Isolation methodology is essential to the evaluation of the extracellular vesicle component of the senescence‐associated secretory phenotype

Extracellular Vesicles

A hallmark of senescence is the acquisition of an enhanced secretome comprising inflammatory mediators and tissue remodelling agents - the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Through the SASP, senescent cells are hypothesised to contribute to both ageing and pathologies associated with age. Whilst soluble factors have been the most widely investigated components of the SASP, there is growing evidence that small extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise functionally important constituents. Thus, dissecting the contribution of the soluble SASP from the vesicular component is crucial to elucidating the functional significance of senescent cell derived EVs. Here, we take advantage of a systematic proteomics based approach to determine that soluble SASP factors co-isolate with EVs following differential ultracentrifugation (dUC). We present size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a method for separation of the soluble and vesicular components of the senescent secretome and thus EV purification. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SEC EVs isolated from senescent cells contribute to non-cell autonomous paracrine senescence. Therefore, this work emphasises the requirement for methodological rigor due to the propensity of SASP components to co-isolate during dUC and provides a framework for future investigations of the vesicular component of the SASP.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.