A Comparison of Blood Plasma Small Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment Strategies for Proteomic Analysis

Extracellular Vesicles

Turner, Natalie P., Pevindu Abeysinghe, Keith A. Kwan Cheung, Kanchan Vaswani, Jayden Logan, Pawel Sadowski, and Murray D. Mitchell. 2022. “A Comparison of Blood Plasma Small Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment Strategies for Proteomic Analysis.” Proteomes 10 (2): 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes10020019.

Proteomic analysis of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) poses a significant challenge. A ‘gold-standard’ method for plasma sEV enrichment for downstream proteomic analysis is yet to be established. Methods were evaluated for their capacity to successfully isolate and enrich sEVs from plasma, minimise the presence of highly abundant plasma proteins, and result in the optimum representation of sEV proteins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma from four cattle (Bos taurus) of similar physical attributes and genetics were used. Three methods of sEV enrichment were utilised: ultracentrifugation (UC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and ultrafiltration (UF). These methods were combined to create four groups for methodological evaluation: UC + SEC, UC + SEC + UF, SEC + UC and SEC + UF. The UC + SEC method yielded the highest number of protein identifications (IDs). The SEC + UC method reduced plasma protein IDs compared to the other methods, but also resulted in the lowest number of protein IDs overall. The UC + SEC + UF method decreased sEV protein ID, particle number, mean and mode particle size, particle yield, and did not improve purity compared to the UC + SEC method. In this study, the UC + SEC method was the best method for sEV protein ID, purity, and overall particle yield. Our data suggest that the method and sequence of sEV enrichment strategy impacts protein ID, which may influence the outcome of biomarker discovery studies.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.