Determining extracellular vesicles properties and miRNA cargo variability in bovine milk from healthy cows and cows undergoing subclinical mastitis

Extracellular Vesicles

Saenz-de-Juano, Mara D., Giulia Silvestrelli, Stefan Bauersachs, and Susanne E. Ulbrich. 2022. “Determining Extracellular Vesicles Properties and MiRNA Cargo Variability in Bovine Milk from Healthy Cows and Cows Undergoing Subclinical Mastitis.” BMC Genomics 23 (1).

Background Subclinical mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland lacking clinical symptoms, is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in dairy farming worldwide. Milk microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers of different mammary gland conditions, including subclinical mastitis. However, little is known about the robustness of EVs analysis regarding sampling time-point and natural infections. To estimate the reliability of EVs measurements in raw bovine milk, we first evaluated changes in EVs size and concentration using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) during three consecutive days of sampling. Then, we analysed daily differences in miRNA cargo using small RNA-seq. Finally, we compared milk EVs differences from naturally infected udder quarters with their healthy adjacent quarters and quarters from uninfected udders, respectively. Results We found that the milk EV miRNA cargo was very stable over the course of three days regardless of the health status of the quarter, and that infected quarters did not induce relevant changes in milk EVs of adjacent healthy quarters. Chronic subclinical mastitis induced changes in milk EV miRNA cargo, but neither in EVs size nor concentration. We observed that the changes in immunoregulatory miRNAs in quarters with chronic subclinical mastitis were cow-individual, however, the most upregulated miRNA was bta-miR-223-3p across all individuals. Conclusions Our results showed that the miRNA profile and particle size characteristics remained constant throughout consecutive days, suggesting that miRNAs packed in EVs are physiological state-specific. In addition, infected quarters were solely affected while adjacent healthy quarters remained unaffected. Finally, the cow-individual miRNA changes pointed towards infection-specific alterations.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.