A novel costimulatory molecule gene-modified leukemia cell-derived exosome-targeted CD4+ T cell vaccine efficiently enhances anti-leukemia immunity

Extracellular Vesicles

Previous studies demonstrated that CD4+ T cells can uptake tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell-derived exosomes (DEXO), which harbor tumor antigen peptide/pMHC I complex and costimulatory molecules and show potent effects on inducing antitumor immunity. However, in preliminary study, CD4+ T cells targeted by leukemia cell-derived exosomes (LEXs) did not show the expected effects in inducing effective anti-leukemia immunity, indicating that LEX is poorly immunogenetic largely due to an inadequate costimulatory capacity. Therefore, LEX-based anti-leukemia vaccines need to be optimized. In this study, we constructed a novel LEX-based vaccine by combining CD4+ T cells with costimulatory molecules gene-modified LEXs, which harbor upregulated CD80 and CD86, and the anti-leukemia immunity of CD80 and CD86 gene-modified LEX-targeted CD4+ T cells was investigated. We used lentiviral vectors encoding CD80 and CD86 to successfully transduced the L1210 leukemia cells, and the expression of CD80 and CD86 was remarkably upregulated in leukemia cells. The LEXs highly expressing CD80 and CD86 were obtained from the supernatants of gene-transduced leukemia cells. Our data have shown that LEX-CD8086 could promote CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine secretion more efficiently than control LEXs. Moreover, CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 expressed the acquired exosomal costimulatory molecules. With acquired costimulatory molecules, CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 can act as APCs and are capable of directly stimulating the leukemia cell antigen-specific CD8+ CTL response. This response was higher in potency compared to that noted by the other formulations. Furthermore, the animal study revealed that the CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice than other formulations did in both protective and therapeutic models. In conclusion, this study revealed that CD4+ TLEX-CD8086 could effectively induce more potential anti-leukemia immunity than LEX-CD8086 alone, suggesting that the utilization of a costimulatory molecule gene-modified leukemia cell-derived exosome-targeted CD4+ T cell vaccine may have promising potential for leukemia immunotherapy.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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