Cardioprotective effect of extracellular vesicles derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocyte on hyperglycemic cardiomyocytes through alleviation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Bitirim, Ceylan Verda, Zeynep Busra Ozer, Dunya Aydos, Kardelen Genc, Seyma Demirsoy, Kamil Can Akcali, and Belma Turan. 2022. “Cardioprotective Effect of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Ticagrelor-Pretreated Cardiomyocyte on Hyperglycemic Cardiomyocytes through Alleviation of Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.” Scientific Reports 12 (1): 5651. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09627-6.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) via connecting the immune cell response to tissue injury, besides stimulation to muscle insulin resistance, while DM is associated with increased risks for major cardiovascular complications. Under DM, chronic hyperglycemia, and subsequent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) further lead to cardiac growth remodeling and dysfunction. The purinergic drug ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Although it is widely used in cardioprotection, the underlying molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly elucidated. Here, we aimed to understand how ticagrelor exerts its cardio-regulatory effects. For this purpose, we investigated the anti-oxidative and cardioprotective effect of EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocytes under DM conditions. To mimic DM in cardiomyocytes, we used high glucose incubated H9c2-cells (HG). HG cells were treated with EVs, which were derived from either ticagrelor-pretreated or untreated H9c2-cells. Our results demonstrated that ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-derived EVs significantly decreased the hyperglycemia-induced aberrant ROS production, prevented the development of apoptosis and ER stress, and alleviated oxidative stress associated miRNA-expression profile. Importantly, EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-cells enhanced endothelial cell migration and tube formation, suggesting a modulation of the EV profile in cardiomyocytes. Our data, for the first time, indicate that ticagrelor can exert an important regulatory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy through extracellular vesicular modulation behind its receptor-inhibition-related effects.