Extracellular Vesicles Do Not Mediate the Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Mouse-Derived Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells Secretome

Extracellular Vesicles

Adipose tissue represents an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for therapeutic purposes. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory potential of adipose tissue-derived MSC (ASC). Extracellular vesicles (EV) present in the conditioned medium (CM) have been shown to mediate the cytoprotective effects of human ASC secretome. Nevertheless, the role of EV in the anti-inflammatory effects of mouse-derived ASC is not known. The current study has investigated the influence of mouse-derived ASC CM and its fractions on the response of mouse-derived peritoneal macrophages against lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CM and its soluble fraction reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, adenosine triphosphate and nitric oxide in stimulated cells. They also enhanced the migration of neutrophils or monocytes, in the absence or presence of LPS, respectively, which is likely related to the presence of chemokines, and reduced the phagocytic response. The anti-inflammatory effect of CM may be dependent on the regulation of toll-like receptor 4 expression and nuclear factor-κB activation. Our results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effects of mouse-derived ASC secretome in mouse-derived peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS and show that they are not mediated by EV.

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Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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