Human hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate the carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice

Extracellular Vesicles

Kakizaki, Masatoshi, Yuichiro Yamamoto, Shunya Nakayama, Kazuaki Kameda, Etsuko Nagashima, Masatoshi Ito, Takashi Suyama, et al. 2021. “Human Hepatocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate the Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.” Cell Death & Disease 12 (11).

Acute liver injury (ALI) induced by chemicals or viruses can progress rapidly to acute liver failure (ALF), often resulting in death of patients without liver transplantation. Since liver transplantation is limited due to a paucity of donors, expensive surgical costs, and severe immune rejection, novel therapies are required to treat liver injury. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are used for cellular communication, carrying RNAs, proteins, and lipids and delivering them intercellularly after being endocytosed by target cells. Recently, it was reported that EVs secreted from human hepatocytes have an ability to modulate the immune responses; however, these roles of EVs secreted from human hepatocytes were studied only with in vitro experiments. In the present study, we evidenced that EVs secreted from human hepatocytes attenuated the CCL4-induced ALI by inhibiting the recruitment of monocytes through downregulation of chemokine receptor in the bone marrow and recruitment of neutrophils through the reduction of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CXCL2 expression levels in the liver.

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Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.