Extracellular Vesicles as Predictors of Individual Response to Exercise Training in Youth Living with Obesity
BACKGROUND: Exercise is associated with health benefits, including the prevention and management of obesity. However, heterogeneity in the adaptive response to exercise training exists. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in extracellular vesicles (EVs) after acute aerobic exercise were associated with the responder phenotype following 6-weeks of resistance training (RT).
METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of plasma samples from the EXIT trial (clinical trial#02204670). Eleven sedentary youth with obesity (15.7 ± 0.5 yrs, BMI ≥95th percentile) underwent acute exercise (60% HRR, 45 min). Blood was collected at baseline [AT0 min], during [AT15-45 min], and 75 min post-recovery [AT120], and EVs purified using size exclusion chromatography from extracted plasma. Afterward, youth participated in 6-weeks RT and were categorized into responders or non-responders based on changes in insulin sensitivity.
RESULTS: We assessed EV biophysical profile (size, zeta potential, protein yield, and EV subtype protein expression) in a single-blind fashion. Overall, there was a general increase in EV production in both groups. Average EV size was larger in responders (~147 nm) vs. non-responders (~124 nm; p < 0.05). EV size was positively associated with absolute change in Matsuda index (insulin sensitivity) following RT (r = 0.44, p = 0.08). EV size distribution revealed responders predominantly expressed EVs sized 150-300 nm, whereas non-responders expressed EVs sized 50-150 nm (p < 0.05). At baseline, responders had ~25% lower TSG101, ~85% higher MMP2 levels. EV protein yield was higher in responders than non-responders at AT15 (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that youth with obesity that respond to RT produce larger EVs that are TSG101+ and CD63+, with increased EV protein yield during acute exercise.View full article