A novel costimulatory molecule gene-modified leukemia cell-derived exosome-targeted CD4+ T cell vaccine efficiently enhances anti-leukemia immunity
Previous studies demonstrated that CD4+ T cells can uptake tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell-derived exosomes (DEXO), which harbor tumor antigen peptide/pMHC I complex and costimulatory molecules and show potent effects on inducing antitumor immunity. However, in preliminary study, CD4+ T cells targeted by leukemia cell-derived exosomes (LEXs) did not show the expected effects in inducing effective anti-leukemia immunity, indicating that LEX is poorly immunogenetic largely due to an inadequate costimulatory capacity. Therefore, LEX-based anti-leukemia vaccines need to be optimized. In this study, we constructed a novel LEX-based vaccine by combining CD4+ T cells with costimulatory molecules gene-modified LEXs, which harbor upregulated CD80 and CD86, and the anti-leukemia immunity of CD80 and CD86 gene-modified LEX-targeted CD4+ T cells was investigated. We used lentiviral vectors encoding CD80 and CD86 to successfully transduced the L1210 leukemia cells, and the expression of CD80 and CD86 was remarkably upregulated in leukemia cells. The LEXs highly expressing CD80 and CD86 were obtained from the supernatants of gene-transduced leukemia cells. Our data have shown that LEX-CD8086 could promote CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine secretion more efficiently than control LEXs. Moreover, CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 expressed the acquired exosomal costimulatory molecules. With acquired costimulatory molecules, CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 can act as APCs and are capable of directly stimulating the leukemia cell antigen-specific CD8+ CTL response. This response was higher in potency compared to that noted by the other formulations. Furthermore, the animal study revealed that the CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice than other formulations did in both protective and therapeutic models. In conclusion, this study revealed that CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 could effectively induce more potential anti-leukemia immunity than LEX-CD8086 alone, suggesting that the utilization of a costimulatory molecule gene-modified leukemia cell-derived exosome-targeted CD4+ T cell vaccine may have promising potential for leukemia immunotherapy.
Phospholipid fatty acid remodeling and carbonylated protein increase in extracellular vesicles released by airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract
Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.
A portable elliptical dichroism spectrometer targeting secondary structural features of tumorous protein for pancreatic cancer detection
Stereochemical analysis is essential for understanding the complex function of biomolecules. Various direct and indirect approaches can be used to explore the allosteric configuration. However, the size, cost, and delicate nature of these systems limit their biomedical usage. Here, we constructed elliptical dichroism (ED) spectrometer for biomedical applications, whose performance is validated by experiment and theoretical simulation (Jones/Mueller calculus and time-dependent density-functional theory). Instead of complicated control of circular polarization, ED spectrometer adopted the absorbance of left- and right-oriented elliptically polarized light. With a simplified design, we demonstrated the potential of ED spectrometry as an alternative for secondary structural analysis of biomolecules, their conformation and chirality. It not only provides a portable, low-cost alternative to the sophisticated instruments currently used for structural analysis of biomolecules but also provides superior translational features: low sample consumption(200μl), easy operation, and multiple working modes, for noninvasive cancer detection.
Endosomal escape of nucleic acids from extracellular vesicles mediates functional therapeutic delivery
Extracellular vesicles hold great promise as a drug delivery platform for RNA-based therapeutics. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence for the intracellular trafficking of nucleic acid cargos, specifically, whether they are capable of escaping from the endolysosomal confinement in the recipient cells to be released into the cytosol and hence, interact with their cytoplasmic targets. Here, we demonstrated how red blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles (RBCEVs) release their therapeutic RNA/DNA cargos at specific intracellular compartments characteristic of late endosomes and lysosomes. The released cargos were functional and capable of knocking down genes of interest in recipient cells, resulting in tumor suppression in vitro and in an acute myeloid leukemia murine model without causing significant toxicity. Notably, surface functionalization of RBCEVs with an anti-human CXCR4 antibody facilitated their specific uptake by CXCR4+ leukemic cells, leading to enhanced gene silencing efficiency. Our results provide insights into the cellular uptake mechanisms and endosomal escape routes of nucleic acid cargos delivered by RBCEVs which have important implications for further improvements of the RBCEV-based delivery system.