group. Labelled EVs accumulated more intensely in the infarct area than in sham hearts. Conclusion Cardioprotection by RIC can be mediated by circulating EVs that accumulate in injured myocardium. The underlying mechanism involves modulation of EV miRNA that may promote cell survival during reperfusion.
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2021
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Centrosome amplification mediates small extracellular vesicle secretion via lysosome disruption
Bidirectional communication between cells and their surrounding environment is critical in both normal and pathological settings. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which facilitate the horizontal transfer of molecules between cells, are recognized as an important constituent of cell-cell communication. In cancer, alterations in EV secretion contribute to the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. Here, we show that centrosome amplification is associated with and sufficient to promote small extracellular vesicle (SEV) secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. This is a direct result of lysosomal dysfunction, caused by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) downstream of extra centrosomes. We propose that defects in lysosome function could promote multivesicular body fusion with the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing SEV secretion. Furthermore, we find that SEVs secreted in response to amplified centrosomes are functionally distinct and activate pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These activated PSCs promote the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in heterotypic 3D cultures. We propose that SEVs secreted by cancer cells with amplified centrosomes influence the bidirectional communication between the tumor cells and the surrounding stroma to promote malignancy.
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2021
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Characterisation of extracellular vesicles in the context of myocardial infarction and glucose intolerance
Introduction In response to myocardial infarction (MI), extracellular vesicles (EVs), including large (lEVs) and small (sEVs), are released within and from the heart to facilitate intercellular communication and maintain cardiac homeostasis by transporting cargo to recipient cells. Objective We investigated how glucose intolerance influences the intracardiac EV release post-MI and their content. Method B6J mice were fed chow (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. MI was induced by permanent coronary artery ligation. EVs were isolated from left ventricles and quantified by tunable resistive pulse sensing. EVs were characterised by flow cytometry. EV miRNA content was determined by RNAseq and qPCR. Using cardiomyocyte specific GFP+ mice, plasma lEVs were analysed by flow cytometry to determine if cardiomyocyte EVs (CMEVs) are circulating. Labelled hypoxic cardiomyocyte cell line (HL-1) lEVs were injected in HFD/CD mice post-MI to determine target cells. Results In CD mice, EV release was significantly increased 24 h post-MI compared to sham. HFD lEV levels were significantly higher compared to sham and CD mice post-MI with no difference in sEV release between sham and MI HFD mice. Intracardiac lEVs originate from cardiomyocyte and endothelial cells in response to MI and MI + HFD respectively. qPCR analyses identified miRNA candidates that were modulated by MI and HFD. Intracardiac GFP + lEV levels were lower in HFD than in CD mice whereas levels of circulating GFP + lEVs were higher. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed a preferential uptake of hypoxic HL-1 lEVs by splenic myeloid cells in HFD spleens versus CD post-MI. Conclusion Our results show that glucose intolerance modulates intracardiac EV release post-MI and their miRNA cargo. Circulating CMEV levels as well as their uptake by splenic myeloid cells are increased. Further investigations will aim to decipher the impact of the intracardiac EV miRNA mediated transfer in the diabetic heart post-MI.
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2021
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Characterization of extracellular vesicles and synthetic nanoparticles with four orthogonal single‐particle analysis platforms
We compared four orthogonal technologies for sizing, counting, and phenotyping of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic particles. The platforms were: single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensing (SP-IRIS) with fluorescence, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with fluorescence, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), and nanoflow cytometry measurement (NFCM). EVs from the human T lymphocyte line H9 (high CD81, low CD63) and the promonocytic line U937 (low CD81, high CD63) were separated from culture conditioned medium (CCM) by differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) or a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot (WB). Mixtures of synthetic particles (silica and polystyrene spheres) with known sizes and/or concentrations were also tested. MRPS and NFCM returned similar particle counts, while NTA detected counts approximately one order of magnitude lower for EVs, but not for synthetic particles. SP-IRIS events could not be used to estimate particle concentrations. For sizing, SP-IRIS, MRPS, and NFCM returned similar size profiles, with smaller sizes predominating (per power law distribution), but with sensitivity typically dropping off below diameters of 60 nm. NTA detected a population of particles with a mode diameter greater than 100 nm. Additionally, SP-IRIS, MRPS, and NFCM were able to identify at least three of four distinct size populations in a mixture of silica or polystyrene nanoparticles. Finally, for tetraspanin phenotyping, the SP-IRIS platform in fluorescence mode was able to detect at least two markers on the same particle, while NFCM detected either CD81 or CD63. Based on the results of this study, we can draw conclusions about existing single-particle analysis capabilities that may be useful for EV biomarker development and mechanistic studies.
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2021
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Characterization of feces-derived bacterial membrane vesicles and the impact of their origin on the inflammatory response
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex microbiome, which interacts in a variety of ways with the host. There is compelling evidence that gut microbial dysbiosis, defined as an alteration of diversity and abundance in intestinal microbes, is an etiological factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Membrane vesicles (MVs), which are nano-sized particles released by bacteria, have been found to interact with the host and modulate the development and function of the immune system. As a result MVs have been suggested to play a critical role in both health and disease. In this study we developed a method to isolate, characterize and assess the immunoreactivity of heterogeneous populations of MVs from fecal samples (fMVs) of healthy volunteers. We successfully isolated 2*109-2*1010 particles/ml from 0.5 gram of feces by using a combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) from 10 fecal samples. Bead-based flowcytometry in combination with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) provided a reliable method for (semi-)quantitative determination of fMVs originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of fMVs. Real time 16s PCR on bacterial cell fractions or isolated fMVs DNA of the most common phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) revealed differences in the relative abundance between bacteria and the fMVs. Moreover, fMVs evoke the release of TNF- by THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent matter. Also, a significant positive correlation was found between Actinobacteria/-Proteobacteria derived vesicles and the release of TNF-. It has become increasingly clear that fMVs could provide an additional layer to the definition of homeostasis or dysbiosis of the microbiota. The current study supports their potential involvement in the intestinal homeostasis or inflammatory disorders and provides putative interesting incentives for future research.
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2021
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Characterization of positively charged polyplexes by tunable resistive pulse sensing
With the approval of the first siRNA-based drugs, non-viral siRNA delivery has gained special interest in industry and academia in the last two years. For non-viral delivery, positively charged lipid and polymer formulations play a central role in research and development. However, nanoparticle size characterization, particularly of polydisperse formulations, can be very challenging. Tunable resistive pulse sensing for particle by particle measurements of size, polydispersity, zeta potential and a direct concentration promises better assessment of nanoparticle formulations. However, the current application is not optimized for positively charged particles. A supplier-provided coating solution for difficult-to-measure samples does not allow for successful measurements of positively charged nanoparticles. This article describes a new coating solution based on choline-chloride. Coating is verified by current–voltage (I-V) recordings and ultimately tested on a positively charged nanoparticle formulation comprising of siRNA and PEG-PCL-PEI polymer. This coating allows successful size, polydispersity index (PDI) and concentration measurement by tunable resistive pulse sensing of positively charged PEI-based polyplexes. This article provides the foundation for further characterization of polyplexes as well as other positively charged nanoparticle formulations based on particle by particle measurements.
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2021
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Characterization of systemic immunosuppression by IDH mutant glioma small extracellular vesicles
Background Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and are universally fatal. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) define a distinct glioma subtype associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Mechanisms underlying systemic immunosuppression in IDH mutant (mutIDH) gliomas are largely unknown. Here, we define genotype-specific local and systemic tumor immunomodulatory functions of tumor-derived glioma small extracellular vesicles (TEX). Methods TEX produced by human and murine wildtype and mutant IDH glioma cells (wtIDH and mutIDH, respectively) were isolated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). TEX morphology, size, quantity, molecular profiles and biodistribution were characterized. TEX were injected into naive and tumor-bearing mice, and the local and systemic immune microenvironment composition was characterized. Results Using in vitro and in vivo glioma models, we show that mutIDH TEX are more numerous, possess distinct morphological features and are more immunosuppressive than wtIDH TEX. mutIDH TEX cargo mimics their parental cells, and induces systemic immune suppression in naive and tumor-bearing mice. TEX derived from mutIDH gliomas and injected into wtIDH tumor-bearing mice reduce tumor-infiltrating effector lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, and increase circulating monocytes. Astonishingly, mutIDH TEX injected into brain tumor-bearing syngeneic mice accelerate tumor growth and increase mortality compared with wtIDH TEX. Conclusions Targeting of mutIDH TEX represents a novel therapeutic approach in gliomas.
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2021
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Characterizing KRAS Membrane Structures by Data-Driven Molecular Docking
Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2 NCI RAS Initiative, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA, 3 Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 4 Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 5 Data Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA, 6 Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA. KRAS is a GTPase that plays an important role in cell growth and signaling pathways. of the different RAS isoforms, KRAS also has the highest prevalence of mutations related to human cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target in these cases. Once attached to the membrane, KRAS in the active (GTP) form is capable to bind effector proteins, like RAF kinase. However, certain molecular details concerning KRAS conformation and orientational changes when interacting with the membrane and binding partners are not fully understood. To provide new insights, we used a variety of biophysical approaches to characterize KRAS structure and dynamics. Here, we focus on our results utilizing data-driven computational docking to investigate both KRAS and KRAS/ RAF1-RBD (RAS Binding Domain) complex at the membrane. with the HADDOCK program, we incorporated experimental restraints derived from our NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements to dock these KRAS forms to a 70:30 POPC:POPS lipid membrane surface. Using NMR-PRE restraints alone, we performed one series of docking runs with the KRAS G-domain directly interacting with the membrane to discern membrane-proximal states. Based on our experimental evidence, and particularly from NR, a highly populated membrane-distal state also exists, where the G-domain does not directly contact the membrane but KRAS remains tethered via the C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR). Therefore, we also conducted a second series of docking runs that incorporated both NMR-PRE and NR restraints to better elucidate the conformations in this state. From these results, we were able to generate atomistic models for KRAS and KRAS/RAF1-RBD with averaged 1-D profiles closely matching the respective NR profiles. Overall, the findings should assist in elucidating the role of KRAS structural dynamics in recruiting effectors, like RAF kinase, to the membrane for activation.
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2021
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Chemical Modification of Bovine Milk Exosomes, the Biological Nanoparticles of the Future, as a Contrast Agent and Drug Delivery Vehicle
Chemically derived nanoparticles are widely used across many applications. While they showed great promise when first discovered, the main hurdles, such as clearance and targeting, have yet to be overcome. A recently discovered class of biological nanoparticles have the potential to circumvent these disadvantages. Exosomes are biological nanoparticles (30 – 150 nm) excreted from most mammalian cells. While exosomes are typically involved in cellular signaling and traditionally removed from the body to be examined for biomarkers, this work combines chemical modifications and a biological particle for diagnostics and treatment of solid tumor cancer. Exosome involvement in cancer treatment has grown over the past ten years with the encapsulation of RNA, proteins and traditional chemotherapeutics. However, this work takes these ideas and drives them into the future by using bovine milk derived exosomes as (1) an ultrasound contrasting agent and (2) a targeted and triggered chemotherapeutic drug delivery vehicle. As an ultrasound contrast agent, raw and pasteurized bovine milk exosomes were tested and found to be capable of echogenicity without altering the ability to identify key features of the exosome, including the presence of CD63 and miRNA. In the second part of this work a chemically synthesized, hypoxia responsive lipid and a tumor penetrating and targeting peptide, iRGD were integrated into the lipid bilayer of the exosome for chemotherapeutic drug delivery. These modified exosomes were characterized using a variety of techniques, including a novel adhesion assay, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The functional capacity of the modified exosomes to deliver doxorubicin to Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells was also evaluated using a combination of cellular internalization and cytotoxicity assays in both monolayer and 3D spheroid cultures. Overall exosomes have the iv ability to be chemically modified in a variety of ways, opening a door to a new approach to nanoparticle drug delivery and targeted imaging.
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2021
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Circulating Extracellular Vesicle Cargo as Bioinformants of 'at-risk'Carotid Artery Stenosis
Objectives Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Managing patients with asymptomatic disease remains challenging, given the lack of reliable tests to identify the subgroup of patients prone to plaque progression and stroke. Given the functional and diagnostic roles of extracellular vesicle (EV) contents, we hypothesized that plasma EV-derived microRNA (miRNA) differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods EVs were isolated via serial centrifugation followed by enrichment using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) (qEVoriginal columns 70 nm; Izon Science Ltd). EV isolation was confirmed according to MISEV 2018 guidelines: Western blot analysis of common EV markers (CD63, CD81, Alix), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Lipoprotein contamination was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of individual SEC fractions (R&D Systems; DAPA10, DAPB00). Next-generation sequencing was performed on EVs (HTG Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.), and differential miRNA expression evaluated using Partek Genomics Suite software (version 8.0). Results Twelve patient plasma samples were collected (n = 6 symptomatic; n = 6 asymptomatic). The average age of the cohort was 70.0 ± 5.7 years (asymptomatic, 67.0 ± 5.5 vs symptomatic, 72.5 ± 5.5 years). All patients had severe stenoses with similar peak systolic velocity (asymptomatic 403.2 ± 84.43 vs symptomatic 371.6 ± 175.25; P = .50) and internal carotid artery (ICA):common carotid artery (CCA) ratios (asymptomatic, 5.36 ± 1.07 vs symptomatic, 7.3 ± 5.00; P = .50). CD63 expression confirmed EV enrichment in fractions 7 to 10, with minimal lipoprotein contamination. EV isolation was further confirmed by CD81 and Alix expression (n = 3 patient samples per group). Cryo-TEM identified EVs as bi-layered nanoparticles with electron dense cores (Fig 1). NTA revealed no significant differences in EV concentration or size between groups (n = 3; P > .05). Principal component and heatmap analysis of miRNA sequencing data revealed symptomatic carotid plasma samples clustered together, whereas asymptomatic samples were either starkly different (n = 5) or approximated the symptomatic profiles (n = 1), suggesting a disease gradient (Fig 2). When symptomatic carotid plasma EV-miRNA profiles were compared with asymptomatic specimens, 190 miRNAs were differentially expressed, with miRNA-654-5p and miRNA-127-3p being the most upregulated, and downregulated, respectively (P < .05, fold-change −2< or >2, excluding miRNA with counts <100). Gene set enrichment identified regulation of protein metabolic processes, and negative regulation of cell communication, signaling, and signal transduction as predicted targets of differentially expressed EV-miRNA (P-value < .05). Conclusions Plasma EV-miRNA profiles may differentiate symptomatic vs asymptomatic carotid stenosis and, together with clinical characteristics, may be used in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients.
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2021
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Circulating extracellular vesicles from patients with acute chest syndrome disrupt adherens junctions between endothelial cells
Background Small cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can affect endothelial function. We previously found that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have greater numbers of circulating EVs than subjects without the disease, and the EVs differentially disrupt endothelial integrity in vitro. Because endothelial disruption is a critical component of acute chest syndrome (ACS), we hypothesized that EVs isolated during ACS would induce greater endothelial damage than those isolated at baseline. Methods Nine pediatric subjects had plasma isolated at baseline and during ACS from which EVs were isolated. Cultured microvascular endothelial cells were treated with EVs and then studied by immunofluorescence microscopy to localize VE-cadherin and F-actin. Results The EVs had a diameter of 95 nm. They contained CD63 and flotillin-1, which were increased in SCD patients (5–13-fold compared to control) and further increased between baseline and ACS (24–57%). The EVs contained hemoglobin, glycophorin A, and ferritin. Treatment with baseline EVs caused modest separation of endothelial cells, while ACS EVs caused substantial disruptions of the endothelial cell monolayers. EVs from subjects with ACS also caused a 50% decrease in protein levels of VE-cadherin. Conclusions These results suggest that circulating EVs can modulate endothelial integrity contributing to the development of ACS in SCD patients by altering cadherin-containing intercellular junctions. Impact - Sickle cell disease patients have circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that modulate endothelial integrity by altering cadherin-containing intercellular junctions. - - Disruption is more severe by EVs obtained during acute chest syndrome (ACS). - - These results expand our knowledge of the pathophysiology of acute chest syndrome and the vasculopathies of sickle cell disease.
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2021
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Comparative proteome profiling in exosomes derived from porcine colostrum versus mature milk reveals distinct functional proteomes
Exosomes are membranous vesicles of endocytic origin, recently been considered as major players in cell-cell communication. Milk is highly complex, and diverse biocomponents provide adequate nutrition, transfer immunity, and promote adequate neonate development. Milk exosomes are suggested to have a key role in these processes, yet to be further explored, and the alteration of the exosomes' cargo in different stages of lactation stages is important for understanding the factors relevant in nursing and also for improving milk replacer products both for humans and animals. We isolated exosomes from porcine milk in different lactation stages and analyzed their content using a TMT-based high-resolution quantitative proteomic approach. Exosomes were isolated using ultracentrifugation coupled with size exclusion chromatography to enrich milk-derived exosomes in samples obtained at day 0, 7, and 14 after parturition, and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blotting. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed different proteome profiles for colostrum exosomes and milk exosomes. The functional analysis highlighted pathways related to the regulation of homeostasis to be upregulated in colostrum exosomes, and pathways such as endothelial cell development and lipid metabolism to be upregulated in mature milk exosomes. This study endorses the importance of exosomes as active biocomponents of milk and provides knowledge for future studies exploring their role in the regulation of immunity and growth of the newborn.
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2021
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Circulating Serum Exosomal Long Non-Coding RNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer
Background: Exosomes derived from cancer cells encapsulate various kinds of tumor-specific molecules and thus can interact with adjacent or distant cells to mediate information exchange. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in exosomes have the potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current study was aimed to identify circulating exosomal lncRNAs for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Exosomes were isolated from the serum by ultracentrifugation and verified by transmission electron microscope (TEM), qNano, and immunoblotting. Exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 were selected by lncRNA microarray and validated by qPCR in 203 CRC patients and 201 healthy donors. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to assess the diagnostic efficiency of serum exosomal lncRNAs. Results: Exosomal FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 (TCONS_00020073) levels were significantly upregulated in 203 CRC patients and 80 early-stage CRC patients compared to 201 healthy donors, possessing the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.728, 0.660, and 0.682 for CRC, as well as 0.743, 0.660, and 0.689 for early-stage CRC, respectively. Notably, their combination demonstrated the markedly elevated AUC of 0.736 for CRC and 0.758 for early-stage CRC, indicating their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. Conclusions: Our data suggested that exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 act as the promising biomarkers for the diagnostics of CRC and early-stage CRC.
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2021
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Comparative study of commercial protocols for high recovery of high-purity mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle isolation and their efficient labeling with fluorescent dyes
The extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as carriers for therapeutic molecules and drugs to target disordered tissues. This aimed to compare the protocols used for isolation of MSC-derived EVs by comparing EV collection conditions and three commercial purification kits. We also determined appropriate fluorescent dyes for labeling EVs. MSC-derived EVs were efficiently secreted during cell growth and highly purified by the phosphatidyl serine-based affinity kit. Although the EV membrane was more efficiently labeled with the fluorescent dye PKH67 compared to other probes, the efficiency was not enough to accurately analyze the endothelial cellular uptake of EVs. Results verified the easy protocol for isolating and fluorescently labeling EVs with commercial reagents and kits, but meanwhile, further modification of the protocol is required in order to scale up the amount of EVs derived from MSCs using fluorescent probes. Graphical Abstract The extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as carriers for therapeutic molecules and drugs. This aimed to compare the protocols used for isolation of EVs by comparing EV collection conditions and three commercial purification kits. MSC-derived EVs were efficiently secreted during cell growth and highly purified by the phosphatidyl serine-based affinity kit. Results verified the easy protocol for isolating and fluorescently labeling EVs with commercial reagents and kits, but meanwhile, further modification of the protocol is required in order to scale up the amount of EVs derived from MSCs using fluorescent probes.
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2021
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Comparison and optimization of nanoscale extracellular vesicle imaging by scanning electron microscopy for accurate size-based profiling and morphological analysis
Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been found to play a key role in intercellular communication, offering opportunities for both disease diagnostics and therapeutics. However, lying below the diffraction limit and also being highly heterogeneous in their size, morphology and abundance, these vesicles pose significant challenges for physical characterization. Here, we present a direct visual approach for their accurate morphological and size-based profiling by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To achieve that, we methodically examined various process steps and developed a protocol to improve the throughput, conformity and image quality while preserving the shape of EVs. The study was performed with small EVs (sEVs) isolated from a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line as well as from human serum, and the results were compared with those obtained from nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). While the comparison of the sEV size distributions showed good agreement between the two methods for large sEVs (diameter > 70 nm), the microscopy based approach showed a better capacity for analyses of smaller vesicles, with higher sEV counts compared to NTA. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of identifying non-EV particles based on size and morphological features. The study also showed process steps that can generate artifacts bearing resemblance with sEVs. The results therefore present a simple way to use a widely available microscopy tool for accurate and high throughput physical characterization of EVs.
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2021
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Comparison of extracellular vesicle isolation and storage methods using high-sensitivity flow cytometry
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are of interest for a wide variety of biomedical applications. A major limitation for the clinical use of EVs is the lack of standardized methods for the fast and reproducible separation and subsequent detection of EV subpopulations from biofluids, as well as their storage. To advance this application area, fluorescence-based characterization technologies with single-EV resolution, such as high-sensitivity flow cytometry (HS-FCM), are powerful to allow assessment of EV fractionation methods and storage conditions. Furthermore, the use of HS-FCM and fluorescent labeling of EV subsets is expanding due to the potential of high-throughput, multiplex analysis, but requires further method development to enhance the reproducibility of measurements. In this study, we have applied HS-FCM measurements next to standard EV characterization techniques, including nanoparticle tracking analysis, to compare the yield and purity of EV fractions obtained from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells by two EV isolation methods, differential centrifugation followed by ultracentrifugation and the exoEasy membrane affinity spin column purification. We observed differences in EV yield and purity. In addition, we have investigated the influence of EV storage at 4°C or -80°C for up to one month on the EV concentration and the stability of EV-associated fluorescent labels. The concentration of the in vitro cell derived EV fractions was shown to remain stable under the tested storage conditions, however, the fluorescence intensity of labeled EV stored at 4°C started to decline within one day.
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2021
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Comparison of isolation methods using commercially available kits for obtaining extracellular vesicles from cow milk
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important for delivering biologically active substances to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. Milk-derived EV are widely known because of their potential for immune enhancement. However, procedures for isolating milk-derived EV have not been fully established. To obtain pure milk-derived EV and accurately reveal their function, such procedures must be established. The aim of the present study was to compare methods using commercially available kits for isolating milk-derived EV. Initially, we investigated procedures to remove casein, which is the major obstacle in determining milk-derived EV purity. We separated whey using centrifugation only, acetic acid precipitation, and EDTA precipitation. Then, we isolated milk-derived EV by ultracentrifugation, membrane affinity column, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), polymer-based isolation, or phosphatidylserine-affinity isolation. Using EV count per milligram of protein, which is a good indicator of purity, we determined that acetic acid precipitation was the best method for removing casein. Using nanoparticle tracking analysis, protein quantity analysis, and RNA quantity analysis, we comprehensively compared each isolation method for its purity and yield. We found that SEC-based qEV column (Izon Science) could collect purer milk-derived EV at higher quantities. Thus, a combination of acetic acid precipitation and qEV can effectively isolate high amounts of pure extracellular vesicles from bovine milk.
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2021
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Comprehensive analysis and comparison of proteins in salivary exosomes of climacteric and adolescent females
Currently, it is difficult to extract exosomes with stable physicochemical properties from saliva. Furthermore, due to inadequate availability of basic data, the application of salivary exosomes as a diagnostic material is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate an easier method for extraction of exosomes from whole saliva and compared proteins in salivary exosomes derived from subjects of two age groups. Salivary exosomes were extracted from nine females (56.7 ± 1.17 years old; climacteric or 19.9 ± 0.20 years old; adolescent) using commercial reagents and kits and detected using western blotting with anti-exosome marker antibodies. Exosome particle size and exosome-containing proteins were identified using NanoSight® and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. In addition, an efficient method of exosome extraction from saliva using a reagent and without the use of an ultracentrifuge was shown. Our results showed a higher total protein content and larger particle size in climacteric exosomes than in adolescent exosomes. However, adolescent exosomes showed a larger variety of proteins (780 proteins) than the climacteric exosomes (573 proteins). Altogether, 893 proteins were identified in the salivary exosomes. Although viral process-, ribosome- and structural molecule-related proteins were higher in the adolescent exosomes, the levels of major salivary proteins such as immunoglobulins and amylase, were higher in the climacteric exosomes than in the adolescent exosomes. The data presented, which show the fundamental protein composition of salivary exosomes and the changes that occur with age, are beneficial in both diagnostic and biotechnological applications.
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2021
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Comparison of Syringes With Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs: Particle Burden and Protein Aggregates in Brolucizumab, Aflibercept and Bevacizumab
Purpose: In a benchwork particle counting analytical evaluation, the number and type of particles in intravitreal injection formulations of three different agents against vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. Methods: Commercially available ready-to-use aflibercept and brolucizumab glass syringes, vials containing bevacizumab (off-label use in ophthalmology), and repackaged ready-to-use plastic syringes containing bevacizumab were tested without filtration. Total visible, subvisible, and nanoparticles numbers and size distributions were quantified using light obscuration, flow imaging, resonant mass measurement (RMM), tunable resistive pulse sensing, and dynamic light scattering. Results: Repackaged bevacizumab showed overall low particle numbers, aflibercept showed high numbers of micrometer sized particles but low nanoparticle numbers, brolucizumab showed low to moderate numbers of micrometer sized particles but high nanoparticle numbers. RMM measurements identified particles in the nanometer range as either proteinaceous or silicon oil; the nature of the other particles was not further evaluated. Conclusions: Repackaged bevacizumab shows no inferior particle quality compared to ready-to-use products. It is relevant to study nanoparticle load of the products as the micrometer-sized particle numbers do not in all cases correlate to nanoparticle counts. Particularly for the high concentration product Beovu (brolucizumab), high nanoparticle numbers were found despite low numbers of micrometer sized particles. Silicone oil droplets did not account for high particle numbers as the measured numbers were low. Translational Relevance: Different side effects are registered in different frequencies with different intravitreal anti-VEGF-drugs and syringes, which are applied by injection by small 30G needles through the sclera directly to the intravitreal cavity. The study of nanoparticles and silicone oil droplets may be able to contribute to narrowing down the causes.
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2021
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Current Methods for the Isolation of Urinary Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles released into extracellular space by almost all cell types, and found in body fluids like blood, urine, and saliva. Mounting evidence has demonstrated the clinical potential of EVs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools to analyse physiological/pathological processes due to their ability to transport biomolecules secreted from diverse tissues of an individual. For example, the urinary EVs (uEVs), released from all regions of the kidney’s nephron and from other cells that line the urinary tract, retain proteomic and transcriptomic markers specific to their cell of origin representing a valuable tool for kidney disease diagnosis. Despite the numerous efforts in developing suitable methods to separate EVs from biofluids, providing material of high purity and low variability poses a limit to clinical translation. This chapter focuses on advantages and disadvantages of several EV isolation methodologies, and provides examples of uEV isolation protocols based on time, cost, and equipment considerations, as well as the sample requirements for any downstream analyses.
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2021
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Dancing with Trojan horses: an interplay between the extracellular vesicles and viruses
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated particles released by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells into the extracellular environment. Depending on their origin, size, and composition, EVs are grouped in several classes, with one of them being exosomes, which are small EVs (SEVs) generated within the endosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells via the unique multivesicular body pathway. Being able to deliver their content (proteins, lipids, small molecules, and nucleic acids) to other cells, exosomes/SEVs are considered as bioactive vesicles with multiple biological functions. Importantly, the composition of exosomes/SEVs depends on the cell and tissue of origin including a set of specific proteins. However, the pathological conditions may lead to the appearance of diseases-specific exosomes/SEVs containing pathology-specific cargoes utilized in the malicious cell-cell communication and spread of malady. Viruses demonstrate complex ‘dancing’ around the exosome biogenesis system, being able to hijack the host systems responsible for the exosome biogenesis. They use the exosome biogenesis system to promote packaging of their capsids, regulate virion production, and virus secretion. They also utilize a Trojan horse stratagem to place virions inside the SEVs and thereby to spread beyond their normal range of cell hosts using the normal EV uptake process. Another illustration of the virus-based utilization of Trojan horse strategy is given by the ability of human viruses to use exosomes/SEVs as carriers of their exogenous miRNA or viral proteins to the non-infected cells. Taken together, these strategies of dancing with Trojan horses can help viruses to fight with the host defense and to spread the infection.
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2021
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Deciphering the Structure and Chemical Composition of Drug Nanocarriers: From Bulk Approaches to Individual Nanoparticle Characterization
Drug nanocarriers (NCs) with sizes usually below 200 nm are gaining increasing interest in the treatment of severe diseases such as cancer and infections. Characterization methods to investigate the morphology and physicochemical properties of multifunctional NCs are key in their optimization and in the study of their in vitro and in vivo fate. Whereas a variety of methods has been developed to characterize “bulk” NCs in suspension, the scope of this review is to describe the different approaches for the NC characterization on an individual basis, for which fewer techniques are available. The accent is put on methods devoid of labelling, which could lead to artefacts. For each characterization method, the principles and approaches to analyze the data are presented in an accessible manner. Aspects related to sample preparation to avoid artefacts are indicated, and emphasis is put on examples of applications. NC characterization on an individual basis allows gaining invaluable information in terms of quality control, on: i) NC localization and fate in biological samples; ii) NC morphology and crystallinity; iii) distribution of the NC components (drugs, shells), and iv) quantification of NCs’ chemical composition. The individual characterization approaches are expected to gain increasing interest in the near future.
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2021
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Design and Optimization of a Biosensor Surface Functionalization to Effectively Capture Urinary Extracellular Vesicles
For this study, we tested and optimized silicon surface functionalization procedures for capturing urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs). The influence of the silane type (APTES or GOPS) and protein concentration on the efficiency of uEVs binding was investigated. Human lactadherin protein (LACT) was used to capture uEVs. We applied surface characterization techniques, including ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, to observe changes in the biosensor surface after each functionalization step. uEVs were purified by a low-vacuum filtration method and concentrated by ultracentrifugation. The physical parameters of uEVs after the isolation procedure, such as morphology and size distribution, were determined using transmission electron microscopy and tunable resistive pulse sensing methods. We observed a gradual growth of the molecular layer after subsequent stages of modification of the silicon surface. The ToF-SIMS results showed no changes in the mean intensities for the characteristic peaks of amino acids and lipids in positive and negative polarization, in terms of the surface-modifying silane (APTES or GOPS) used. The most optimal concentration of LACT for the tested system was 25 µg/mL.
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2021
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Defining candidate mRNA and protein EV biomarkers to discriminate ccRCC and pRCC from non-malignant renal cells in vitro
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for over 400,000 new cases and 175,000 deaths annually. Diagnostic RCC biomarkers may prevent overtreatment in patients with early disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a promising source of RCC biomarkers because EVs carry proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) among other biomolecules. We aimed to identify biomarkers and assess biological functions of EV cargo from clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), and benign kidney cell lines. EVs were enriched from conditioned cell media by size exclusion chromatography. The EV proteome was assessed using Tandem Mass Tag mass spectrometry (TMT-MS) and NanoString nCounter technology was used to profile 770 cancer-related mRNA present in EVs. The heterogeneity of protein and mRNA abundance and identification highlighted the heterogeneity of EV cargo, even between cell lines of a similar pathological group (e.g., ccRCC or pRCC). Overall, 1726 proteins were quantified across all EV samples, including 181 proteins that were detected in all samples. In the targeted profiling of mRNA by NanoString, 461 mRNAs were detected in EVs from at least one cell line, including 159 that were present in EVs from all cell lines. In addition to a shared EV cargo signature, pRCC, ccRCC, and/or benign renal cell lines also showed unique signatures. Using this multi-omics approach, we identified 34 protein candidate pRCC EV biomarkers and 20 protein and 8 mRNA candidate ccRCC EV biomarkers for clinical validation.
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2021
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Detection of Tumor-Associated Membrane Receptors on Extracellular Vesicles from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients via Immuno-PCR
Precision cancer medicine for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased patient survival. Nevertheless, targeted agents towards tumor-associated membrane receptors only result in partial remission for a limited time, calling for approaches which allow longitudinal treatment monitoring. Rebiopsy of tumors in the lung is challenging, and metastatic lesions may have heterogeneous signaling. One way ahead is to use liquid biopsies such as circulating tumor DNA or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) secreted by the tumor into blood or other body fluids. Herein, an immuno-PCR-based detection of the tumor-associated membrane receptors EGFR, HER2, and IGF-1R on CD9-positive sEVs from NSCLC cells and pleural effusion fluid (PE) of NSCLC patients is developed utilizing DNA conjugates of antibody mimetics and affibodies, as detection agents. Results on sEVs purified from culture media of NSCLC cells treated with anti-EGFR siRNA, showed that the reduction of EGFR expression can be detected via immuno-PCR. Protein profiling of sEVs from NSCLC patient PE samples revealed the capacity to monitor EGFR, HER2, and IGF-1R with the immuno-PCR method. We detected a significantly higher EGFR level in sEVs derived from a PE sample of a patient with an EGFR-driven NSCLC adenocarcinoma than in sEVs from PE samples of non-EGFR driven adenocarcinoma patients or in samples from patients with benign lung disease. In summary, we have developed a diagnostic method for sEVs in liquid biopsies of cancer patients which may be used for longitudinal treatment monitoring to detect emerging bypassing resistance mechanisms in a noninvasive way.
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2021
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Development and Preclinical Evaluation of Virus Like Particle Vaccine Against COVID-19 Infection
Background Vaccines that incorporate multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens can further broaden the breadth of virus-specific cellular and humoral immunity. This study describes the development and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 VLP vaccine that incorporates the 4 structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Methods VLPs were generated in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, purified by multimodal chromatography and characterized by tunable resistive pulse sensing, AFM, SEM, and TEM. Immunoblotting studies verified the protein identities of VLPs. Cellular and humoral immune responses of immunized animals demonstrated the immune potency of the formulated VLP vaccine. Results Transiently transfected HEK293 cells reproducibly generated vesicular VLPs that were similar in size to and expressing all four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Alum adsorbed, K3-CpG ODN adjuvanted VLPs elicited high titer anti-S, anti-RBD, anti-N IgG, triggered multifunctional Th1 biased T cell responses, reduced virus load and prevented lung pathology upon live virus challenge in vaccinated animals. Conclusion These data suggest that VLPs expressing all four structural protein antigens of SARS-CoV-2 are immunogenic and can protect animals from developing COVID-19 infection following vaccination.
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2021
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Development of a new methodology to determine size differences of nanoparticles with nanoparticle tracking analysis
The current frontiers in Biology thus in Medicine and Pharmacy are at the nanoscale. Indeed, this is the relevant scale for extracting or synthetizing, visualizing, counting, characterizing and/or modifying nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are highly diverse including: extracellular vesicles (e.g.: exosomes), proteins, viruses and nanovectors or drug delivery systems for instance. To quantify the concentration of nano-sized objects, a growing number of size-tracking instruments is being developed. However, to date, the generated data is only used to provide a concentration measurement. The objective of this study was to determine which sizes of nanoparticles are statistically significant between 2 groups of samples. Using different samples (in silico data; calibrated beads; various biological samples), an approach that statistically compares 2 groups of samples was developed and validated. The proof of concept of the proposed approach was illustrated with applications in the field of Biology, Medicine and Pharmacy using liposomes and extracellular vesicles. For the first time to our knowledge, our results suggest that the presented approach enables comparing different groups of biological samples. It may be extended to situations such as batch 1 versus batch 2; healthy versus disease or non-treated versus treated.
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2021
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Development of fast, reliable and automated isolation and fractionation methods for nanosized subpopulations of human biomacromolecules
This doctoral thesis describes the development of fast, reliable and automated isolation and fractionation methods for nanosized subpopulations of human biomacromolecules. The focus of the study was on subpopulations of lipoproteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are important in the detection of different diseases, such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and may even possess therapeutic potential. In the thesis, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) with selective antibodies immobilized on the monolithic disk columns were utilized for the selective isolation of biomacromolecules from human plasma, while asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF or AF4) was able to fractionate relevant subpopulations of biomacromolecules (e.g., small dense low-density lipoproteins, exomeres, and exosomes) from the isolates. Continuous flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PF-ACE) were employed to study the affinity of the interactions between the antibody and lipoproteins. The first step was to develop a method to study interactions between antibody and lipoproteins to select a high affinity antibody useful for the isolation of lipoprotein subpopulations by IAC. The interaction data obtained with PF-ACE was analyzed to determine the heterogeneity of the interactions with adsorption energy distribution calculations, while the QCM data was processed with interaction maps. The affinity constants obtained with QCM and PF-ACE agreed well with each other. Next, the IAC methods were developed to capture EVs of different cellular origins from human plasma using anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (mAb), while anti-CD61 mAb was exploited to capture platelet-derived EVs. The anti-apolipoprotein B-100 (anti-apoB-100) mAb was exploited to immunocapture apoB-100 containing lipoproteins. The anti-apoB-100 mAb was also characterized by the PF-ACE and QCM studies. Appropriate elution conditions were found for the IAC methods, which has often been an issue with magnetic beads-based immunoaffinity methods. Since IAC allowed selective isolation of EVs and lipoproteins, a size-based separation to their subpopulations with AsFlFFF was introduced as a successive step. This enabled additional characterization of subpopulations by nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blotting, electron microscopy, capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescent detection, zeta potential measurements, as well as free amino acids and glucose analysis with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, IAC was successfully on-line coupled to AsFlFFF, resulting in quick and automated isolation and fractionation of the subpopulations of EVs and lipoproteins. The constructed IAC-AsFlFFF system was able to process reliably 18–38 samples in 24 h with only minor operator involvement, resulting in highly reproducible and gentle fractionation of EV subpopulations in the size range of exomeres and exosomes. Polymeric monolithic disk columns were utilized for the first time for the IAC-based isolation of EVs and their subpopulations from human plasma, and for the detection of exomeres in CD9+ EVs and CD61+ platelet-derived EVs from human plasma samples. The results demonstrated that CD61+ EVs are potentially taking part in gluconeogenesis based on free amino acids and glucose present as cargo.
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2021
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Diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicle‑associated microRNA‑10b and tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potential diagnostic markers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential EV miRNA biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Potential miRNAs were identified by searching public databases and verified by examining clinical samples. The diagnostic value of EV‑associated miR‑10b, plasma miR‑10b and tumor markers (TMs), including α‑fetoprotein (AFP), neuron‑specific enolase, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‑1 (CYFRA211), pro‑gastrin‑releasing‑peptide, carbohydrate antigen (CA)125, CA153, CA199 and CA724, was evaluated via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. By searching the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases, miR‑10b was identified as a potential biomarker. The analysis of clinical samples suggested that EV‑associated miR‑10b from plasma was significantly differentially expressed between LUAD and control samples. EV‑associated miR‑10b could function as a diagnostic marker for LUAD, with an AUC of 0.998, which was higher than the AUCs for TMs such as AFP, CEA, CYFRA211, CA125, CA153, CA199, CA724, pro‑gastrin‑releasing‑peptide and neuron‑specific enolase. In conclusion, EV‑associated miR‑10b may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for LUAD that is superior to plasma miR‑10b and TMs.
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2021
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Direct Detection of Conserved Viral Sequences and Other Nucleic Acid Motifs with Solid-State Nanopores
The rapid and reliable recognition of nucleic acid sequences is essential to a broad range of fields including genotyping, gene expression analysis, and pathogen screening. For viral detection in particular, the capability is critical for optimal therapeutic response and preventing disease transmission. Here, we report an approach for detecting identifying sequence motifs within genome-scale single-strand DNA and RNA based on solid-state nanopores. By designing DNA oligonucleotide probes with complementarity to target sequences within a target genome, we establish a protocol to yield affinity-tagged duplex molecules the same length as the probe only if the target is present. The product can subsequently be bound to a protein chaperone and analyzed quantitatively with a selective solid-state nanopore assay. We first use a model DNA genome (M13mp18) to validate the approach, showing the successful isolation and detection of multiple target sequences simultaneously. We then demonstrate the protocol for the detection of RNA viruses by identifying and targeting a highly conserved sequence within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1B).
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2021
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Drug-Rich Phases Induced by Amorphous Solid Dispersion: Arbitrary or Intentional Goal in Oral Drug Delivery?
Among many methods to mitigate the solubility limitations of drug compounds, amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is considered to be one of the most promising strategies to enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The enhancement of ASD in the oral absorption of drugs has been mainly attributed to the high apparent drug solubility during the dissolution. In the last decade, with the implementations of new knowledge and advanced analytical techniques, a drug-rich transient metastable phase was frequently highlighted within the supersaturation stage of the ASD dissolution. The extended drug absorption and bioavailability enhancement may be attributed to the metastability of such drug-rich phases. In this paper, we have reviewed (i) the possible theory behind the formation and stabilization of such metastable drug-rich phases, with a focus on non-classical nucleation; (ii) the additional benefits of the ASD-induced drug-rich phases for bioavailability enhancements. It is envisaged that a greater understanding of the non-classical nucleation theory and its application on the ASD design might accelerate the drug product development process in the future.
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2021
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Dually targeted bioinspired nanovesicle delays advanced prostate cancer tumour growth in vivo
Prostate cancer (PC) is second-leading cancer in men, with limited treatment options available for men with advanced and metastatic PC. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been exploited as therapeutic targets in PC due to their upregulation in the advanced stages of the disease. To date, several PSA- and PSMA-activatable prodrugs have been developed to reduce the systemic toxicity of existing chemotherapeutics. Bioinspired nanovesicles have been exploited in drug delivery, offering prolonged drug blood circulation and higher tumour accumulation. For the first time, this study describes the engineering of dually targeted PSA/PSMA nanovesicles for advanced PC. PSMA-targeted bioinspired hybrids were prepared by hydrating a lipid film with anti-PSMA-U937 cell membranes and DOX-PSA prodrug, followed by extrusion. The bioinspired hybrids were characterised using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, Dot blot, flow cytometry and Western blot. Cellular binding and toxicity studies in PC cancer cell lines were carried out using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and resazurin assay. Finally, tumour targeting and therapeutic efficacy studies were performed in solid and metastatic C4-2B-tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, our PSMA-targeted hybrids demonstrated high cell uptake in PSMA-expressing cells with significant accumulation in solid and metastatic C4-2B tumour tissues following intravenous administration. More promisingly, our dually targeted PSA/PSMA hybrid significantly slowed down the C4-2B tumour growth in vivo, compared to free DOX-PSA and non-targeted PSA-hybrid. Our PSA/PSMA bioinspired hybrid could offer a highly selective treatment for advanced PC with lower side effects. Statement of significance This study investigates a new approach to treat prostate cancer using dually targeted bioinspired nanovesicle . Our bioinspired vesicles are made mainly of a human blood cell membrane with a ligand recognising a specific marker (PSMA) on the surface of the prostate cancer cells. The present work describes the successful loading of a doxorubicin prodrug linked to a PSA- activatable peptide into these targeted bioinspired nanovesicle , where the active PSA enzyme presents in these cells converts the drug to its active form. Our dually targeted PSA/PSMA hybrid vesicles has successfully improved site-specific prodrug delivery to tackle advanced prostate cancer, offering a novel and effective prostate cancer treatment.
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2021
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Effect of Detergents on Morphology, Size Distribution, and Concentration of Copolymer-Based Polymersomes
Polymersomes made of amphiphilic diblock copolymers are generally regarded as having higher physical and chemical stability than liposomes composed of phospholipids. This enhanced stability arises from the higher molecular weight of polymer constituents. Despite their increased stability, polymer bilayers are solubilized by detergents in a similar manner to lipid bilayers. In this work, we evaluated the stability of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG–PCL)-based polymersomes exposed to three different detergents: N-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (OG), lauryldimethylamine N-oxide (LDAO), and Triton X-100 (TX-100). Changes in morphology, particle size distribution, and concentrations of the polymersomes were evaluated during the titration of the detergents into the polymersome solutions. Furthermore, we discussed the effect of detergent features on the solubilization of the polymeric bilayer and compared it to the results reported in the literature for liposomes and polymersomes. This information can be used for tuning the properties of PEG–PCL polymersomes for use in applications such as drug delivery or protein reconstitution studies.
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2021
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Effects of exosomes derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells on apoptosis of pre-chondrogenic cells stimulated by inflammatory factors
·To investigate the effect of exosomes derived from umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on apoptosis of murine pre-chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 cells under inflammatory stimulation. ·The exosomes derived from HUVECs were isolated by using an exosome isolation kit. Western blotting was used to detect the exosome marker proteins, including tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), cluster differentiation 9 (CD9) and apoptosis linked gene-2-interacting protein X (Alix). The morphology of exosomes was observed by transmission electron microscope, and the size of exosomes was identified by particle size detection. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the ATDC5 cell uptake of exosomes and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TUNEL staining and flow cytometry were used to examine the effect of exosomes on ATDC5 cell apoptosis stimulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Western blotting was used to detect the effect of exosomes on the expression levels of ATDC5 apoptosis-related proteins such as B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 (c-caspase-3) and anti-oxidative stress-related proteins such as nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap-1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-like protein 1 (NQO-1) under IL-1β stimulation. ·Under the transmission electron microscope, the HUVEC-derived exosomes were oval, hollow, double-layered, and positively expressed exosome markers CD9, Alix and Tsg101. Compared with the ATDC5 cells stimulated by IL-1β, ATDC5 cells stimulated by IL-1β incubated with exosomes had higher level of ROS (P=0.000) and higher apoptosis rate (P=0.000). The expression of Bax, c-caspase-3 and Keap-1 increased, and the expression of Bcl-2, Nrf-2, HO-1 and NQO-1 decreased in ATDC5 cells exposed to IL-1β and exosomes compared to ATDC5 cells only exposed to IL-1β. ·HUVEC-derived exosomes may promote ATDC5 cells apoptosis under the stimulation of IL-1β by inhibiting the ability of ATDC5 cell to resist oxidative stress.
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2021
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Embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes attenuate transverse aortic constriction induced heart failure by increasing angiogenesis
Background: Although there are concerns regarding their clinical use, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold a great promise for cardiac repair. Exosomes deriving from ESCs constitute a promising alternative for heart restoration. However, their effects in hypertension-induced heart failure are still unknown. Objective and Methods: To investigate the effects of ESCs-derived exosomes on hypertension-induced heart failure and the underlying mechanisms, sustained transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed on 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice. After 1 months, ESCs-derived exosomes were isolated and injected intravenously once a week for 6 weeks. Echocardiography, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, and tube formation assays were all involved in our study. Results: Proteomics analyses revealed that ESC-derived exosomes contain FGF2 protein. Tube formation induced by these exosomes could be inhibited by FGF2R siRNA interference. ESCs-derived exosomes evidently attenuated TAC-induced heart failure, improving cardiac function and promoting myocardial angiogenesis which can be attenuated by selective FGF2 inhibitor AZD4547. Conclusions: ESC-derived exosomes attenuate TAC-induced heart failure mostly by promoting myocardial angiogenesis. FGF2 signaling plays a vital role in the myocardial angiogenesis induced by ESC-derived exosomes. Keywords: embryonic stem cells, exosomes, angiogenesis, transverse aortic constriction, heart failure
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2021
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Epithelial IL-33 appropriates exosome trafficking for secretion in chronic airway disease
IL-33 is a key mediator of chronic airway disease driven by type 2 immune pathways, yet the nonclassical secretory mechanism for this cytokine remains undefined. We performed a comprehensive analysis in human airway epithelial cells, which revealed that tonic IL-33 secretion is dependent on the ceramide biosynthetic enzyme neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2). IL-33 is cosecreted with exosomes by the nSMase2-regulated multivesicular endosome (MVE) pathway as surface-bound cargo. In support of these findings, human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specimens exhibited increased epithelial expression of the abundantly secreted IL33Δ34 isoform and augmented nSMase2 expression compared with non-COPD specimens. Using an Alternaria-induced airway disease model, we found that the nSMase2 inhibitor GW4869 abrogated both IL-33 and exosome secretion as well as downstream inflammatory pathways. This work elucidates a potentially novel aspect of IL-33 biology that may be targeted for therapeutic benefit in chronic airway diseases driven by type 2 inflammation. Keywords: Immunology, Pulmonology Keywords: COPD, Cellular immune response, Cytokines
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2021
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Enzymatically active apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 is released by mammalian cells through exosomes
The apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APE1), the main AP-endonuclease of the DNA base excision repair pathway, is a key molecule of interest to researchers due to its unsuspected roles in different nonrepair activities, such as: i) adaptive cell response to genotoxic stress, ii) regulation of gene expression, and iii) processing of microRNAs, which make it an excellent drug target for cancer treatment. We and others recently demonstrated that APE1 can be secreted in the extracellular environment and that serum APE1 may represent a novel prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular and non-small-cell lung cancers. However, the mechanism by which APE1 is released extracellularly was not described before. Here, using three different approaches for exosomes isolation: commercial kit, nickel-based isolation, and ultracentrifugation methods and various mammalian cell lines, we elucidated the mechanisms responsible for APE1 secretion. We demonstrated that APE1 p37 and p33 forms are actively secreted through extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes from different mammalian cell lines. We then observed that APE1 p33 form is generated by proteasomal-mediated degradation and is enzymatically active in EVs. Finally, we revealed that the p33 form of APE1 accumulates in EVs upon genotoxic treatment by cisplatin and doxorubicin, compounds commonly found in chemotherapy pharmacological treatments. Taken together, these findings provide for the first time evidence that a functional Base Excision Repair protein is delivered through exosomes in response to genotoxic stresses, shedding new light into the complex noncanonical biological functions of APE1 and opening new intriguing perspectives on its role in cancer biology.
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2021
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Estradiol driven metabolism in transwomen associates with reduced circulating extracellular vesicle microRNA-224/452
Objective Sex steroid hormones like estrogens have a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. In transwomen, gender-affirming hormone therapy like estradiol (in combination with antiandrogenic compounds) could affect metabolism as well. Given that the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, this study assessed circulating estradiol-driven microRNAs (miRs) in transwomen and their regulation of genes involved in metabolism in mice. Methods Following plasma miR-sequencing (seq) in a transwomen discovery (n = 20) and validation cohort (n = 30), we identified miR-224 and miR-452. Subsequent systemic silencing of these miRs in male C57Bl/6 J mice (n = 10) was followed by RNA-seq-based gene expression analysis of brown and white adipose tissue in conjunction with mechanistic studies in cultured adipocytes. Results Estradiol in transwomen lowered plasma miR-224 and -452 carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) while their systemic silencing in mice and cultured adipocytes increased lipogenesis (white adipose) but reduced glucose uptake and mitochondrial respiration (brown adipose). In white and brown adipose tissue, differentially expressed (miR target) genes are associated with lipogenesis (white adipose) and mitochondrial respiration and glucose uptake (brown adipose). Conclusion This study identified an estradiol-drive post-transcriptional network that could potentially offer a mechanistic understanding of metabolism following gender-affirming estradiol therapy.
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2021
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Evaluating comparative β-glucan production aptitude of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Xanthomonas campestris, and Bacillus natto
β-glucan is a natural polysaccharide derivative composed of a group of glucose monomers with β-glycoside bonds that can be synthesized intra- or extra-cellular by various microorganisms such as yeasts, bacteria, and moulds. The study aimed to discover the potential of various microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Xanthomonas campestris, and Bacillus natto in producing β-glucan. The experimental method used and the data were analyzed descriptively. The four microorganisms above were cultured under a submerged state in Yeast glucose (YG) broth for 120 h at 30 °C with 200 rpm agitation. During the growth, several parameters were examined including total population by optical density, the pH, and glucose contents of growth media. β-glucan was extracted using acid-alkaline methods from the growth media then the weight was measured. The results showed that S. cerevisiae, A. oryzae X. campestris, and B. natto were prospective for β-glucans production in submerged fermentation up to 120 h. The highest β-glucans yield was shown by B. natto (20.38%) with the β-glucans mass of 1.345 ± 0.08 mg and globular diameter of 600 μm. The highest β-glucan mass was achieved by A. oryzae of 82.5 ± 0.03 mg with the total population in optical density of 0.1246, a final glucose level of 769 ppm, the pH of 6.67, and yield of 13.97% with a globular diameter of 1400 μm.
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2021
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Evidence of Immune Modulators in the Secretome of the Equine Tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata
Anoplocephala perfoliata is a neglected gastro-intestinal tapeworm, commonly infecting horses worldwide. Molecular investigation of A. perfoliata is hampered by a lack of tools to better understand the host–parasite interface. This interface is likely influenced by parasite derived immune modulators released in the secretome as free proteins or components of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, adult RNA was sequenced and de novo assembled to generate the first A. perfoliata transcriptome. In addition, excretory secretory products (ESP) from adult A. perfoliata were collected and EVs isolated using size exclusion chromatography, prior to proteomic analysis of the EVs, the EV surface and EV depleted ESP. Transcriptome analysis revealed 454 sequences homologous to known helminth immune modulators including two novel Sigma class GSTs, five α-HSP90s, and three α-enolases with isoforms of all three observed within the proteomic analysis of the secretome. Furthermore, secretome proteomics identified common helminth proteins across each sample with known EV markers, such as annexins and tetraspanins, observed in EV fractions. Importantly, 49 of the 454 putative immune modulators were identified across the secretome proteomics contained within and on the surface of EVs in addition to those identified in free ESP. This work provides the molecular tools for A. perfoliata to reveal key players in the host–parasite interaction within the horse host.
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2021
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Evidence of Immune Modulators in the Secretome of the Equine Tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata. Pathogens 2021, 10, 912
Anoplocephala perfoliata is a neglected gastro-intestinal tapeworm, commonly infecting horses worldwide. Molecular investigation of A. perfoliata is hampered by a lack of tools to better understand the host–parasite interface. This interface is likely influenced by parasite derived immune modulators released in the secretome as free proteins or components of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, adult RNA was sequenced and de novo assembled to generate the first A. perfoliata transcriptome. In addition, excretory secretory products (ESP) from adult A. perfoliata were collected and EVs isolated using size exclusion chromatography, prior to proteomic analysis of the EVs, the EV surface and EV depleted ESP. Transcriptome analysis revealed 454 sequences homologous to known helminth immune modulators including two novel Sigma class GSTs, five α-HSP90s, and three α-enolases with isoforms of all three observed within the proteomic analysis of the secretome. Furthermore, secretome proteomics identified common helminth proteins across each sample with known EV markers, such as annexins and tetraspanins, observed in EV fractions. Importantly, 49 of the 454 putative immune modulators were identified across the secretome proteomics contained within and on the surface of EVs in addition to those identified in free ESP. This work provides the molecular tools for A. perfoliata to reveal key players in the host–parasite interaction within the horse host.
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2021
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Exosomal CD47 plays an essential role in immune evasion in ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is largely diagnosed at advanced stages upon detection of multiple peritoneal dissemination, resulting in poor outcomes. CD47 is overexpressed in tumors, facilitates tumor immune evasion, and is located on exosomes. We aimed to investigate the role of exosomal CD47 in ovarian cancer progression. Prognostic significance of CD47 expression in ovarian cancer was examined using a public database including 1,435 patients and validated with 26 patients at our institution. CD47 expression was associated with poor progression-free survival and inversely correlated with macrophage infiltration in ovarian cancer tissues. Exosomes were collected from ovarian cancer cell lines, and CD47 expression on exosomes was confirmed via flow cytometry. Inhibition of exosome secretion with GW4869 and exosome uptake with 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride inhibited the surface CD47 expression on ovarian cancer cells and promoted phagocytosis by macrophages. RAB27A (a key regulator of exosome release) knockdown inhibited exosome secretion and led to CD47 downregulation in ovarian cancer cells. In a xenograft mouse model, suppression of the release of tumor-derived exosomes by GW4869 or RAB27A knockdown suppressed tumor progression and enhanced M1 macrophage phagocytosis in cancer tissues. Collectively, CD47 expression was correlated with poor prognoses in patients with ovarian cancer, suggesting the importance of immune evasion. CD47 was expressed on exosomes and the inhibition of exosome secretion and/or uptake enhanced cancer cell phagocytosis by macrophages, and thus, suppressed peritoneal dissemination. This suggests the potential of a novel immune checkpoint therapeutic agent that focuses on exosomes. Implications: Mechanistic insight from the current study suggests that exosomal CD47 may be an advantageous therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.
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2021
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Exosome-Depleted Excretory-Secretory Products of the Fourth-Stage Larval Angiostrongylus cantonensis Promotes Alternative Activation of Macrophages Through Metabolic Reprogramming by the PI3K-Akt Pathway
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AC), which parasitizes in the brain of the non-permissive host, such as mouse and human, is an etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningitis. Excretory-secretory (ES) products play an important role in the interaction between parasites and hosts’ immune responses. Inflammatory macrophages are responsible for eosinophilic meningitis induced by AC, and the soluble antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis fourth stage larva (AC L4), a mimic of dead AC L4, aggravate eosinophilic meningitis in AC-infected mice model via promoting alternative activation of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the key molecules in the ES products of AC L4 on macrophages and observed the relationship between metabolic reprogramming and the PI3K-Akt pathway. First, a co-culture system of macrophage and AC L4 was established to define the role of AC L4 ES products on macrophage polarization. Then, AC L4 exosome and exosome-depleted excretory-secretory products (exofree) were separated from AC L4 ES products using differential centrifugation, and their distinct roles on macrophage polarization were confirmed using qPCR and ELISA experiments. Moreover, AC L4 exofree induced alternative activation of macrophages, which is partially associated with metabolic reprogramming by the PI3K-Akt pathway. Next, lectin blot and deglycosylation assay were done, suggesting the key role of N-linked glycoproteins in exofree. Then, glycoproteomic analysis of exofree and RNA-seq analysis of exofree-treated macrophage were performed. Bi-layer PPI network analysis based on these results identified macrophage-related protein Hexa as a key molecule in inducing alternative activation of macrophages. Our results indicate a great value for research of helminth-derived immunoregulatory molecules, which might contribute to drug development for immune-related diseases. Keywords: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, exosome-depleted excretory-secretory products, N-linked glycoproteins, macrophage polarization, mechanism
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2021
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Exosome-functionalized polyetheretherketone-based implant with immunomodulatory property for enhancing osseointegration
The host immune response effecting on biomaterials is critical to determine implant fates and bone regeneration property. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) derived exosomes (Exos) contain multiple biosignal molecules and have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory functions. Herein, we develop a BMSC-derived Exos–functionalized implant to accelerate bone integration by immunoregulation. BMSC-derived Exos were reversibly incorporated on tannic acid (TA) modified sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) via the strong interaction of TA with biomacromolecules. The slowly released Exos from SPEEK can be phagocytosed by co-cultured cells, which could efficiently improve the biocompatibilities of SPEEK. In vitro results showed the Exos loaded SPEEK promoted macrophage M2 polarization via the NF-κB pathway to enhance BMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Further in vivo rat air-pouch model and rat femoral drilling model assessment of Exos loaded SPEEK revealed efficient macrophage M2 polarization, desirable new bone formation, and satisfactory osseointegration. Thus, BMSC-derived Exos–functionalized implant exerted osteoimmunomodulation effect to promote osteogenesis.
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2021
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