Human hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate the carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice

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/References
Kakizaki, Masatoshi, Yuichiro Yamamoto, Shunya Nakayama, Kazuaki Kameda, Etsuko Nagashima, Masatoshi Ito, Takashi Suyama, et al. 2021. “Human Hepatocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate the Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.” Cell Death & Disease 12 (11). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04204-7.
Acute liver injury (ALI) induced by chemicals or viruses can progress rapidly to acute liver failure (ALF), often resulting in death of patients without liver transplantation. Since liver transplantation is limited due to a paucity of donors, expensive surgical costs, and severe immune rejection, novel therapies are required to treat liver injury. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are used for cellular communication, carrying RNAs, proteins, and lipids and delivering them intercellularly after being endocytosed by target cells. Recently, it was reported that EVs secreted from human hepatocytes have an ability to modulate the immune responses; however, these roles of EVs secreted from human hepatocytes were studied only with in vitro experiments. In the present study, we evidenced that EVs secreted from human hepatocytes attenuated the CCL4-induced ALI by inhibiting the recruitment of monocytes through downregulation of chemokine receptor in the bone marrow and recruitment of neutrophils through the reduction of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CXCL2 expression levels in the liver.
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Antimicrobial potential of probiotic cell-free and Carum copticum L. seed extracts co-nanoencapsulated in cellulose acetate fibers
The aim of this work was to co-nanoencapsulate Lactobacillus acidophilus (LCFE) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (BCFE) cell-free extract and zenyan (Carum copticum L.) seed water (ZWE) and ethanolic (ZEE) extract in electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers and evaluate antimicrobial potential. The zeta potential, SEM image, antibacterial (MIC and MBC), and antifungal (MIC and MFC) activities were evaluated. TPC (total phenol content) of water and ethanol extract of zenyan seed were 14.05 and 136.44 mg GAE/g, respectively. A zeta potential of −40.25, −45.80, −43.71, 48.55, 35.50, 47.93, 31.50, 44.69, and −29.61 mV was found for nanofibers of pure CA (cellulose acetate), CA/LCFE, CA/BCFE, CA/ZWE, CA/ZEE, CA/LCFE/ZWE, CA/LCFE/ ZEE, CA/BCFE/ZWE, and CA/LCFE/ZEE, respectively. CA electrospun nanofiber loaded with different extracts showed nanosized diameter and uniform structure. Nanoencapsulated extracts showed considerably higher antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to free extracts. Antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cell-free extract was higher than bifidobacteria, which indicated the presence of the higher amount of antibacterial compounds in lactobacilli extract. Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes) had the lowest MIC and MBC of free and nanoencapsulated extracts while Gram-negatives (E. coli, S. dysenteriae, and S. enteritidis) had higher MIC and MBC. CA-coated zenyan extracts (water and ethanolic) inhibited the growth of the assayed fungi at the MIC ranging 0.25 to 0.95%. These concentrations were 1.5–2 times lower than those obtained for pure extracts. For nanoencapsulated cellfree extracts of both probiotics, the MIC values were about five times lower than the free extracts. The highest antimicrobial activity obtained for CA nanofibers contained zenyan ethanolic extract and cell-free extract of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria.
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2022
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Methodology to Detect Biological Particles Using a Biosensing Surface Integrated in Resistive Pulse Sensing
Resistive pulse sensing (RPS) is an analytical method that can be used to individually count particles from a small sample. RPS simply monitors the physical characteristics of particles, such as size, shape, and charge density, and the integration of RPS with biosensing is an attractive theme to detect biological particles such as virus and bacteria. In this report, a methodology of biosensing on RPS was investigated. Polydopamine (PD), an adhesive component of mussels, was used as the base material to create a sensing surface. PD adheres to most materials, such as noble metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers; as a result, PD is a versatile intermediate layer for the fabrication of a biosensing surface. As an example of a biological particle, human influenza A virus (H1N1 subtype) was used to monitor translocation of particles through the pore membrane. When virus-specific ligands (6′-sialyllactose) were immobilized on the pore surface, the translocation time of the virus particles was considerably extended. The detailed translocation data suggest that the viral particles were trapped on the sensing surface by specific interactions. In addition, virus translocation processes on different pore surfaces were distinguished using machine learning. The result shows that the simple and versatile PD-based biosensor surface design was effective. This advanced RPS measurement system could be a promising analytical technique.
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2022
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Modified Bovine Milk Exosomes for Doxorubicin Delivery to Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Biological nanoparticles, such as exosomes, offer an approach to drug delivery because of their innate ability to transport biomolecules. Exosomes are derived from cells and an integral component of cellular communication. However, the cellular cargo of human exosomes could negatively impact their use as a safe drug carrier. Additionally, exosomes have the intrinsic yet enigmatic, targeting characteristics of complex cellular communication. Hence, harnessing the natural transport abilities of exosomes for drug delivery requires predictably targeting these biological nanoparticles. This manuscript describes the use of two chemical modifications, incorporating a neuropilin receptor agonist peptide (iRGD) and a hypoxia-responsive lipid for targeting and release of an encapsulated drug from bovine milk exosomes to triple-negative breast cancer cells. Triple-negative breast cancer is a very aggressive and deadly form of malignancy with limited treatment options. Incorporation of both the iRGD peptide and hypoxia-responsive lipid into the lipid bilayer of bovine milk exosomes and encapsulation of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin, created the peptide targeted, hypoxia-responsive bovine milk exosomes, iDHRX. Initial studies confirmed the presence of iRGD peptide and the exosomes’ ability to target the αvβ3 integrin, overexpressed on triple-negative breast cancer cells’ surface. These modified exosomes were stable under normoxic conditions but fragmented in the reducing microenvironment created by 10 mM glutathione. In vitro cellular internalization studies in monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) spheroids of triple-negative breast cancer cells confirmed the cell-killing ability of iDHRX. Cell viability of 50% was reached at 10 μM iDHRX in the 3D spheroid models using four different triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Overall, the tumor penetrating, hypoxia-responsive exosomes encapsulating doxorubicin would be effective in reducing triple-negative breast cancer cells’ survival.
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2022
ev
Erythrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles aggravate inflammation by promoting the proinflammatory macrophage phenotype through TLR4–MyD88–NF-κB–MAPK pathway
Transfusion of stored erythrocytes is associated with the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critical infections, but the mechanism is incompletely understood. Previous studies have suggested that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be potential risk factors for the occurrence of transfusion-related immunomodulation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of RBC-derived EVs under inflammatory conditions and explore the underlying mechanisms. In vivo, the activity of EVs was evaluated in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Our results showed that EVs significantly aggravated the inflammatory response to sepsis in serum and lung tissue by promoting the production of the proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and reduced the survival rate of septic mice in vivo. Importantly, adoptive transfer of EVs-pretreated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) obviously aggravated systemic proinflammatory factors in mice after CLP surgery. In vitro, the proinflammatory properties of EVs were shown to elevate TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDMs. Moreover, EVs promoted LPS-induced macrophage polarization into a proinflammatory phenotype. The underlying mechanism might involve EV-mediated up-regulation of TLR4–MyD88–NF-κB–MAPK activity to favor macrophage cytokine production.
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2022
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A functional corona around extracellular vesicles enhances angiogenesis, skin regeneration and immunomodulation
Nanoparticles can acquire a plasma protein corona defining their biological identity. Corona functions were previously considered for cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here we demonstrate that nano-sized EVs from therapy-grade human placental-expanded (PLX) stromal cells are surrounded by an imageable and functional protein corona when enriched with permissive technology. Scalable EV separation from cell-secreted soluble factors via tangential flow-filtration (TFF) and subtractive tandem mass-tag (TMT) proteomics revealed significant enrichment of predominantly immunomodulatory and proangiogenic proteins. Western blot, calceinbased flow cytometry, super-resolution and electron microscopy verified EV identity. PLX-EVs partly protected corona proteins from protease digestion. EVs significantly ameliorated human skin regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo, induced differential signalling in immune cells, and dose-dependently inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro. Corona removal by size-exclusion or ultracentrifugation abrogated angiogenesis. Re-establishing an artificial corona by cloaking EVs with fluorescent albumin as a model protein or defined proangiogenic factors was depicted by superresolution microscopy, electron microscopy and zeta-potential shift, and served as a proof-of-concept. Understanding EV corona formation will improve rational EVinspired nano-therapy design.
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2022
Cardioprotective effect of extracellular vesicles derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocyte on hyperglycemic cardiomyocytes through alleviation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) via connecting the immune cell response to tissue injury, besides stimulation to muscle insulin resistance, while DM is associated with increased risks for major cardiovascular complications. Under DM, chronic hyperglycemia, and subsequent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) further lead to cardiac growth remodeling and dysfunction. The purinergic drug ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Although it is widely used in cardioprotection, the underlying molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly elucidated. Here, we aimed to understand how ticagrelor exerts its cardio-regulatory effects. For this purpose, we investigated the anti-oxidative and cardioprotective effect of EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocytes under DM conditions. To mimic DM in cardiomyocytes, we used high glucose incubated H9c2-cells (HG). HG cells were treated with EVs, which were derived from either ticagrelor-pretreated or untreated H9c2-cells. Our results demonstrated that ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-derived EVs significantly decreased the hyperglycemia-induced aberrant ROS production, prevented the development of apoptosis and ER stress, and alleviated oxidative stress associated miRNA-expression profile. Importantly, EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-cells enhanced endothelial cell migration and tube formation, suggesting a modulation of the EV profile in cardiomyocytes. Our data, for the first time, indicate that ticagrelor can exert an important regulatory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy through extracellular vesicular modulation behind its receptor-inhibition-related effects.
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2022
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Bioanalytics for Influenza Virus-Like Particle Characterization and Process Monitoring
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are excellent platforms for the development of influenza vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, their characterization is challenging due to VLPs’ unique biophysical and biochemical properties. To cope with such complexity, multiple analytical techniques have been developed to date (e.g., single-particle analysis, thermal stability, or quantification assays), most of which are rarely used or have been successfully demonstrated for being applicable for virus particle characterization. In this study, several biophysical and biochemical methods have been evaluated for thorough characterization of monovalent and pentavalent influenza VLPs from diverse groups (A and B) and subtypes (H1 and H3) produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS). Particle size distribution and purity profiles were monitored during the purification process using two complementary technologies — nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). VLP surface charge at the selected process pH was also assessed by this last technique. The morphology of the VLP (size, shape, and presence of hemagglutinin spikes) was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Circular dichroism was used to assess VLPs’ thermal stability. Total protein, DNA, and baculovirus content were also assessed. All VLPs analyzed exhibited similar size ranges (90–115 nm for NTA and 129–141 nm for TRPS), surface charges (average of −20.4 mV), and morphology (pleomorphic particles resembling influenza virus) exhibiting the presence of HA molecules (spikes) uniformly displayed on M1 protein scaffold. Our data shows that HA titers and purification efficiency in terms of impurity removal and thermal stability were observed to be particle dependent. This study shows robustness and generic applicability of the tools and methods evaluated, independent of VLP valency and group/subtype. Thus, they are most valuable to assist process development and enhance product characterization.
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2022
ev
Extracellular Vesicles in Type 1 Diabetes: A Versatile Tool
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting nearly 35 million people. This disease develops as T-cells continually attack the -cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which leads to -cell death, and steadily decreasing secretion of insulin. Lowered levels of insulin minimize the uptake of glucose into cells, thus putting the body in a hyperglycemic state. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease, there is a need for novel developments in the diagnostics and management of type 1 diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bound nanoparticles that contain diverse content from their cell of origin and can be used as a biomarker for both the onset of diabetes and transplantation rejection. Furthermore, vesicles can be loaded with therapeutic cargo and delivered in conjunction with a transplant to increase cell survival and long-term outcomes. Crucially, several studies have linked EVs and their cargos to the progression of type 1 diabetes. As a result, gaining a better understanding of EVs would help researchers better comprehend the utility of EVs in regulating and understanding type 1 diabetes. EVs are a composition of biologically active components such as nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites, and lipids that can be transported to particular cells/tissues through the blood system. Through their varied content, EVs can serve as a flexible aid in the diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes. In this review, we provide an overview of existing knowledge about EVs. We also cover the role of EVs in the pathogenesis, detection, and treatment of type 1 diabetes and the function of EVs in pancreas and islet -cell transplantation.
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2022
ev
Men and Women Display Distinct Extracellular Vesicle Biomarker Signatures in Response to Military Operational Stress
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of physiological changes that occur during physical exertion. This study examined the effects physical exertion with and without sleep and caloric restriction on EV size, concentration, and surface proteins in men and women. METHODS: Twenty participants (10 men) completed a 5-d simulated military operational stress protocol with daily physical exertion. Blood was drawn before and immediately after exertion at baseline (D1) and following 48-hr of sleep and caloric restriction (D3). EV size and concentration were assessed using nanoparticle tracking analysis. EVs were identified with markers associated with exosomes (CD63), microvesicles (VAMP3), apoptotic bodies (THSD1), and skeletal muscle-derived EVs (SGCA) and quantified using imaging flow cytometry. Interactive and main effects of sex, day, and time on EVs were assessed using three-way ANOVAs. RESULTS: EV concentration declined pre- to post-exertion in women on D1 and D3 but was stable in men. EV size increased from pre- to post-exertion and from D1 to D3 in men and women. Physical exertion following sleep and caloric restriction increased CD63+ EV concentration, proportion of total EVs, and CD63 surface protein expression regardless of sex. The proportion of SGCA+ EVs increased in men and women following exertion and from D1 to D3 but were higher in women than men. No differences were observed in VAMP3+ and THSD1+ EVs. CONCLUSION: This study identified sexually dimorphic EV profiles in response to various stressors. Further investigations are necessary to determine if dimorphic EV responses affect health and performance outcomes during stress.
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2022
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Determining extracellular vesicles properties and miRNA cargo variability in bovine milk from healthy cows and cows undergoing subclinical mastitis
Background Subclinical mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland lacking clinical symptoms, is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in dairy farming worldwide. Milk microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers of different mammary gland conditions, including subclinical mastitis. However, little is known about the robustness of EVs analysis regarding sampling time-point and natural infections. To estimate the reliability of EVs measurements in raw bovine milk, we first evaluated changes in EVs size and concentration using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) during three consecutive days of sampling. Then, we analysed daily differences in miRNA cargo using small RNA-seq. Finally, we compared milk EVs differences from naturally infected udder quarters with their healthy adjacent quarters and quarters from uninfected udders, respectively. Results We found that the milk EV miRNA cargo was very stable over the course of three days regardless of the health status of the quarter, and that infected quarters did not induce relevant changes in milk EVs of adjacent healthy quarters. Chronic subclinical mastitis induced changes in milk EV miRNA cargo, but neither in EVs size nor concentration. We observed that the changes in immunoregulatory miRNAs in quarters with chronic subclinical mastitis were cow-individual, however, the most upregulated miRNA was bta-miR-223-3p across all individuals. Conclusions Our results showed that the miRNA profile and particle size characteristics remained constant throughout consecutive days, suggesting that miRNAs packed in EVs are physiological state-specific. In addition, infected quarters were solely affected while adjacent healthy quarters remained unaffected. Finally, the cow-individual miRNA changes pointed towards infection-specific alterations.
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicles from Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Effectively Separated by Sepharose CL-6B—Comparison of Four Gravity-Flow Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a versatile group of cell-secreted membranous nanoparticles present in body fluids. They have an exceptional diagnostic potential due to their molecular content matching the originating cells and accessibility from body fluids. However, methods for EV isolation are still in development, with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) emerging as a preferred method. Here we compared four types of SEC to isolate EVs from the CSF of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. A pool of nine CSF samples was separated by SEC columns packed with Sepharose CL-6B, Sephacryl S-400 or Superose 6PG and a ready-to-use qEV10/70 nm column. A total of 46 fractions were collected and analysed by slot-blot followed by Ponceau staining. Immunodetection was performed for albumin, EV markers CD9, CD81, and lipoprotein markers ApoE and ApoAI. The size and concentration of nanoparticles in fractions were determined by tunable resistive pulse sensing and EVs were visualised by transmission electron microscopy. We show that all four SEC techniques enabled separation of CSF into nanoparticle- and free protein-enriched fractions. Sepharose CL-6B resulted in a significantly higher number of separated EVs while lipoproteins were eluted together with free proteins. Our data indicate that Sepharose CL-6B is suitable for isolation of EVs from CSF and their separation from lipoproteins.
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2022
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A new strategy to count and sort neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles: Validation in infectious disorders
Newly recognized polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) functions include the ability to release subcellular mediators such as neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) involved in immune and thrombo-inflammatory responses. Elevation of their plasmatic level has been reported in a variety of infectious and cardiovascular disorders, but the clinical use of this potential biomarker is hampered by methodological issues. Although flow cytometry (FCM) is currently used to detect NDEVs in the plasma of patients, an extensive characterization of NDEVs has never been done. Moreover, their detection remains challenging because of their small size and low antigen density. Therefore, the objective of the present study was first to establish a surface antigenic signature of NDEVs detectable by FCM and therefore to improve their detection in biological fluids by developing a strategy allowing to overcome their low fluorescent signal and reduce the background noise. By testing a large panel of 54 antibody specificities already reported to be positive on PMNs, we identified a profile of 15 membrane protein markers, including 4 (CD157, CD24, CD65 and CD66c) never described on NDEVs. Among them, CD15, CD66b and CD66c were identified as the most sensitive and specific markers to detect NDEVs by FCM. Using this antigenic signature, we developed a new strategy combining the three best antibodies in a cocktail and reducing the background noise by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This strategy allowed a significant improvement in NDEVs enumeration in plasma from sepsis patients and made it feasible to efficiently sort NDEVs from COVID-19 patients. Altogether, this work opens the door to a more valuable measurement of NDEVs as a potential biomarker in clinical practice. A similar strategy could also be applied to improve detection by FCM of other rare subpopulations of EVs generated by tissues with limited access, such as vascular endothelium, cancer cells or placenta
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2022
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The Therapeutic Potential of Exosomes in Soft Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Soft tissue defects are common following trauma and tumor extirpation. These injuries can result in poor functional recovery and lead to a diminished quality of life. The healing of skin and muscle is a complex process that, at present, leads to incomplete recovery and scarring. Regenerative medicine may offer the opportunity to improve the healing process and functional outcomes. Barriers to regenerative strategies have included cost, regulatory hurdles, and the need for cell-based therapies. In recent years, exosomes, or extracellular vesicles, have gained tremendous attention in the field of soft tissue repair and regeneration. These nanosized extracellular particles (30–140 nm) can break the cellular boundaries, as well as facilitate intracellular signal delivery in various regenerative physiologic and pathologic processes. Existing studies have established the potential of exosomes in regenerating tendons, skeletal muscles, and peripheral nerves through different mechanisms, including promoting myogenesis, increasing tenocyte differentiation and enhancing neurite outgrowth, and the proliferation of Schwann cells. These exosomes can be stored for immediate use in the operating room, and can be produced cost efficiently. In this article, we critically review the current advances of exosomes in soft tissue (tendons, skeletal muscles, and peripheral nerves) healing. Additionally, new directions for clinical applications in the future will be discussed.
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2022
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Exosomes in the Pathogenesis, Progression, and Treatment of Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent and debilitating age-related joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degeneration, synovial membrane inflammation, osteophyte formation, as well as subchondral bone sclerosis. OA drugs at present are mainly palliative and do not halt or reverse disease progression. Currently, no disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) are available and total joint arthroplasty remains a last resort. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of efficacious treatments for OA management. Among all novel pharmaco-therapeutical options, exosome-based therapeutic strategies are highly promising. Exosome cargoes, which include proteins, lipids, cytokines, and various RNA subtypes, are potentially capable of regulating intercellular communications and gene expression in target cells and tissues involved in OA development. With extensive research in recent years, exosomes in OA studies are no longer limited to classic, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived vesicles. New origins, structures, and functions of exosomes are constantly being discovered and investigated. This review systematically summarizes the non-classic origins, biosynthesis, and extraction of exosomes, describes modification and delivery techniques, explores their role in OA pathogenesis and progression, and discusses their therapeutic potential and hurdles to overcome in OA treatment.
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2022
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Cucumber-Derived Exosome-like Vesicles and PlantCrystals for Improved Dermal Drug Delivery
(1) Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered to be efficient nanocarriers for improved drug delivery and can be derived from mammalian or plant cells. Cucumber-derived EVs are not yet described in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce and characterize cucumber-derived EVs and to investigate their suitability to improve the dermal penetration efficacy of a lipophilic active ingredient (AI) surrogate. (2) Methods: The EVs were obtained by classical EVs isolation methods and by high pressure homogenization (HPH). They were characterized regarding their physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties. (3) Results: utilization of classical isolation and purification methods for EVs resulted in cucumber-derived EVs. Their dermal penetration efficacy for the AI surrogate was 2-fold higher when compared to a classical formulation and enabled a pronounced transdermal penetration into the viable dermis. HPH resulted in submicron sized particles composed of a mixture of disrupted plant cells. A successful isolation of pure EVs from this mixture was not possible with classical EVs isolation methods. The presence of EVs was, therefore, proven indirectly. For this, the lipophilic drug surrogate was admixed to the cucumber juice either prior to or after HPH. Admixing of the drug surrogate to the cucumber prior to the HPH resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the dermal penetration efficacy, whereas the addition of the AI surrogate to the cucumber after HPH was not able to improve the penetration efficacy. (4) Conclusions: Results, therefore, indicate that HPH causes the formation of EVs in which AI can be incorporated. The formation of plant EVs by HPH was also indicated by zeta potential analysis.
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2022
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Urinary miRNA Profiles in Chronic Kidney Injury—Benefits of Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment and miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Renal Fibrosis, Glomerular Injury, and Endothelial Dysfunction
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression and play an important role in physiological homeostasis and disease. In biofluids, miRNAs can be found in protein complexes or in extracellular vesicles (EVs). Altered urinary miRNAs are reported as potential biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this context, we compared established urinary protein biomarkers for kidney injury with urinary miRNA profiles in obese ZSF1 and hypertensive renin transgenic rats. Additionally, the benefit of urinary EV enrichment was investigated in vivo and the potential association of urinary miRNAs with renal fibrosis in vitro. Kidney damage in both rat models was confirmed by histopathology, proteinuria, and increased levels of urinary protein biomarkers. In total, 290 miRNAs were elevated in obese ZSF1 rats compared with lean controls, whereas 38 miRNAs were altered in obese ZSF1 rats during 14–26 weeks of age. These 38 miRNAs correlated better with disease progression than established urinary protein biomarkers. MiRNAs increased in obese ZSF1 rats were associated with renal inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerular injury. Eight miRNAs were also changed in urinary EVs of renin transgenic rats, including one which might play a role in endothelial dysfunction. EV enrichment increased the number and detection level of several miRNAs implicated in renal fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results show the benefit of EV enrichment for miRNA detection and the potential of total urine and urinary EV-associated miRNAs as biomarkers of altered kidney physiology, renal fibrosis and glomerular injury, and disease progression in hypertension and obesity-induced CKD.
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2022
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Proteomic analysis distinguishes extracellular vesicles produced by cancerous versus healthy pancreatic organoids
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced and released by both healthy and malignant cells and bear markers indicative of ongoing biological processes. In the present study we utilized high resolution flow cytometry to detect EVs in the plasma of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in the supernatants of PDAC and healthy control (HC) pancreatic organoid cultures. Using ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography, PDAC and HC pancreatic organoid EVs were isolated for mass spectrometry analysis. Proteomic and functional protein network analysis showed a striking distinction in that EV proteins profiled in pancreatic cancer organoids were involved in vesicular transport and tumorigenesis while EV proteins in healthy organoids were involved in cellular homeostasis. Thus, the most abundant proteins identified in either case represented non-overlapping cellular programs. Tumor-promoting candidates LAMA5, SDCBP and TENA were consistently upregulated in PDAC EVs. Validation of specific markers for PDAC EVs versus healthy pancreatic EVs will provide the biomarkers and enhanced sensitivity necessary to monitor early disease or disease progression, with or without treatment. Moreover, disease-associated changes in EV protein profiles provide an opportunity to investigate alterations in cellular programming with disease progression.
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2022
nm
A review of optical methods for ultrasensitive detection and characterization of nanoparticles in liquid media with a focus on the wide field surface plasmon microscopy
Development of nanotechnology and corresponding industries during the last decade resulted in a new challenge for analytical science. This includes an ultrasensitive detection and characterization of nanoparticles of different origin and other nanomaterials in various media, including so complex ones as food, biological or environmental samples. The goal of this review is a systematic analysis of possible approaches and description of physical principles behind these methods. The main attention is paid to optical methods which are considered by authors to be mostly effective for the formulated task. Different approaches for detection and analysis of nanoparticles in a volume as well as of those adsorbed on a surface are discussed. While the technologies based on direct analysis of nanoparticle suspensions belong to the established approaches whose development potential has been in large extent exhausted, the novel technologies based on the surface sensing of adsorbed nanoparticles demonstrate intensive development. Therefore, the final part of the review is focused on the wide-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy. It allows one an ultrasensitive detection and characterization of individual nanoparticles of different origin in complex media and provides numerous possibilities for subsequent chemical identification of the detected particles using a hyphenation with other analytical technologies.
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2022
Biomechanical responses of encysted zoospores of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis to hyperosmotic stress are consistent with an ability to turgor regulate
Zoospores are motile, asexual reproductive propagules that enable oomycete pathogens to locate and infect new host tissue. While motile, they have no cell wall and maintain tonicity with their external media using water expulsion vacuoles. Once they locate host tissue, they encyst and form a cell wall, enabling the generation of turgor pressure that will provide the driving force for germination and invasion of the host. It is not currently known how these spores respond to the osmotic stresses that might arise due to different environments on and around their hosts that have different osmotic strengths. We have made microaspiration (MA) measurements on > 800 encysted zoospores and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on 12 encysted zoospores to determine their mechanical properties and how these change after hyperosmotic stress. Two types of encysted zoospores (Type A and Type B) were produced from the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, that differed in their morphology and response. With a small hyperosmotic stress (using 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 155.4 and 295.6 mOsmol/kg), Type A zoospores initially became stiffer, with an increase in the Young’s modulus (E) over 30 mins from 0.16 MPa to 0.25 and 0.22 MPa respectively. E then returned to its original value after 120 min. With a greater osmotic stress (using 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 438.2, 587.2 and 787.6 mOsmol/kg) the reverse occurred, with an initial decrease in E over 30 – 60 mins to values of 0.1, 0.08 and 0.09 MPa respectively, before recovery to the original value after 120 min. In 0.5 M sorbitol this recovery was only observed with AFM, but not with MA. Type B zoospores, which may be primary/secondary spores about to release secondary/tertiary spores, or else spores that were damaged during encystment, initially stiffened in response to the lower hyperosmotic stresses with a slight increase in E (from 0.077 to 0.1 MPa after 15 min (with both 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol) before recovering to the original value after 60 min. These spores showed no change in response to the higher osmotic stresses. The responses of the Type A spores are consistent with rapid changes in cell wall thickness and a turgor regulation mechanism. Turgor regulation is further supported by microscopic observations of the Type A spores showing protoplast retraction from the cell wall followed by deplasmolysis, coupled with measurements of spore volume. As far as we are aware this is the first demonstration of turgor regulation, not just in encysted zoospores, but in oomycetes in general.
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2022
vr
Virus-like Particles: Measures and Biological Functions
Virus-like particles resemble infectious virus particles in size, shape, and molecular composition; however, they fail to productively infect host cells. Historically, the presence of virus-like particles has been inferred from total particle counts by microscopy, and infectious particle counts or plaque-forming-units (PFUs) by plaque assay; the resulting ratio of particles-to-PFUs is often greater than one, easily 10 or 100, indicating that most particles are non-infectious. Despite their inability to hijack cells for their reproduction, virus-like particles and the defective genomes they carry can exhibit a broad range of behaviors: interference with normal virus growth during co-infections, cell killing, and activation or inhibition of innate immune signaling. In addition, some virus-like particles become productive as their multiplicities of infection increase, a sign of cooperation between particles. Here, we review established and emerging methods to count virus-like particles and characterize their biological functions. We take a critical look at evidence for defective interfering virus genomes in natural and clinical isolates, and we review their potential as antiviral therapeutics. In short, we highlight an urgent need to better understand how virus-like genomes and particles interact with intact functional viruses during co-infection of their hosts, and their impacts on the transmission, severity, and persistence of virus-associated diseases.
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2022
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Gut Microbiota‐Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Endorse Memory‐like Inflammatory Responses in Murine Neutrophils
Neutrophils are classically characterized as merely reactive innate effector cells. However, the microbiome is known to shape the education and maturation process of neutrophils, improving their function and immune‐plasticity. Recent reports demonstrate that murine neutrophils possess the ability to exert adaptive responses after exposure to bacterial components such as LPS (Gram‐ negative bacteria) or LTA (Gram‐positive bacteria). We now ask whether small extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the gut may directly mediate adaptive responses in neutrophils in vitro. Murine bone marrow‐derived neutrophils were primed in vitro by small EVs of high purity collected from colon stool samples, followed by a second hit with LPS. We found that low‐dose priming with gut micro‐ biota‐derived small EVs enhanced pro‐inflammatory sensitivity as indicated by elevated levels of TNF‐α, IL‐6, ROS and MCP‐1 and increased migratory and phagocytic activity. In contrast, high‐ dose priming resulted in a tolerant phenotype, marked by increased IL‐10 and decreased transmi‐ gration and phagocytosis. Alterations in TLR2/MyD88 as well as TLR4/MyD88 signaling were cor‐ related with the induction of adaptive cues in neutrophils in vitro. Taken together, our study shows that small EVs from stools can drive adaptive responses in neutrophils in vitro and may represent a missing link in the gut–immune axis.
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2022
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Synergy of Human Platelet-Derived Extracellular Vesicles with Secretome Proteins Promotes Regenerative Functions
Platelet-rich plasma is a promising regenerative therapeutic with controversial efficacy. We and others have previously demonstrated regenerative functions of human platelet lysate (HPL) as an alternative platelet-derived product. Here we separated extracellular vesicles (EVs) from soluble factors of HPL to understand the mode of action during skin-organoid formation and immune modulation as model systems for tissue regeneration. HPL-EVs were isolated by tangential-flow filtration (TFF) and further purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) separating EVs from (lipo)protein-enriched soluble fractions. We characterized samples by tunable resistive pulse sensing, western blot, tandem mass-tag proteomics and super-resolution microscopy. We evaluated EV function during angiogenesis, wound healing, organoid formation and immune modulation. We characterized EV enrichment by TFF and SEC according to MISEV2018 guidelines. Proteomics showed three major clusters of protein composition separating TSEC-EVs from HPL clustering with TFF soluble fractions and TFF-EVs clustering with TSEC soluble fractions, respectively. HPL-derived TFF-EVs promoted skin-organoid formation and inhibited T-cell proliferation more efficiently than TSEC-EVs or TSEC-soluble fractions. Recombining TSEC-EVs with TSEC soluble fractions re-capitulated TFF-EV effects. Zeta potential and super-resolution imaging further evidenced protein corona formation on TFF-EVs. Corona depletion on SEC-EVs could be artificially reconstituted by TSEC late fraction add-back. In contrast to synthetic nanoparticles, which commonly experience reduced function after corona formation, the corona-bearing EVs displayed improved functionality. We conclude that permissive isolation technology, such as TFF, and better understanding of the mechanism of EV corona function are required to realize the complete potential of platelet-based regenerative therapies.
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2022
4-1BBL-containing leukemic extracellular vesicles promote immunosuppressive effector regulatory T cells
Chronic and acute myeloid leukemia (CML, AML) evade immune system surveillance and induce immunosuppression by expanding pro-leukemic Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). High levels of immunosuppressive Tregs predict inferior response to chemotherapy, leukemia relapse and shorter survival. However, mechanisms that promote Tregs in myeloid leukemias remain largely unexplored. Here, we identify leukemic extracellular vesicles (EVs) as drivers of effector, pro-leukemic Tregs. Using mouse model of CML-like disease, we found that Rab27a-dependent secretion of leukemic EVs promoted leukemia engraftment, which was associated with higher abundance of activated, immunosuppressive Tregs. Leukemic EVs attenuated mTOR-S6 and activated STAT5 signaling, as well as evoked significant transcriptomic changes in Tregs. We further identified specific effector signature of Tregs promoted by leukemic EVs. Leukemic EVs-driven Tregs were characterized by elevated expression of effector/tumor Treg markers CD39, CCR8, CD30, TNFR2, CCR4, TIGIT, IL21R and included two distinct, effector Treg (eTreg) subsets - CD30+CCR8hiTNFR2hi eTreg1 and CD39+TIGIThi eTreg2. Finally, we showed that costimulatory ligand 4-1BBL/CD137L, shuttled by leukemic EVs, promoted suppressive activity and effector phenotype of Tregs by regulating expression of receptors such as CD30 and TNFR2. Collectively, our work highlights the role of leukemic extracellular vesicles in stimulation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells and leukemia growth. We postulate that targeting of Rab27a-dependent secretion of leukemic EVs may be a viable therapeutic approach in myeloid neoplasms.
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2022
Comparison of Submicron Particle Counting Methods with a Heat Stressed Monoclonal Antibody: Effect of Electrolytes and Implications on Sample Preparation
Within this study, the performance and limitations of tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) was evaluated to characterize submicron particles in unstressed and heat stressed monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. These were compared with microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), resonant mass measurement (RMM), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). For TRPS and MRPS measurements, an adjustment of ionic strength was required to achieve suitable measurement conditions. The addition of electrolytes is potentially critical for protein formulations and therefore the effect of salt concentration and pH on submicron particle levels was further investigated. Heat stress caused a sharp increase in particle levels between 250-900 nm, observable by all four techniques. Due to reduced colloidal stability, indicated by increased attractive forces and reduced aggregation onset temperatures in the presence of sodium chloride, protein aggregation was observed in heat stressed mAb only after the addition of sodium chloride. Achieving adequate ionic strength by replacing sodium chloride with other electrolytes similarly resulted in reduced colloidal stability and protein aggregation. It is recommended that protein samples prone for aggregation in the presence of high ionic strength should not be analyzed by RPS measurements after the addition of electrolytes. However, protein samples containing already required ionic strength can be analyzed by any of the four techniques.
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2022
Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum-purified exosomes identifies putative pre-eclampsia-associated biomarkers
Background: The high incidence of pre-eclampsia, which affects 2-7% of all pregnancies, remains a major health concern. Detection of pre-eclampsia before the appearance of clinical symptoms is essential to allow early intervention, and would benefit from identification of plasma/serum biomarkers to help guide diagnosis and treatment. Liquid biopsy has emerged as a promising source of protein biomarkers that circumvents some of the inherent challenges of proteome-wide analysis of plasma/serum. In this respect, purified exosomes have the added benefit of being carriers of intercellular communication both in physiological and pathological conditions. Methods: We compared the protein complement of purified exosomes from three different collections of control and pre-eclamptic serum samples, obtained at the end of the second trimester of pregnancy and at delivery. We employed shotgun label-free proteomics to investigate differential protein expression, which was then validated by targeted proteomics. Results: We developed a purification method that yielded highly enriched exosome preparations. The presence of specific pregnancy protein markers suggested that a significant proportion of purified exosomes derived from tissues related to pregnancy. Quantitative proteomic analyses allowed us to identify 10, 114 and 98 differentially-regulated proteins in the three sample collections, with a high degree of concordance. Functional analysis suggested that these proteins participate in biological processes related to pre-eclampsia, including angiogenesis, inflammation and cell migration. The differential abundance of 66 proteins was validated by targeted proteomics. Finally, we studied the impact of the pre-eclampsia-associated exosomes in the proteome using an in vitro cellular model. Conclusions: We have identified and validated differential exosomal proteins in liquid biopsy of pregnant women that open new possibilities for early detection of pre-eclampsia. Additionally, the functional impact of the proteome composition of purified pre-eclamptic exosomes in target cells provides new information to better understand changes in embryo-maternal interactions and, consequently, the pathogenesis of this disease.
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2022
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Differential Expression of Serum Extracellular Vesicle miRNAs in Multiple Sclerosis: Disease-Stage Specificity and Relevance to Pathophysiology
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Its first clinical presentation (clinically isolated syndrome, CIS) is often followed by the development of relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS). The periphery-to-CNS transmission of inflammatory molecules is a major pathophysiological pathway in MS. This could include signalling via extracellular vesicle (EV) microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we investigated the serum EV miRNome in CIS and RRMS patients and matched controls, with the aims to identify MS stage-specific differentially expressed miRNAs and investigate their biomarker potential and pathophysiological relevance. miRNA sequencing was conducted on serum EVs from CIS-remission, RRMS-relapse, and viral inflammatory CNS disorder patients, as well as from healthy and hospitalized controls. Differential expression analysis was conducted, followed by predictive power and target-pathway analysis. A moderate number of dysregulated serum EV miRNAs were identified in CIS-remission and RRMS-relapse patients, especially relative to healthy controls. Some of these miRNAs were also differentially expressed between the two MS stages and had biomarker potential for patient-control and CIS–RRMS separations. For the mRNA targets of the RRMS-relapse-specific EV miRNAs, biological processes inherent to MS pathophysiology were identified using in silico analysis. Study findings demonstrate that specific serum EV miRNAs have MS stage-specific biomarker potential and contribute to the identification of potential targets for novel, efficacious therapies.
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2022
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Circulating cardiomyocyte-derived extracellular vesicles reflect cardiac injury during systemic inflammatory response syndrome in mice
The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is increased under cellular stress and cardiomyocyte damaging conditions. However, whether the cardiomyocyte-derived EVs eventually reach the systemic circulation and whether their number in the bloodstream reflects cardiac injury, remains unknown. Wild type C57B/6 and conditional transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by cardiomyocytes were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). EVs were separated both from platelet-free plasma and from the conditioned medium of isolated cardiomyocytes of the left ventricular wall. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were determined by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. The presence of GFP + cardiomyocyte-derived circulating EVs was monitored by flow cytometry and cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. In LPS-treated mice, systemic inflammation and the consequent cardiomyopathy were verified by elevated plasma levels of TNFα, GDF-15, and cardiac troponin I, and by a decrease in the ejection fraction. Furthermore, we demonstrated elevated levels of circulating small- and medium-sized EVs in the LPS-injected mice. Importantly, we detected GFP+ cardiomyocyte-derived EVs in the circulation of control mice, and the number of these circulating GFP+ vesicles increased significantly upon intraperitoneal LPS administration (P = 0.029). The cardiomyocyte-derived GFP+ EVs were also positive for intravesicular troponin I (cTnI) and muscle-associated glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM). This is the first direct demonstration that cardiomyocyte-derived EVs are present in the circulation and that the increased number of cardiac-derived EVs in the blood reflects cardiac injury in LPS-induced systemic inflammation (SIRS).
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2022
The application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their derivative exosome in skin wound healing: a comprehensive review
Recently, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and also their exosome has become a game-changing tool in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. MSCs due to their competencies to establish skin cells, such as fibroblast and keratinocyte, and also their unique attribute to suppress inflammation in wound site has attracted increasing attention among scholars. In addition, MSC’s other capabilities to induce angiogenesis as a result of secretion of pro-angiogenic factors accompanied with marked anti-fibrotic activities, which mainly mediated by the releases matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), make them a rational and effective strategy to accelerate wound healing with a small scar. Since the chief healing properties of the MSCs depend on their paracrine effects, it appears that MSCs-derived exosomes also can be an alternative option to support wound healing and skin regeneration as an innovative cell-free approach. Such exosomes convey functional cargos (e.g., growth factor, cytokine, miRNA, etc.) from MSCs to target cells, thereby affecting the recipient skin cells’ biological events, such as migration, proliferation, and also secretion of ECM components (e.g., collagen). The main superiorities of exosome therapy over parental MSCs are the diminished risk of tumor formation and also lower immunogenicity. Herein, we deliver an overview of recent in vivo reports rendering the therapeutic benefits of the MSCs-based therapies to ease skin wound healing, and so improving quality of life among patients suffering from such conditions.
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2022
Performance of nanoparticles for biomedical applications: The in vitro/in vivo discrepancy
Nanomedicine has a great potential to revolutionize the therapeutic landscape. However, up-to-date results obtained from in vitro experiments predict the in vivo performance of nanoparticles weakly or not at all. There is a need for in vitro experiments that better resemble the in vivo reality. As a result, animal experiments can be reduced, and potent in vivo candidates will not be missed. It is important to gain a deeper knowledge about nanoparticle characteristics in physiological environment. In this context, the protein corona plays a crucial role. Its formation process including driving forces, kinetics, and influencing factors has to be explored in more detail. There exist different methods for the investigation of the protein corona and its impact on physico-chemical and biological properties of nanoparticles, which are compiled and critically reflected in this review article. The obtained information about the protein corona can be exploited to optimize nanoparticles for in vivo application. Still the translation from in vitro to in vivo remains challenging. Functional in vitro screening under physiological conditions such as in full serum, in 3D multicellular spheroids/organoids, or under flow conditions is recommended. Innovative in vivo screening using barcoded nanoparticles can simultaneously test more than hundred samples regarding biodistribution and functional delivery within a single mouse
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2022
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Effect of SP-C and its palmitoylation state on membrane fragmentation and vesicle uptake
One of the largest surfaces of the human body in contact with the environment is the respiratory epithelium, constituted by different specialized cells. Alveolar type I cells are involved in gas exchange whereas alveolar type II cells prevent the alveoli from collapsing due to the synthesis and secretion of lung surfactant (LS). This lipid-protein complex covers the alveolar surface and reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface. LS, the first element in contact with inhaled air, is also involved in innate defense mechanisms. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a small hydrophobic transmembrane protein crucial for the biophysical function of LS. Different studies have revealed that the palmitoylation state of SP-C modulates important protein-lipid interactions within surfactant layers. Moreover, recent research has revealed that SP-C oligomerization, presumably through two structural motifs in SP-C sequence, could promote membrane fragmentation and enhance membrane vesicle alveolar uptake highlighting a key potential role of SP-C in LS homeostasis. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of palmitoylation on SP-C-promoted membrane fragmentation and vesicle uptake in the LS context. To do so, we have compared the behavior in different assays of the native palmitoylated protein and a recombinant SP-C version lacking palmitoyl chains, once reconstituted in two different lipid models mimicking LS membranes. Likewise, we have studied the implication of the proposed dimerization motifs in the SP-C sequence by testing synthetic peptides with selected sequence variations. Results from tunable resistive pulse sensing experiments suggest that both palmitoylation and the oligomerization state of SP-C are important to promote fission of membranes. Protein oligomerization and membrane fragmentation have been also analyzed with respect to membrane vesicle internalization by alveolar-derived cell lines, as evaluated by flow cytometry of cell cultures exposed to fluorescent lipid/protein complexes.
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2022
Characterization of styrene-maleic acid copolymer membrane solubilization using reductionist and mitochondrial systems
Membrane-bound proteins (MBPs) have immense significance because they perform inherently refractory to isolation and to structural and functional characterization due to the instability of their hydrophobic domains outside of their native membranes. At the leading edge of membrane research are styrene-maleic acid (SMA) polymers that encapsulate membrane protein complexes into SMA lipoprotein particles (SMALPs) in their native and functionally active states. In this study, we employed an approach where we used reductionist and mitochondrial systems in tandem to elucidate conditions for optimal SMA extraction. The reductionist system was composed of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) that were solubilized by SMA and the resulting products were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and transmission-electron microscopy. LUVs with distinct lipid compositions were used to analyze the effect of surface charge, lateral pressure, head group structure, degree of unsaturation, and chain length on SMA solubilization. We found that each of these physical parameters had an effect on SMA solubilization; however, increased lateral lipid pressure appeared to have the greatest inhibitory effect. The mitochondrial system entailed SMA being added to isolated mitochondria and probing for SMALP-encapsulated proteins in supernatants by Western blotting. To this end, mitochondria were titrated with SMA and one representative protein complex from different membrane compartments (outer membrane, inner boundary membrane, and cristae) were tested for using Western blotting. Our results on this subset of proteins suggests that SMA solubilization efficiency may be determined by submitochondrial localization of MBPs. Taken together, our work provides new insights into the mechanism by which SMA solubilizes lipid-only systems as well as cellular membranes.
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2022
The distinct roles of the N-terminal and C-terminal ADP-ribose binding sites in TRPM2 channel
TRPM2 is a calcium-permeable, non-selective cation channel present in different species from unicellular Choanoflagellates to human. TRPM2 plays an important role in the survival of early species and is critically involved in diverse physiological processes including core body temperature regulation, immune response, insulin secretion, and apoptosis. TRPM2 is polymodal and can be activated by a wide range of stimuli including warm temperature, oxidative stress and NAD+-related metabolites such as ADP-ribose (ADPR). The consensus was that in the presence of calcium, ADPR activates TRPM2 upon binding to its characteristic C-terminal NUDT9-H domain. However, recent studies by our group and others have established that the N-terminal MHR1/2 domain contains a previously unknown ADPR binding site that is conserved across species and is absolutely essential for TRPM2 gating (Kühn et al., 2016, 2019; Huang et al., 2018, 2019; Tóth et al., 2020). The important role of MHR1/2 domain in channel gating is further supported by the fact that the antagonist 8-Br-cADPR inhibits the channel by binding to the MHR1/2 domain and stabilizing the channel in an apo-like conformation (Kolisek et al., 2005; Huang et al., 2019). In contrast to the conserved role of the MHR1/2 domain, the function of NUDT9-H domain has changed with evolution. In invertebrates, the NUDT9-H domain does not directly gate the channel but is indirectly involved in channel gating by hydrolyzing the agonist ADPR into AMP and ribose-5-phosphate (Kühn et al., 2016; Iordanov et al., 2019). In vertebrates, the NUDT9-H domain has no enzymatic activity, but cooperates with the MHR1/2 domain to open the channel (Iordanov et al., 2016; Huang et al., 2018, 2019).
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2022
The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes on DNA replication and the shape of DNA strands
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be thought of as a vector of medicines or other molecules. Furthermore DNA molecules work as a dispersing agent preventing SWNTs bundling. So it is necessary to fully understand the effect of SWNTs on DNA replication. SWNTs can protect DNA strands under high temperature though denature experiment. SWNTs can increase the yield of PCR products by two-step PCR and improve the reaction efficiency of DNA polymerase in a short extension time. The rpsL fidelity test showed that the error rate of PCR products in the control group was 5.3×-10 −6, the error rate in the experimental group was only 2.4×- 10 −6. The potential binding between SWNTs and genomic DNA was investigated by atomic force microscopy. After being cultured together with nanomaterials, E. coli cells were harvested and subjected to genomic DNA isolation. After SWNTs was added in the E. coli culture for 10 hours, the isolated genomic DNA had some brightened region that was supposed to be SWNTs-bound sequences. The brightened region had a height close to 10 nm, and was thought the binding area of SWNTs. The free state of DNA changed to a condensed form in the cells. The strong interactions between SWNTs and DNA suggested SWNTs significantly influence DNA behavior in vivo. The binding could disturb DNA replication, and thus may potentially interfere with DNA damage and repair, and introduce changes of biological activities of genes.
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2022
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Combination of Tipifarnib and Sunitinib Overcomes Renal Cell Carcinoma Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors via Tumor-Derived Exosome and T Cell Modulation
Background: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were initially demonstrated as an efficacious treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, after a median treatment length of 14 months, a vast majority of patients develop resistance. This study analyzed a combination therapy of tipifarnib (Tipi) + sunitinib that targeted exosome-conferred drug resistance. Methods: 786-O, 786-O-SR (sunitinib resistant), A498, A498-SR, Caki-2, Caki-2-SR, and 293T cells were cultured. Exosomes were collected using differential ultracentrifugation. Cell proliferation, Jurkat T cell immune assay, and immunoblot analysis were used for downstream analysis. Results: SR exosomes treatment displayed a cytotoxic effect on immune cells. This cytotoxic effect was associated with increased expression of PD-L1 on SR exosomes when compared to sunitinib-sensitive (SS) exosomes. Additionally, Tipi treatment downregulated PD-L1 expression on exosomes derived from SR cell lines. Tipi’s ability to downregulate PD-L1 in exosomes has a significant application within patients. Exosomes collected from patients with RCC showed increased PD-L1 expression over subjects without RCC. Next, exosome concentrations were then compared after Tipi treatment, with all SS cell lines displaying an even greater reduction. On immunoblot assay, 293T cells showed a dose-dependent increase in Alix with no change in either nSMase or Rab27a. Conversely, all the SS and SR cell lines displayed a decrease in all three markers. After a cell proliferation employed a 48-h treatment on all SS and SR cell lines, the drug combination displayed synergistic ability to decrease tumor growth. Conclusions: Tipifarnib attenuates both the exosome endosomal sorting complex required for endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent pathways, thereby blocking exosome biogenesis and secretion as well as downregulating PD-L1 on SS and SR cells.
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2022
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CircTMOD3 promotes lipopolysaccharide-induced chondrocyte apoptosis in osteoarthritis by sponging miR-27a
Introduction The progression of osteoarthritis (OA) requires the involvement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, in which circTMOD3 plays an important role. We predicted that circTMOD3 could interact with miR-27a to inhibit LPS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and explored the interaction between circTMOD3 and miR-27a in OA. Materials and methods Total RNAs were isolated from cartilage tissue samples from both OA patients (n = 62) and controls (n = 62) and subjected to RT-qPCRs to determine circTMOD3 and miR-27a (mature and premature) expression. Subcellular location of circTMOD3 and its interaction with premature miR-27a were analyzed using subcellular fractionation assay and RNA-RNA pulldown assay, respectively. CircTMOD3 was overexpressed in chondrocytes to study its role in miR-27a maturation. The roles of circTMOD3 and miR-27a in LPS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis were analyzed using cell apoptosis assay. Results CircTMOD3 and premature miR-27a levels were increased while mature miR-27a level was decreased in OA. CircTMOD3 was located in both nuclear and cytoplasm fractions of chondrocytes. CircTMOD3 directly interacted with premature miR-27a and promoted LPS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, while miR-27a inhibited LPS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. Moreover, circTMOD3 overexpression suppressed miR-27a maturation and reduced the inhibitory effects of miR-27a on LPS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. Conclusion CircTMOD3 suppresses miR-27a maturation in OA to promote chondrocyte apoptosis induced by LPS.
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2022
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Differential lipidomics of HK-2 cells and exosomes under high glucose stimulation
Abnormal cellular lipid metabolism has a very important role in the occurrence and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, the lipid composition and differential expression by high glucose stimulation of renal tubular cells and their exosomes, which is a vital part of the development of DKD, are largely unknown. In this study, based on targeted lipid analysis by isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, a total of 421 and 218 lipid species were quantified in HK-2 cells and exosomes, respectively. More importantly, results showed that GM3 d18:1/22:0, GM3 d18:1/16:0, GM3 d18:0/16:0, GM3 d18:1/22:1 were significantly increased, while LPE18:1, LPE, CL66:4 (16:1), BMP36:3, CL70:7 (16:1), CL74:8 (16:1) were significantly decreased in high glucose-stimulated HK-2 cells. Also, PG36:1, FFA22:5, PC38:3, SM d18:1/16:1, CE-16:1, CE-18:3, CE-20:5, and CE-22:6 were significantly increased, while GM3 d18:1/24:1, GM3 were significantly decreased in exosomes secreted by high glucose-stimulated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, TAG, PC, CL were decreased significantly in the exosomes comparing with the HK-2 cells, and LPA18:2, LPI22:5, PG32:2, FFA16:1, GM3 d18:1/18:1, GM3 d18:1/20:1, GM3 d18:0/20:0, PC40:6p, TAG52:1(18:1), TAG52:0(18:0), CE-20:5, CE-20:4, CE-22:6 were only found in exosomes. In addition, the expression of PI4P in HK-2 cells decreased under a high glucose state. These data may be useful to provide new targets for exploring the mechanisms of DKD.
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2022
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Storage conditions determine the characteristics of red blood cell derived extracellular vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released during the storage of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and might play adverse or beneficial roles throughout the utilization of blood products (transfusion). Knowledge of EV release associated factors and mechanism amends blood product management. In the present work the impact of storage time and medium (blood preserving additive vs isotonic phosphate buffer) on the composition, size, and concentration of EVs was studied using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS) and freeze-fraction combined transmission electron micrography (FF-TEM). The spectroscopic protein-to-lipid ratio based on amide and the C–H stretching band intensity ratio indicated the formation of various vesicle subpopulations depending on storage conditions. After short storage, nanoparticles with high relative protein content were detected. Spectral analysis also suggested differences in lipid and protein composition, too. The fingerprint region (from 1300 to 1000 cm−1) of the IR spectra furnishes additional information about the biomolecular composition of RBC-derived EVs (REVs) such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactose, glucose, and oxidized hemoglobin. The difference between the vesicle subpopulations reveals the complexity of the REV formation mechanism. IR spectroscopy, as a quick, cost-effective, and label-free technique provides valuable novel biochemical insight and might be used complementary to traditional omics approaches on EVs.
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2022
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Exosomal and Plasma Non-Coding RNA Signature Associated with Urinary Albumin Excretion in Hypertension
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA), released into circulation or packaged into exosomes, plays important roles in many biological processes in the kidney. The purpose of the present study is to identify a common ncRNA signature associated with early renal damage and its related molecular pathways. Three individual libraries (plasma and urinary exosomes, and total plasma) were prepared from each hypertensive patient (with or without albuminuria) for ncRNA sequencing analysis. Next, an RNA-based transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. The three RNA biotypes with the greatest number of differentially expressed transcripts were long-ncRNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA) and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs). We identified a common 24 ncRNA molecular signature related to hypertension-associated urinary albumin excretion, of which lncRNAs were the most representative. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory network showed five lncRNAs (LINC02614, BAALC-AS1, FAM230B, LOC100505824 and LINC01484) and the miR-301a-3p to play a significant role in network organization and targeting critical pathways regulating filtration barrier integrity and tubule reabsorption. Our study found an ncRNA profile associated with albuminuria, independent of biofluid origin (urine or plasma, circulating or in exosomes) that identifies a handful of potential targets, which may be utilized to study mechanisms of albuminuria and cardiovascular damage.
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2022
Differential expression of serum extracellular vesicle microRNAs and analysis of target-gene pathways in major depressive disorder
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) presents with both peripheral and central alterations, such that crosstalk between the periphery and the central nervous system could contribute to its aetio-pathophysiology. One putative mediating mechanism is circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their microRNA (miRNA) cargo. In this study, we investigated differential expression of the serum EV miRNome in MDD patients versus controls with the aims of identifying potential EV miRNA biomarkers and downstream target gene pathways. Methods miRNA-Sequencing was performed on serum EVs isolated from MDD patients (n = 42) and matched healthy Controls (n = 18). Differential expression analysis was conducted, followed by diagnostic power analysis of dysregulated EV miRNAs, and pathway analysis of their target genes. Results Of 1800 serum EV miRNAs detected consistently, 33 were differentially expressed in MDD and Control subjects, 17 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified an up-regulated and a down-regulated panel of EV miRNAs, each with additive diagnostic power as a differential biomarker for MDD. Predicted target gene-pathways were significantly enriched with respect to brain function, signal transduction and substance dependence ontology. Conclusions This study provides one of the first reports of dysregulation of the peripheral EV miRNome in MDD, including evidence for EV miRNAs as potential MDD biomarkers and identification of pathways via which they may contribute to MDD pathophysiology. Large-scale studies are required to confirm EV miRNome biomarker potential in MDD. Empirical evidence for involvement of the dysregulated EV miRNAs in the predicted target-gene pathways relevant to MDD pathophysiology is required.
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2022
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Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Rapid Detection and In Situ Diagnosis in Clinical Oncology
Screening, monitoring, and diagnosis are critical in oncology treatment. However, there are limitations with the current clinical methods, notably the time, cost, and special facilities required for radioisotope-based methods. An alternative approach, which uses magnetic beads, offers faster analyses with safer materials over a wide range of oncological applications. Magnetic beads have been used to detect extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the serum of pancreatic cancer patients with statistically different EV levels in preoperative, postoperative, and negative control samples. By incorporating fluorescence, magnetic beads have been used to quantitatively measure prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer biomarker, which is sensitive enough even at levels found in healthy patients. Immunostaining has also been incorporated with magnetic beads and compared with conventional immunohistochemical methods to detect lesions; the results suggest that immunostained magnetic beads could be used for pathological diagnosis during surgery. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), can detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer in a clinical setting, as well as those in gallbladder cancer in animal models, in a surgery-applicable timeframe. Ultimately, recent research into the applications of magnetic beads in oncology suggests that the screening, monitoring, and diagnosis of cancers could be improved and made more accessible through the adoption of this technology.
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2022
Novel modification of Luminex assay for characterization of extracellular vesicle populations in biofluids.
Most approaches to extracellular vesicle (EV) characterization focus on EV size or density. However, such approaches provide few clues regarding EV origin, molecular composition, and function. New methods to characterize the EV surface proteins may aid our understanding of their origin, physiological roles, and biomarker potential. Recently developed immunoassays for intact EVs based on ELISA, NanoView, SIMOA and MesoScale platforms are highly sensitive, but have limited multiplexing capabilities, whereas MACSPlex FACS enables the detection of multiple EV surface proteins, but requires significant quantities of purified EVs, which limits its adoption. Here, we describe a novel Luminex-based immunoassay, which combines multiplexing capabilities with high sensitivity and, importantly, bypasses the enrichment and purification steps that require larger sample volumes. We demonstrate the method’s specificity for detecting EV surface proteins using multiple EV depletion techniques, EVs of specific cellular origin isolated from culture media, and by co-localization with established EV surface markers. Using this novel approach, we elucidate differences in the tetraspanin profiles of the EVs carrying erythrocyte and neuron markers. Using size exclusion chromatography, we show that plasma EVs of putative neuronal and tissue macrophage origin are eluted in fractions distinct from those derived from erythrocytes, or from their respective cultured cells. In conclusion, our novel multiplexed assay differentiates between EVs from erythrocytes, macrophages, and neurons, and offers a new means for capture, classification, and profiling of EVs from diverse sources.
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2022
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Selective Isolation of Liver-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Redefines Performance of miRNA Biomarkers for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. Definitive diagnosis of the progressive form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), requires liver biopsy, which is highly invasive and unsuited to early disease or tracking changes. Inadequate performance of current minimally invasive tools is a critical barrier to managing NAFLD burden. Altered circulating miRNA profiles show potential for minimally invasive tracking of NAFLD. The selective isolation of the circulating extracellular vesicle subset that originates from hepatocytes presents an important opportunity for improving the performance of miRNA biomarkers of liver disease. The expressions of miR-122, -192, and -128-3p were quantified in total cell-free RNA, global EVs, and liver-specific EVs from control, NAFL, and NASH subjects. In ASGR1+ EVs, each miR biomarker trended positively with disease severity and expression was significantly higher in NASH subjects compared with controls. The c-statistic defining the performance of ASGR1+ EV derived miRNAs was invariably >0.78. This trend was not observed in the alternative sources. This study demonstrates the capacity for liver-specific isolation to transform the performance of EV-derived miRNA biomarkers for NAFLD, robustly distinguishing patients with NAFL and NASH.
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2022
ev
Evidence for Effects of Extracellular Vesicles on Physical, Inflammatory, Transcriptome and Reward Behaviour Status in Mice
Immune-inflammatory activation impacts extracellular vesicles (EVs), including their miRNA cargo. There is evidence for changes in the EV miRNome in inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. This mouse study investigated: (1) effects of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chronic social stress (CSS) on plasma EV miRNome; and (2) physiological, transcriptional, and behavioural effects of peripheral or central delivered LPS-activated EVs in recipient mice. LPS or CSS effects on the plasma EV miRNome were assessed by using microRNA sequencing. Recipient mice received plasma EVs isolated from LPS-treated or SAL-treated donor mice or vehicle only, either intravenously or into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), on three consecutive days. Bodyweight, spleen or NAc transcriptome and reward (sucrose) motivation were assessed. LPS and CSS increased the expression of 122 and decreased expression of 20 plasma EV miRNAs, respectively. Peripheral LPS-EVs reduced bodyweight, and both LPS-EVs and SAL-EVs increased spleen expression of immune-relevant genes. NAc-infused LPS-EVs increased the expression of 10 immune-inflammatory genes. Whereas motivation increased similarly across test days in all groups, the effect of test days was more pronounced in mice that received peripheral or central LPS-EVs compared with other groups. This study provides causal evidence that increased EV levels impact physiological and behavioural processes and are of potential relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders.
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2022
ev
Customer interview: Camila Espejo - Tasmanian devil
Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by all cell types and serve as biological packets delivering a wide variety of molecules for cell-to-cell communication. However, the biology of the EV extravesicular surface domain that we have termed EV ‘biocorona’ remains underexplored. Upon cell secretion, EVs possess an innate biocorona containing membrane integral and peripheral constituents that is modified by acquired constituents post secretion. This distinguishes EVs from synthetic nanoparticulate biomaterials that are limited to an adsorption-based, acquired biocorona. Methods The EV biocorona molecular constituents were radiolabeled with 125I to study biocorona constituents and its surface dynamics. As example toolset applications, 125I-EVs were utilized to study EV cell trafficking and the stability of the EV biocorona during storage. Results The biocorona of EVs consisted of proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. The cellular uptake of 125I-EVs was temperature dependent and internalized 125I-EVs were rapidly recycled by cells. When 125I-EVs were stored in a purified state, they exhibited time and temperature dependent biocorona shedding and proteolytic degradation that was partially inhibited in the presence of serum. Conclusion The EV biocorona is complex and dynamic. Radiolabeling of the EV biocorona enables a unique platform methodology to study the biocorona and will facilitate unlocking EV's full clinical translation potential. General significance The EV biocorona affects EV mediated biological processes in health and disease. Acquiring knowledge of the EV biocorona composition, dynamics, stability and structure not only informs the diagnostic and therapeutic translation of EVs but also aids in designing biomimetic nanomaterials for drug delivery.
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2022
Six Biomarkers Expressed Stably in Urinary Exosomes During All Life Stages-As the Reference Markers in Urinary Quantification
Background Urinary extracellular exosomes (uEVs) have been identified as a novel, stable and no-invasive source of biomarkers. However, the potential clinical value of uEVs is limited by the lack of standard quantitative proteomics data. It is necessary to uncover ubiquitous and stable proteins of uEVs as the reference markers in urinary quantification. Samples and methods The samples from 210 healthy individuals (3~90 years old), were divided into seven different stages of life. The uEVs samples were identified by LC-MS/MS and data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods. Eight stably expressed uEVs proteins were obtained by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, 42 samples were used to validate by Western blot, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. Results A total of 3,002 proteins and 1,393 co-expression uEVs proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. The bioinformatics analysis showed 1,393 co-expression proteins mostly enriched in endocytosis. Eight proteins were stably expressed throughout the seven age stages (p<0.05). Furthermore, RAB8A, RAB8B, Semaphorin-5A, Plexin-B2, JAMA, and STUB1 were validated by Western blot. Above all, RAB8A and RAB8B are the most stably expressed proteins in different age stages. Conclusion RAB8A, RAB8B, Semaphorin-5A, Plexin-B2, JAMA, and STUB1 were expressed stably proteins throughout the age stages. These six proteins might be the standard reference markers in the analysis of urine exosomal proteomics. RAB8A and RAB8B have been validated are the putative reference markers
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2022
Encapsulation of doxorubicin prodrug in heat-triggered liposomes overcomes off-target activation for advanced prostate cancer therapy
L-377,202 prodrug consists of doxorubicin (Dox) conjugated to a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) peptide substrate that can be cleaved by enzymatically active PSA at the tumor site. Despite the initial promise in phase I trial, further testing of L-377,202 (herein called Dox-PSA) was ceased due to some degree of non-specific activation and toxicity concerns. To improve safety of Dox-PSA, we encapsulated it into low temperature-sensitive liposomes (LTSL) to bypass systemic activation, while maintaining its biological activity upon controlled release in response to mild hyperthermia (HT). A time-dependent accumulation of activated prodrug in the nuclei of PSA-expressing cells exposed to mild HT was observed, showing that Dox-PSA was efficiently released from the LTSL, cleaved by PSA and entering the cell nucleus as free Dox. Furthermore, we have shown that Dox-PSA loading in LTSL can block its biological activity at 37°C, while the combination with mild HT resulted in augmented cytotoxicity in both 2D and 3D PC models compared to the free Dox-PSA. More importantly, Dox-PSA encapsulation in LTSL prolonged its blood circulation and reduced Dox accumulation in the heart of C4-2B tumor-bearing mice over the free Dox-PSA, thus significantly improving Dox-PSA therapeutic window. Finally, Dox-PSA-loaded LTSL combined with HT significantly delayed tumor growth at a similar rate as mice treated with free Dox-PSA in both solid and metastatic PC tumor models. This indicates this strategy could block the systemic cleavage of Dox-PSA without reducing its efficacy in vivo, which could represent a safer option to treat patients with locally advanced PC. Statement of significance This study investigates a new tactic to tackle non-specific cleavage of doxorubicin PSA-activatable prodrug (L-377,202) to treat advanced prostate cancer. In the present study, we report a nanoparticle-based approach to overcome the non-specific activation of L-377,202 in the systemic circulation. This includes encapsulating Dox-PSA in low temperature-sensitive liposomes to prevent its premature hydrolysis and non-specific cleavage. This class of liposomes offers payload protection against degradation in plasma, improved pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting, and an efficient and controlled drug release triggered by mild hyperthermia (HT) (∼42°C). We believe that this strategy holds great promise in bypassing any systemic toxicity concerns that could arise from the premature activation of the prodrug whilst simultaneously being able to control the spatiotemporal context of Dox-PSA cleavage and metabolism.
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2022
ev vr
ISOLATION METHODS OF LARGE AND SMALL EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES DERIVED FROM CARDIOVASCULAR PROGENITORS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Since the discovery of the beneficial therapeutical effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs), these agents have been attracting great interest as next-generation therapies. EVs are nanosized membrane bodies secreted by all types of cells that mediate cell–cell communication. Although the classification of different subpopulations of EVs can be complex, they are broadly divided into microvesicles and exosomes based on their biogenesis and in large and small EVs based on their size. As this is an emerging field, current investigations are focused on basic aspects such as the more convenient method for EV isolation. In the present paper, we used cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) to study and compare different cell culture conditions for EV isolation as well as two of the most commonly employed purification methods: ultracentrifugation (UC) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Large and small EVs were separately analysed. We found that serum starvation of cells during the EV collecting period led to a dramatic decrease in EV secretion and major cell death. Regarding the isolation method, our findings suggest that UC and SEC gave similar EV recovery rates. Separation of large and small EV-enriched subpopulations was efficiently achieved with both purification protocols although certain difference in sample heterogeneity was observed. Noteworthy, while calnexin was abundant in large EVs, ALIX and CD63 were mainly found in small EVs. Finally, when the functionality of EVs was assessed on primary culture of adult murine cardiac fibroblasts, we found that EVs were taken up by these cells, which resulted in a pronounced reduction in the proliferative and migratory capacity of the cells. Specifically, a tendency towards a larger effect of SEC-related EVs was observed. No differences could be found between large and small EVs. Altogether, these results contribute to establish the basis for the use of EVs as therapeutic platforms, in particular in regenerative fields.
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2022
vr nm
Induction of Peptide-specific CTL Activity and Inhibition of Tumor Growth Following Immunization with Nanoparticles Coated with Tumor Peptide-MHC-I Complexes
Tumor peptides associated with MHC class I molecules or their synthetic variants have attracted great attention for their potential use as vaccines to induce tumor-specific CTLs. However, the outcome of clinical trials of peptide-based tumor vaccines has been disappointing. There are various reasons for this lack of success, such as difficulties in delivering the peptides specifically to professional Ag-presenting cells, short peptide half-life in vivo, and limited peptide immunogenicity. We report here a novel peptide vaccination strategy that efficiently induces peptide-specific CTLs. Nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated from a biodegradable polymer, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), attached to H-2Kb molecules, and then the natural peptide epitopes associated with the H-2Kb molecules were exchanged with a model tumor peptide, SIINFEKL (OVA257-268). These NPs were efficiently phagocytosed by immature dendritic cells (DCs), inducing DC maturation and activation. In addition, the DCs that phagocytosed SIINFEKL-pulsed NPs potently activated SIINFEKL-H-2Kb complex-specific CD8+ T cells via cross-presentation of SIINFEKL. In vivo studies showed that intravenous administration of SIINFEKL-pulsed NPs effectively generated SIINFEKL-specific CD8+ T cells in both normal and tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, intravenous administration of SIINFEKL-pulsed NPs into EG7.OVA tumor-bearing mice almost completely inhibited the tumor growth. These results demonstrate that vaccination with polymeric NPs coated with tumor peptide-MHC-I complexes is a novel strategy for efficient induction of tumor-specific CTLs.
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2022
nm
P2RX7 inhibition reduces breast cancer induced osteolytic lesions-implications for bone metastasis
Breast cancer metastasis to bone is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients and remains an unmet clinical need. Purinergic signalling via the P2X7 receptor (P2RX7) in the primary tumour microenvironment is associated with progression of several cancers. It has also now become evident that intra-tumoural hypoxia facilitates cancer metastasis and reduces patient survival. In this study, we present data suggesting that hypoxia regulates the expression of P2RX7 in the primary tumour microenvironment; and importantly, inhibition with a selective antagonist (10mg/kg A740003) increased cancer cell death via apoptosis in a E0771/C57BL-6J syngeneic murine model. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography demonstrated reduced number of osteolytic lesions and lesion area following P2RX7 inhibition in absence of overt metastases by decreasing osteoclast numbers. We also demonstrate that activation of P2RX7 plays a role in the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from breast cancer cells. Mass-spectrometric analyses showed a distinct protein signature for EVs derived from hypoxic compared with normoxic cancer cells which elicit specific responses in bone cells that are associated with pre-metastatic niche formation. Thus, inhibiting P2RX7 provides a novel opportunity to preferentially target the hypoxic breast cancer cells preventing tumour progression and subsequent metastasis to bone
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2022
Using genetically modified extracellular vesicles as a non-invasive strategy to evaluate brain-specific cargo
The lack of techniques to trace brain cell behavior in vivo hampers the ability to monitor status of cells in a living brain. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanosized membrane-surrounded vesicles, released by virtually all brain cells might be able to report their status in easily accessible biofluids, such as blood. EVs communicate among tissues using lipids, saccharides, proteins, and nucleic acid cargo that reflect the state and composition of their source cells. Currently, identifying the origin of brain-derived EVs has been challenging, as they consist of a rare population diluted in an overwhelming number of blood and peripheral tissue-derived EVs. Here, we developed a sensitive platform to select out pre-labelled brain-derived EVs in blood as a platform to study the molecular fingerprints of brain cells. This proof-of-principle study used a transducible construct tagging tetraspanin (TSN) CD63, a membrane-spanning hallmark of EVs equipped with affinity, bioluminescent, and fluorescent tags to increase detection sensitivity and robustness in capture of EVs secreted from transduced cells into biofluids. Our platform enables unprecedented efficient isolation of neural EVs from the blood. These EVs derived from pre-labelled mouse brain cells or engrafted human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs) were submitted to multiplex analyses, including transcript and protein levels, in compliance with the multibiomolecule EV carriers. Overall, our novel strategy to track brain-derived EVs in a complex biofluid opens up new avenues to study EVs released from pre-labelled cells in near and distal compartments into the biofluid source.
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2022
ev
Applications and Biological Functions of Exosomes: A Comprehensive Review
Exosomes are also known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) which is bounded by a membrane mostly seen in eukaryotic cells secreted within the endosomal compartment along with some of the selected composition of RNA, proteins, lipids and DNA. They are capable of transferring signals among cells therefore it is used as a mediator for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes helps in the excretion of cellular waste from the body. Exosomes possess various widespread activity in many of the biological functions such as transferring the biomolecules like enzymes, proteins, ribonucleic acid, lipids and also in the regulation of various pathological and physiological process in various diseases. Exosomes are released in to the in vitro growth medium with the help of cultured cells. They are said to be identified in coined matrix and tissue matrix. They are also identified in some of the biological fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine, blood. Exosomes are considered as promising biomarkers in identification and treatment of many diseases as they contribute a lot in the diagnosis of various therapies. The efficacy and stability of imaging probes and therapeutics are enhanced by its biocompatible nature. Exosomes play a major role because of their use in the field of clinical application. It is important to understand the molecular mechanism behind their function and transport in order to explore more about exosomes. Here we discuss about the review and advancement done in the field of exosomes along with their biomedical applications, isolation techniques and biological functions.
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2022
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