Exosome-loaded extracellular matrix-mimic hydrogel with anti-inflammatory property Facilitates/promotes growth plate injury repair

Extracellular Vesicles

Growth plate cartilage has limited self-repair ability, leading to poor bone bridge formation post-injury and ultimately limb growth defects in children. The current corrective surgeries are highly invasive, and outcomes can be unpredictable. Following growth plate injury, the direct loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) coupled with further ECM depletion due to the inhibitory effects of inflammation on the cartilage matrix protein greatly hinder chondrocyte regeneration. We designed an exosome (Exo) derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) loaded ECM-mimic hydrogel to promote cartilage repair by directly supplementing ECM and anti-inflammatory properties. Aldehyde-functionalized chondroitin sulfate (OCS) was introduced into gelatin methacryloyl (GM) to form GMOCS hydrogel. Our results uncovered that GMOCS hydrogel could significantly promote the synthesis of ECM due to the doping of OCS. In addition, the GMOCS-Exos hydrogel could further promote the anabolism of chondrocytes by inhibiting inflammation and ultimately promote growth plate injury repair through ECM remodeling.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.