Extracellular vesicles derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells protect rats against acute myocardial infarction-induced heart failure

Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are suggested to promote angiogenesis in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of BMSCs-EVs in AMI-induced heart failure (HF). BMSCs were isolated and verified, and EVs were purified and identified. After establishment of AMI-induced HF models, rats were treated with BMSCs-EVs and/or overexpressing (ov)/knocking down (kd) bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Cardiac function, myocardial histopathological changes, angiogenesis, and vascular regeneration density were measured. Levels of pro-angiogenesis factors and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were detected. The viability and angiogenesis of hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were measured. After BMSCs-EV treatment, the cardiac function of HF rats was improved, myocardial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were decreased, angiogenesis was increased, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was inhibited. BMP2 was significantly upregulated in the myocardium. Ov-BMP2-BMSCs-EVs alleviated myocardial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, and promoted angiogenesis of HF rats, and improved the activity and angiogenesis of hypoxic HUVECs, while kd-BMP2-BMSCs-EVs showed limited protection against AMI-induced HF. BMSCs-EVs deliver BMP2 to promote angiogenesis and improve cardiac function of HF rats.

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Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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