Comparison of isolation methods using commercially available kits for obtaining extracellular vesicles from cow milk
Morozumi, Mai, Hirohisa Izumi, Takashi Shimizu, and Yasuhiro Takeda. "Comparison of isolation methods using commercially available kits for obtaining extracellular vesicles from cow milk." Journal of Dairy Science 104, no. 6 (2021): 6463-6471.
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important for delivering biologically active substances to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. Milk-derived EV are widely known because of their potential for immune enhancement. However, procedures for isolating milk-derived EV have not been fully established. To obtain pure milk-derived EV and accurately reveal their function, such procedures must be established. The aim of the present study was to compare methods using commercially available kits for isolating milk-derived EV. Initially, we investigated procedures to remove casein, which is the major obstacle in determining milk-derived EV purity. We separated whey using centrifugation only, acetic acid precipitation, and EDTA precipitation. Then, we isolated milk-derived EV by ultracentrifugation, membrane affinity column, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), polymer-based isolation, or phosphatidylserine-affinity isolation. Using EV count per milligram of protein, which is a good indicator of purity, we determined that acetic acid precipitation was the best method for removing casein. Using nanoparticle tracking analysis, protein quantity analysis, and RNA quantity analysis, we comprehensively compared each isolation method for its purity and yield. We found that SEC-based qEV column (Izon Science) could collect purer milk-derived EV at higher quantities. Thus, a combination of acetic acid precipitation and qEV can effectively isolate high amounts of pure extracellular vesicles from bovine milk.View full article