Determining extracellular vesicles properties and miRNA cargo variability in bovine milk from healthy cows and cows undergoing subclinical mastitis
Saenz-de-Juano, Mara D., Giulia Silvestrelli, Stefan Bauersachs, and Susanne E. Ulbrich. 2022. “Determining Extracellular Vesicles Properties and MiRNA Cargo Variability in Bovine Milk from Healthy Cows and Cows Undergoing Subclinical Mastitis.” BMC Genomics 23 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-022-08377-z.
Subclinical mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland lacking clinical symptoms, is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in dairy farming worldwide. Milk microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers of different mammary gland conditions, including subclinical mastitis. However, little is known about the robustness of EVs analysis regarding sampling time-point and natural infections. To estimate the reliability of EVs measurements in raw bovine milk, we first evaluated changes in EVs size and concentration using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) during three consecutive days of sampling. Then, we analysed daily differences in miRNA cargo using small RNA-seq. Finally, we compared milk EVs differences from naturally infected udder quarters with their healthy adjacent quarters and quarters from uninfected udders, respectively. Results
We found that the milk EV miRNA cargo was very stable over the course of three days regardless of the health status of the quarter, and that infected quarters did not induce relevant changes in milk EVs of adjacent healthy quarters. Chronic subclinical mastitis induced changes in milk EV miRNA cargo, but neither in EVs size nor concentration. We observed that the changes in immunoregulatory miRNAs in quarters with chronic subclinical mastitis were cow-individual, however, the most upregulated miRNA was bta-miR-223-3p across all individuals. Conclusions
Our results showed that the miRNA profile and particle size characteristics remained constant throughout consecutive days, suggesting that miRNAs packed in EVs are physiological state-specific. In addition, infected quarters were solely affected while adjacent healthy quarters remained unaffected. Finally, the cow-individual miRNA changes pointed towards infection-specific alterations.View full article