Cardiovascular exosomes and microRNAs in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology
Henning, Robert J. "Cardiovascular exosomes and microRNAs in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology." Journal of cardiovascular translational research 14, no. 2 (2021): 195-212.
Cardiac exosomes mediate cell-to-cell communication, stimulate or inhibit the activities of target cells, and affect myocardial hypertrophy, injury and infarction, ventricular remodeling, angiogenesis, and atherosclerosis. The exosomes that are released in the heart from cardiomyocytes, vascular cells, fibroblasts, and resident stem cells are hypoimmunogenic, are physiologically more stable than cardiac cells, can circulate in the body, and are able to cross the blood–brain barrier. Exosomes utilize three mechanisms for cellular communication: (1) internalization by cells, (2) direct fusion to the cell membrane, and (3) receptor-ligand interactions. Cardiac exosomes transmit proteins, mRNA, and microRNAs to other cells during both physiological and pathological process. Cardiac-specific exosome miRNAs can regulate the expression of sarcomeric genes, ion channel genes, autophagy, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic activity, and angiogenesis. This review discusses the role of exosomes and microRNAs in normal myocardium, myocardial injury and infarction, atherosclerosis, and the importance of circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of cardiac disease.View full article