Investigating the consistency of extracellular vesicle production from breast cancer subtypes using CELLine adherent bioreactors

Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular vesicle (EV) research has grown rapidly in recent years, largely due to the potential use of EVs as liquid biopsy biomarkers or therapeutics. However, in‐depth characterisation and validation of EVs produced using conventional in vitro cultures can be challenging due to the large area of cell monolayers and volumes of culture media required. To overcome this obstacle, multiple bioreactor designs have been tested for EV production with varying success, but the consistency of EVs produced over time in these systems has not been reported previously. In this study, we demonstrate that several breast cancer cell lines of different subtypes can be cultured simultaneously in space, resource, and time efficient manner using CELLine AD 1000 systems, allowing the consistent production of vast amounts of EVs for downstream experimentation. We report an improved workflow used for inoculating, maintaining, and monitoring the bioreactors, their EV production, and the characterisation of the EVs produced. Lastly, our proteomic analyses of the EVs produced throughout the lifetime of the bioreactors show that core EV‐associated proteins are relatively consistent, with few minor variations over time, but that tracking the production of EVs is a convenient method to indirectly monitor the bioreactor and consistency of the yielded EVs. These findings will aid future studies requiring the simultaneous production of large amounts of EVs from several cell lines of different subtypes of a disease and other EV biomanufacturing applications.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.