Human neural cell type‐specific extracellular vesicle proteome defines disease‐related molecules associated with activated astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease brain

Extracellular Vesicles

You, Yang, Satoshi Muraoka, Mark P. Jedrychowski, Jianqiao Hu, Amanda K. McQuade, Tracy Young‐Pearse, Roshanak Aslebagh, et al. 2022. “Human Neural Cell Type‐Specific Extracellular Vesicle Proteome Defines Disease‐Related Molecules Associated with Activated Astrocytes in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain.” Journal of Extracellular Vesicles 11 (1).

In neurodegenerative diseases, extracellular vesicles (EVs) transfer pathogenic molecules and are consequently involved in disease progression. We have investigated the proteomic profiles of EVs that were isolated from four different humaninduced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cell types (excitatory neurons, astrocytes, microglia-like cells, and oligodendrocyte-like cells). Novel cell type-specific EV protein markers were then identified for the excitatory neurons (ATP1A3, NCAM1), astrocytes (LRP1, ITGA6), microglia-like cells (ITGAM, LCP1), and oligodendrocytelike cells (LAMP2, FTH1), as well as 16 pan-EV marker candidates, including integrins and annexins. To further demonstrate how cell-type-specific EVs may be involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we performed protein co-expression network analysis and conducted cell type assessments for the proteomes of brain-derived EVs from the control, mild cognitive impairment, and AD cases. A protein module enriched in astrocyte-specific EV markers was most significantly associated with the AD pathology and cognitive impairment, suggesting an important role in AD progression. The hub protein from this module, integrin-β1 (ITGB1), was found to be significantly elevated in astrocyte-specific EVs enriched from the total brain-derived AD EVs and associated with the brain β-amyloid and tau load in independent cohorts. Thus, our study provides a featured framework and rich resource for the future analyses of EV functions in neurodegenerative diseases in a cell type-specific manner.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.