Circulating extracellular vesicles of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients have higher RAC1 and induce recapitulation of nephrotic syndrome phenotype in …
Eroglu, F., Yazar, V., Guler, U., Yıldırım, M., Yildirim, T., Gungor, T., Celikkaya, E., Karakaya, D., Turay, N., Ciftci Dede, E., Korkusuz, P., Salih, B., Bulbul, M. and Gursel, I., 2021. Circulating extracellular vesicles of patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome have higher RAC1 and induce recapitulation of nephrotic syndrome phenotype in podocytes. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 321(5), pp.F659-F673.
Since previous research suggests a role of a circulating factor in the pathogenesis of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS), we speculated that circulating plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a candidate source of such a soluble mediator. Here, we aimed to characterize and try to delineate the effects of these EVs in vitro. Plasma EVs from 20 children with steroid-sensitive NS in relapse and remission, 10 healthy controls, and 6 disease controls were obtained by serial ultracentrifugation. Characterization of these EVs was performed by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Major proteins from plasma EVs were identified via mass spectrometry. Gene Ontology classification analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were performed on selectively expressed EV proteins during relapse. Immortalized human podocyte culture was used to detect the effects of EVs on podocytes. The protein content and particle number of plasma EVs were significantly increased during NS relapse. Relapse NS EVs selectively expressed proteins that involved actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Among these, the level of RAC-GTP was significantly increased in relapse EVs compared with remission and disease control EVs. Relapse EVs were efficiently internalized by podocytes and induced significantly enhanced motility and albumin permeability. Moreover, relapse EVs induced significantly higher levels of RAC-GTP and phospho-p38 and decreased the levels of synaptopodin in podocytes. Circulating relapse EVs are biologically active molecules that carry active RAC1 as cargo and induce recapitulation of the NS phenotype in podocytes in vitro.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Up to now, the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the pathogenesis of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS) has not been studied. Here, we found that relapse NS EVs contain significantly increased active RAC1, induce enhanced podocyte motility, and increase expression of RAC-GTP and phospho-p38 expression in vitro. These results suggest that plasma EVs are biologically active molecules in the pathogenesis of NS.View full article