Proteomic and phospholipidomic characterization of extracellular vesicles inducing tumor microenvironment in Epstein‐Barr virus‐associated lymphomas

Extracellular Vesicles

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes malignant carcinomas including B cell lymphomas accompanied by the systemic inflammation. Previously, we observed that phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from an EBV strain Akata-transformed lymphoma (Akata EVs) convert surrounding phagocytes into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) via induction of inflammatory response, which is in part mediated by EBV-derived micro RNAs. However, it is still unclear about EV-carried other potential inflammatory factors associated with TAM formation in EBV lymphomas. To this end, we sought to explore proteomic and phospholipidomic profiles of PS-exposing EVs derived from EBV-transformed lymphomas. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several immunomodulatory proteins including integrin αLβ2 and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) were highly expressed in PS-exposing Akata EVs compared with another EBV strain B95-8-transformed lymphoma-derived counterparts which significantly lack TAM-inducing ability. Pharmacological inhibition of either integrin αLβ2 or FGF2 hampered cytokine induction in monocytic cultured cells elicited by PS-exposing Akata EVs, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in EV-mediated TAM induction in EBV lymphomas. In addition, phospholipids containing precursors of immunomodulatory lipid mediators were also enriched in PS-exposing Akata EVs compared with B95-8 counterparts. Phospholipidomic analysis of fractionated Akata EVs by density gradient centrifugation further demonstrated that PS-exposing Akata EVs might be identical to certain Akata EVs in low density fractions containing exosomes. Therefore, we concluded that a variety of immunomodulatory cargo molecules in a certain EV subtype are presumably conducive to the development of EBV lymphomas.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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