Circulating Serum Exosomal Long Non-Coding RNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer

Extracellular Vesicles

Yu, Miao, Xing-guo Song, Ya-jing Zhao, Xiao-han Dong, Li-min Niu, Zhi-jun Zhang, Xiao-ling Shang, You-yong Tang, Xian-rang Song, and Li Xie. "Circulating Serum Exosomal Long Non-Coding RNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer." Frontiers in Oncology 11 (2021): 48.

Background: Exosomes derived from cancer cells encapsulate various kinds of tumor-specific molecules and thus can interact with adjacent or distant cells to mediate information exchange. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in exosomes have the potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current study was aimed to identify circulating exosomal lncRNAs for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Exosomes were isolated from the serum by ultracentrifugation and verified by transmission electron microscope (TEM), qNano, and immunoblotting. Exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 were selected by lncRNA microarray and validated by qPCR in 203 CRC patients and 201 healthy donors. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to assess the diagnostic efficiency of serum exosomal lncRNAs. Results: Exosomal FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 (TCONS_00020073) levels were significantly upregulated in 203 CRC patients and 80 early-stage CRC patients compared to 201 healthy donors, possessing the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.728, 0.660, and 0.682 for CRC, as well as 0.743, 0.660, and 0.689 for early-stage CRC, respectively. Notably, their combination demonstrated the markedly elevated AUC of 0.736 for CRC and 0.758 for early-stage CRC, indicating their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. Conclusions: Our data suggested that exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 act as the promising biomarkers for the diagnostics of CRC and early-stage CRC.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.