A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids

Extracellular Vesicles

Bano, Reshma, Farhan Ahmad, and Mohd Mohsin. "A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids." RSC Advances 11, no. 32 (2021): 19598-19615.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles, which include exosomes, micro vesicles (MVs) and various-sized vesicles, released by healthy and diseased cells. EVs also include other vesicular structures, such as large apoptotic bodies (1–5 μm), as well as membrane particles (50–80 nm) originating from the plasma membrane. However, exosomes are nanosize (≈30–100 nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin that are bud-off by most types of cells and circulate in bodily fluids. Extracellular nanovesicles contain a large variety of biomolecules, including miRNA, RNA, DNA, proteins, signaling peptides and lipids, that can have diagnostic and therapeutic value. The spectrum of the existing scientific interest in extracellular nanovesicles is comprehensive, which ranges from understanding their functions and pathways to their potential clinical usage. EVs can be obtained from different body fluids with minimally invasive techniques (e.g., urine, plasma, serum), so they are most useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to the accurate diagnosis of various diseases, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause misinterpreted results. Over the last decade, a plethora of approaches have been developed for examining EVs using optical and non-optical tools. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Moreover, the isolation method that is most appropriate to maximize EVs recovery depends on the different experimental situations. This review explores the emerging use of micro and nano-technologies to isolate and characterize exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) from different biological samples, and the application of these technologies for the monitoring and diagnosis of different pathological conditions.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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