Necroptosis is associated with Rab27‐independent expulsion of extracellular vesicles containing RIPK3 and MLKL

Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion is an important mechanism used by cells to release biomolecules. A common necroptosis effector-mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL)-was recently found to participate in the biogenesis of small and large EVs independent of its function in necroptosis. The objective of the current study is to gain mechanistic insights into EV biogenesis during necroptosis. Assessing EV number by nanoparticle tracking analysis revealed an increased number of EVs released during necroptosis. To evaluate the nature of such vesicles, we performed a newly adapted, highly sensitive mass spectrometry-based proteomics on EVs released by healthy or necroptotic cells. Compared to EVs released by healthy cells, EVs released during necroptosis contained a markedly higher number of unique proteins. Receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) and MLKL were among the proteins enriched in EVs released during necroptosis. Further, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mice deficient of Rab27a and Rab27b showed diminished basal EV release but responded to necroptosis with enhanced EV biogenesis as the wildtype MEFs. In contrast, necroptosis-associated EVs were sensitive to Ca2+ depletion or lysosomal disruption. Neither treatment affected the RIPK3-mediated MLKL phosphorylation. An unbiased screen using RIPK3 immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry on necroptotic EVs led to the identification of Rab11b in RIPK3 immune-complexes. Our data suggests that necroptosis switches EV biogenesis from a Rab27a/b dependent mechanism to a lysosomal mediated mechanism.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.