A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids
Bano, Reshma, Farhan Ahmad, and Mohd Mohsin. "A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids." RSC Advances 11, no. 32 (2021): 19598-19615.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles, which include exosomes, micro vesicles (MVs) and various-sized vesicles, released by healthy and diseased cells. EVs also include other vesicular structures, such as large apoptotic bodies (1–5 μm), as well as membrane particles (50–80 nm) originating from the plasma membrane. However, exosomes are nanosize (≈30–100 nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin that are bud-off by most types of cells and circulate in bodily fluids. Extracellular nanovesicles contain a large variety of biomolecules, including miRNA, RNA, DNA, proteins, signaling peptides and lipids, that can have diagnostic and therapeutic value. The spectrum of the existing scientific interest in extracellular nanovesicles is comprehensive, which ranges from understanding their functions and pathways to their potential clinical usage. EVs can be obtained from different body fluids with minimally invasive techniques (e.g., urine, plasma, serum), so they are most useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to the accurate diagnosis of various diseases, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause misinterpreted results. Over the last decade, a plethora of approaches have been developed for examining EVs using optical and non-optical tools. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Moreover, the isolation method that is most appropriate to maximize EVs recovery depends on the different experimental situations. This review explores the emerging use of micro and nano-technologies to isolate and characterize exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) from different biological samples, and the application of these technologies for the monitoring and diagnosis of different pathological conditions.
Phospholipid fatty acid remodeling and carbonylated protein increase in extracellular vesicles released by airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract
Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.
A portable elliptical dichroism spectrometer targeting secondary structural features of tumorous protein for pancreatic cancer detection
Stereochemical analysis is essential for understanding the complex function of biomolecules. Various direct and indirect approaches can be used to explore the allosteric configuration. However, the size, cost, and delicate nature of these systems limit their biomedical usage. Here, we constructed elliptical dichroism (ED) spectrometer for biomedical applications, whose performance is validated by experiment and theoretical simulation (Jones/Mueller calculus and time-dependent density-functional theory). Instead of complicated control of circular polarization, ED spectrometer adopted the absorbance of left- and right-oriented elliptically polarized light. With a simplified design, we demonstrated the potential of ED spectrometry as an alternative for secondary structural analysis of biomolecules, their conformation and chirality. It not only provides a portable, low-cost alternative to the sophisticated instruments currently used for structural analysis of biomolecules but also provides superior translational features: low sample consumption(200μl), easy operation, and multiple working modes, for noninvasive cancer detection.
Endosomal escape of nucleic acids from extracellular vesicles mediates functional therapeutic delivery
Extracellular vesicles hold great promise as a drug delivery platform for RNA-based therapeutics. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence for the intracellular trafficking of nucleic acid cargos, specifically, whether they are capable of escaping from the endolysosomal confinement in the recipient cells to be released into the cytosol and hence, interact with their cytoplasmic targets. Here, we demonstrated how red blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles (RBCEVs) release their therapeutic RNA/DNA cargos at specific intracellular compartments characteristic of late endosomes and lysosomes. The released cargos were functional and capable of knocking down genes of interest in recipient cells, resulting in tumor suppression in vitro and in an acute myeloid leukemia murine model without causing significant toxicity. Notably, surface functionalization of RBCEVs with an anti-human CXCR4 antibody facilitated their specific uptake by CXCR4+ leukemic cells, leading to enhanced gene silencing efficiency. Our results provide insights into the cellular uptake mechanisms and endosomal escape routes of nucleic acid cargos delivered by RBCEVs which have important implications for further improvements of the RBCEV-based delivery system.