Cancer Cells Shuttle Extracellular Vesicles Containing Oncogenic Mutant p53 Proteins to the Tumor Microenvironment

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Bhatta, Bibek, Ishai Luz, Christian Krueger, Fanny Xueting Teo, David P. Lane, Kanaga Sabapathy, and Tomer Cooks. "Cancer Cells Shuttle Extracellular Vesicles Containing Oncogenic Mutant p53 Proteins to the Tumor Microenvironment." Cancers 13, no. 12 (2021): 2985.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed by cancer cells play a major role in mediating the transfer of molecular information by reprogramming the tumor microenvironment (TME). TP53 (encoding the p53 protein) is the most mutated gene across many cancer types. Mutations in TP53 not only result in the loss of its tumor-suppressive properties but also results in the acquisition of novel gain-of-functions (GOF) that promote the growth of cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that GOF mutant p53 proteins can be transferred via EVs to neighboring cancer cells and to macrophages, thus modulating them to release tumor supportive cytokines. Our data from pancreatic, lung, and colon carcinoma cell lines demonstrate that the mutant p53 protein can be selectively sorted into EVs. More specifically, mutant p53 proteins in EVs can be taken up by neighboring cells and mutant p53 expression is found in non-tumor cells in both human cancers and in non-human tissues in human xenografts. Our findings shed light on the intricate methods in which specific GOF p53 mutants can promote oncogenic mechanisms by reprogramming and then recruiting non-cancerous elements for tumor progression.
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Bioinspired artificial exosomes based on lipid nanoparticles carrying let-7b-5p promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of target genes. Proangiogenic small extracellular vesicles (sEVs; popularly identified with the name “exosomes”) with a composite cargo of miRNAs are secreted by cultured stem cells and present in human biological fluids. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) represent an advanced platform for clinically approved delivery of RNA therapeutics. In this study, we aimed to (1) identify the miRNAs responsible for sEV-induced angiogenesis; (2) develop the prototype of bioinspired “artificial exosomes” (AEs) combining LNPs with a proangiogenic miRNA, and (3) validate the angiogenic potential of the bioinspired AEs. We previously reported that human sEVs from bone marrow (BM)-CD34+ cells and pericardial fluid (PF) are proangiogenic. Here, we have shown that sEVs secreted from saphenous vein pericytes and BM mesenchymal stem cells also promote angiogenesis. Analysis of miRNA datasets available in-house or datamined from GEO identified the let-7 family as common miRNA signature of the proangiogenic sEVs. LNPs with either hsa-let-7b-5p or cyanine 5 (Cy5)-conjugated Caenorhabditis elegans miR-39 (Cy5-cel-miR-39; control miRNA) were prepared using microfluidic micromixing. let-7b-5p-AEs did not cause toxicity and transferred functionally active let-7b-5p to recipient endothelial cells (ECs). let-7b-AEs also improved EC survival under hypoxia and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Bioinspired proangiogenic AEs could be further developed into innovative nanomedicine products targeting ischemic diseases.
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2022
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Biophysical and Computational Studies of Human Disease Related Proteins with a Single-Pass Transmembrane Helix
Single-pass transmembrane receptors (SPTMRs) are involved in essential processes of biophysical and pathological nature in the human. This membrane protein family includes receptor tyrosine kinases, integrins, and immunoreceptors, which play an important role in metabolism, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. SPTMR consists of several distinct domains including the extracellular domain (ECD), the transmembrane domain (TMD), and the intracellular domain (ICD) and exists as a monomer, homo- and/or heterodimer. Upon a ligand ligation through ECD, homo- or heterodimerization of SPTMR forms, followed by consequent modification of the ICDs, leading to the initiation of cellular signaling events. This activation requires interactions between TMD helices whose role in receptor activation becomes important. TMD is further highlighted by the discovery of mutations in the TMD or juxtamembrane domain (JMD) that are associated with human diseases. However, the details of cross-membrane signal transduction via SPTMRs have to be elucidated. Due to the high conformational flexibility of SPTMRs with their diverse structural composition, it is hard to characterize SPTMRs structurally. This drives us to work with only TMD helices of SPTMRs and focus on their interactions in the lipid bilayer environment. Our approach is the use of not only experimental data but also computational MD simulations to understand how TMD helices interact and how mutants associated with diseases affect the dimerization of TMD helices.
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2022
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes delay the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis through cartilage protection
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint degenerative disease. At present, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosome transplantation has more advantages, such as non-immunogenicity, non-tumorigenicity, convenient storage and transportation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes on osteoarthritis.  METHODS: (1) SD rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were extracted and identified by cell morphology and flow cytometry. Exosomes in the cell supernatant were extracted by ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, particle size and western blot assay. (2) Primary costal chondrocytes were extracted from suckling rats and cocultured with fluorescently labeled exosomes for 12 hours. The phagocytosis of chondrocytes was observed. In vitro chondrocyte damage was induced by interleukin-1β. PBS (100 μL) containing 50 μg exosomes was added for 24 hours. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type II collagen fiber α1 protein was detected by immunofluorescence to evaluate the protective effect of exosomes on injured chondrocytes. (3) The rat model of osteoarthritis was induced by iodoacetic acid in vivo. Exosomes were injected into the joint cavity, and the changes of joint structure of osteoarthritis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and safrane-fast green staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type II collagen fiber α1 protein was measured by immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the protective effect of exosomes on cartilage in vivo.  RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The extracted primary cells showed a typical fusiform shape and arranged radially. The extracted cells highly expressed CD73 and CD105, but slightly expressed CD45, CD34 and CD3. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the obtained particles showed a typical saucer-like morphology. The particle size was less than 100 nm. Meanwhile, nanoparticles showed positive expression of ALIX and HRS protein. (2) Typical red-stained particles could be observed in chondrocytes, which confirms that exosomes could be taken up by chondrocytes, and exosomes could promote chondrocyte type II collagen fiber α1 protein expression, but inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13, which confirmed that exosomes could attenuate the damage effect of interleukin-1β on chondrocytes. (3) Exosomes could promote the morphological recovery of damaged articular cartilage and the up-regulate type II collagen fiber α1 expression, while inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13, which also confirmed that exosomes can alleviate the effects of iodoacetic acid on articular cartilage damage. (4) Above findings results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes delay the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis through a chondroprotective mechanism.
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2022
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Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Proliferation, Invasion and Migration of Osteosarcoma Cells via the lncRNA MALAT1/miR-143/NRSN2/Wnt/β-Catenin Axis
Introduction Osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (BMSC-EVs) bear repair function for bone and cartilage. This study investigated the mechanism of BMSC-EVs in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Methods BMSC-EVs were isolated and identified. The effects of different concentrations of EVs on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated. LncRNA MALAT1 expression in osteosarcoma cells was detected. BMSCs were transfected with si-MALAT1 or si-NC. The binding relationships between MALAT1 and miR-143, and miR-143 and NRSN2 were verified. Levels of NRSN2 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway key proteins were detected. miR-143 mimic was transfected into EVs-treated osteosarcoma cells. Nude mice were injected with MG63 cells to verify the effect of EVs on osteosarcoma growth in vivo. Results BMSC-EVs facilitated proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells. BMSC-EVs carried MALAT1 into osteosarcoma cells. BMSC-EVs-treated osteosarcoma cells showed increased MALAT1 and NRSN2 expressions, decreased miR-143 expression, and activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. miR-143 mimic or si-MALAT1 reversed the effects of BMSC-EVs on osteosarcoma cells. In vivo experiment confirmed that BMSC-EVs promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Discussion BMSC-EVs promoted proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells via the MALAT1/miR-143/NRSN2/Wnt/β-catenin axis. This study might offer new insights into osteosarcoma management. Keywords: osteosarcoma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, extracellular vesicles, lncRNA MALAT1, miR-143, NRSN2, Wnt/β-catenin pathway
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2022
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Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Exosomal miR-106a Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by Down-regulation of TCEAL7
Studies have shown that cancer-associated broblasts (CAFs) play an irreplaceable role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Therefore, exploring the action and mechanism of CAFs on tumor cells is particularly important for designing new and effective treatments and improving prognosis of tumors. For exosomes have been shown to play vital roles in intercellular communication, in this study, we compared the effects of CAFs-derived exosomes and NFs-derived exosomes on breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. The results showed that exosomes from both CAFs and NFs could enter into breast cancer cells and CAFs-derived exosomes had a more enhancing effect on breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion than NFs-derived exosomes. Furthermore, it was found that the expression levels of miR-106a in exosomes derived from CAFs were signicantly up-regulated than that of NFsderived exosomes and what’s more, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that miR-106a can promote breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis by specically binding to the 3'UTR of TCEAL7. It is inspiring to nd that the miR-106a-TCEAL7 pathway promotes Snail nuclear ectopic activation by activating NF-κB, thereby inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. Moreover, a mouse xenograft model conrmed that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-106a could promote tumor metastasis. The above data shows that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-106a promote Snail nuclear ectopic by targeting TCEAL7 to activate the NF-κB pathway, thereby inducing EMT, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting CAFs-derived exosome miR-106a may be a potential treatment option to overcome breast cancer progression.
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2022
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Caracterización de partículas coloidales en el agua del suelo mediante detección sintonizable de pulsos resistivos
The transport of colloids in soil determines the fate of pollutants, nutrients and microorganisms in the environment and the contamination of groundwater. Colloidal retention mechanisms in soils depend on complex interactions between the soil pore walls and colloids. The hypothesis of this thesis is that the interaction of the particulate colloidal pollutants with the colloids present in the soil pore water has a dramatic influence on the transport of pollutants. This is due to the fact that the filtration of colloids in the porous medium depends on the size, shape and charge of the coatings and colloidal aggregates formed between the polluting particles and the suspended soil colloids. Improving the characterization of colloidal particulate pollutants in soil water can help to explain more precisely the role of soil as a filter for pollutants. Emerging technologies in particle characterization can represent an important advance in this characterization. Specifically, the tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) detection technology allows the real (non-hydrodynamic) size of individual particles to be determined with high precision in a polydisperse suspension between 40 nm and 3 micrometers, in addition to determining, also individually, their surface electrical potential. The new knowledge that this technique can provide could lead to a better understanding of the transport of particulate pollutants in the soil, which could improve the diagnosis of potential vulnerability of subsurface waters against pathogenic organisms, engineered nanoparticles and metals bound to colloids, as well as optimize the design of micro and nanopesticide formulations.
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2022
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Cardioprotection by remote ischemic conditioning is transferable by plasma and mediated by extracellular vesicles
Background Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) by brief periods of limb ischemia and reperfusion protects against ischemia–reperfusion injury. We studied the cardioprotective role of extracellular vesicles (EV)s released into the circulation after RIC and EV accumulation in injured myocardium. Methods We used plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after RIC (pre-PLA and post-PLA) to evaluate the transferability of RIC. Pre- and post-RIC plasma samples were separated into an EV enriched fraction (pre-EV + and post-EV +) and an EV poor fraction (pre-EV- and post-EV-) by size exclusion chromatography. Small non-coding RNAs from pre-EV + and post-EV + were purified and profiled by NanoString Technology. Infarct size was compared in Sprague–Dawley rat hearts perfused with isolated plasma and fractions in a Langendorff model. In addition, fluorescently labeled EVs were used to assess homing in an in vivo rat model. (ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT03380663) Results Post-PLA reduced infarct size by 15% points compared with Pre-PLA (55 ± 4% (n = 7) vs 70 ± 6% (n = 8), p = 0.03). Post-EV + reduced infarct size by 16% points compared with pre-EV + (53 ± 15% (n = 13) vs 68 ± 12% (n = 14), p = 0.03). Post-EV- did not affect infarct size compared to pre-EV- (64 ± 3% (n = 15) and 68 ± 10% (n = 16), p > 0.99). Three miRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-144-3p and miR-451a) that target the mTOR pathway were significantly up-regulated in the post-EV + group. Labelled EVs accumulated more intensely in the infarct area than in sham hearts. Conclusion Cardioprotection by RIC can be mediated by circulating EVs that accumulate in injured myocardium. The underlying mechanism involves modulation of EV miRNA that may promote cell survival during reperfusion.
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2022
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Characterisation of extracellular vesicles in the context of myocardial infarction and glucose intolerance
Introduction In response to myocardial infarction (MI), extracellular vesicles (EVs), including large (lEVs) and small (sEVs), are released within and from the heart to facilitate intercellular communication and maintain cardiac homeostasis by transporting cargo to recipient cells. Objective We investigated how glucose intolerance influences the intracardiac EV release post-MI and their content. Method B6J mice were fed chow (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. MI was induced by permanent coronary artery ligation. EVs were isolated from left ventricles and quantified by tunable resistive pulse sensing. EVs were characterised by flow cytometry. EV miRNA content was determined by RNAseq and qPCR. Using cardiomyocyte specific GFP+ mice, plasma lEVs were analysed by flow cytometry to determine if cardiomyocyte EVs (CMEVs) are circulating. Labelled hypoxic cardiomyocyte cell line (HL-1) lEVs were injected in HFD/CD mice post-MI to determine target cells. Results In CD mice, EV release was significantly increased 24 h post-MI compared to sham. HFD lEV levels were significantly higher compared to sham and CD mice post-MI with no difference in sEV release between sham and MI HFD mice. Intracardiac lEVs originate from cardiomyocyte and endothelial cells in response to MI and MI + HFD respectively. qPCR analyses identified miRNA candidates that were modulated by MI and HFD. Intracardiac GFP + lEV levels were lower in HFD than in CD mice whereas levels of circulating GFP + lEVs were higher. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed a preferential uptake of hypoxic HL-1 lEVs by splenic myeloid cells in HFD spleens versus CD post-MI. Conclusion Our results show that glucose intolerance modulates intracardiac EV release post-MI and their miRNA cargo. Circulating CMEV levels as well as their uptake by splenic myeloid cells are increased. Further investigations will aim to decipher the impact of the intracardiac EV miRNA mediated transfer in the diabetic heart post-MI.
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2022
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Characterization of extracellular vesicles and synthetic nanoparticles with four orthogonal single‐particle analysis platforms
We compared four orthogonal technologies for sizing, counting, and phenotyping of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic particles. The platforms were: single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensing (SP-IRIS) with fluorescence, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with fluorescence, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing (MRPS), and nanoflow cytometry measurement (NFCM). EVs from the human T lymphocyte line H9 (high CD81, low CD63) and the promonocytic line U937 (low CD81, high CD63) were separated from culture conditioned medium (CCM) by differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) or a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot (WB). Mixtures of synthetic particles (silica and polystyrene spheres) with known sizes and/or concentrations were also tested. MRPS and NFCM returned similar particle counts, while NTA detected counts approximately one order of magnitude lower for EVs, but not for synthetic particles. SP-IRIS events could not be used to estimate particle concentrations. For sizing, SP-IRIS, MRPS, and NFCM returned similar size profiles, with smaller sizes predominating (per power law distribution), but with sensitivity typically dropping off below diameters of 60 nm. NTA detected a population of particles with a mode diameter greater than 100 nm. Additionally, SP-IRIS, MRPS, and NFCM were able to identify at least three of four distinct size populations in a mixture of silica or polystyrene nanoparticles. Finally, for tetraspanin phenotyping, the SP-IRIS platform in fluorescence mode was able to detect at least two markers on the same particle, while NFCM detected either CD81 or CD63. Based on the results of this study, we can draw conclusions about existing single-particle analysis capabilities that may be useful for EV biomarker development and mechanistic studies.
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2022
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Characterization of feces-derived bacterial membrane vesicles and the impact of their origin on the inflammatory response
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse and complex microbiome, which interacts in a variety of ways with the host. There is compelling evidence that gut microbial dysbiosis, defined as an alteration of diversity and abundance in intestinal microbes, is an etiological factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Membrane vesicles (MVs), which are nano-sized particles released by bacteria, have been found to interact with the host and modulate the development and function of the immune system. As a result MVs have been suggested to play a critical role in both health and disease. In this study we developed a method to isolate, characterize and assess the immunoreactivity of heterogeneous populations of MVs from fecal samples (fMVs) of healthy volunteers. We successfully isolated 2*109-2*1010 particles/ml from 0.5 gram of feces by using a combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) from 10 fecal samples. Bead-based flowcytometry in combination with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) provided a reliable method for (semi-)quantitative determination of fMVs originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of fMVs. Real time 16s PCR on bacterial cell fractions or isolated fMVs DNA of the most common phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) revealed differences in the relative abundance between bacteria and the fMVs. Moreover, fMVs evoke the release of TNF- by THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent matter. Also, a significant positive correlation was found between Actinobacteria/-Proteobacteria derived vesicles and the release of TNF-. It has become increasingly clear that fMVs could provide an additional layer to the definition of homeostasis or dysbiosis of the microbiota. The current study supports their potential involvement in the intestinal homeostasis or inflammatory disorders and provides putative interesting incentives for future research.
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2022
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Characterization of positively charged polyplexes by tunable resistive pulse sensing
With the approval of the first siRNA-based drugs, non-viral siRNA delivery has gained special interest in industry and academia in the last two years. For non-viral delivery, positively charged lipid and polymer formulations play a central role in research and development. However, nanoparticle size characterization, particularly of polydisperse formulations, can be very challenging. Tunable resistive pulse sensing for particle by particle measurements of size, polydispersity, zeta potential and a direct concentration promises better assessment of nanoparticle formulations. However, the current application is not optimized for positively charged particles. A supplier-provided coating solution for difficult-to-measure samples does not allow for successful measurements of positively charged nanoparticles. This article describes a new coating solution based on choline-chloride. Coating is verified by current–voltage (I-V) recordings and ultimately tested on a positively charged nanoparticle formulation comprising of siRNA and PEG-PCL-PEI polymer. This coating allows successful size, polydispersity index (PDI) and concentration measurement by tunable resistive pulse sensing of positively charged PEI-based polyplexes. This article provides the foundation for further characterization of polyplexes as well as other positively charged nanoparticle formulations based on particle by particle measurements.
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2022
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Characterization of systemic immunosuppression by IDH mutant glioma small extracellular vesicles
Background Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and are universally fatal. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) define a distinct glioma subtype associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Mechanisms underlying systemic immunosuppression in IDH mutant (mutIDH) gliomas are largely unknown. Here, we define genotype-specific local and systemic tumor immunomodulatory functions of tumor-derived glioma small extracellular vesicles (TEX). Methods TEX produced by human and murine wildtype and mutant IDH glioma cells (wtIDH and mutIDH, respectively) were isolated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). TEX morphology, size, quantity, molecular profiles and biodistribution were characterized. TEX were injected into naive and tumor-bearing mice, and the local and systemic immune microenvironment composition was characterized. Results Using in vitro and in vivo glioma models, we show that mutIDH TEX are more numerous, possess distinct morphological features and are more immunosuppressive than wtIDH TEX. mutIDH TEX cargo mimics their parental cells, and induces systemic immune suppression in naive and tumor-bearing mice. TEX derived from mutIDH gliomas and injected into wtIDH tumor-bearing mice reduce tumor-infiltrating effector lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, and increase circulating monocytes. Astonishingly, mutIDH TEX injected into brain tumor-bearing syngeneic mice accelerate tumor growth and increase mortality compared with wtIDH TEX. Conclusions Targeting of mutIDH TEX represents a novel therapeutic approach in gliomas.
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2022
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Characterizing KRAS Membrane Structures by Data-Driven Molecular Docking
Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2 NCI RAS Initiative, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA, 3 Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 4 Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 5 Data Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA, 6 Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA. KRAS is a GTPase that plays an important role in cell growth and signaling pathways. of the different RAS isoforms, KRAS also has the highest prevalence of mutations related to human cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target in these cases. Once attached to the membrane, KRAS in the active (GTP) form is capable to bind effector proteins, like RAF kinase. However, certain molecular details concerning KRAS conformation and orientational changes when interacting with the membrane and binding partners are not fully understood. To provide new insights, we used a variety of biophysical approaches to characterize KRAS structure and dynamics. Here, we focus on our results utilizing data-driven computational docking to investigate both KRAS and KRAS/ RAF1-RBD (RAS Binding Domain) complex at the membrane. with the HADDOCK program, we incorporated experimental restraints derived from our NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements to dock these KRAS forms to a 70:30 POPC:POPS lipid membrane surface. Using NMR-PRE restraints alone, we performed one series of docking runs with the KRAS G-domain directly interacting with the membrane to discern membrane-proximal states. Based on our experimental evidence, and particularly from NR, a highly populated membrane-distal state also exists, where the G-domain does not directly contact the membrane but KRAS remains tethered via the C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR). Therefore, we also conducted a second series of docking runs that incorporated both NMR-PRE and NR restraints to better elucidate the conformations in this state. From these results, we were able to generate atomistic models for KRAS and KRAS/RAF1-RBD with averaged 1-D profiles closely matching the respective NR profiles. Overall, the findings should assist in elucidating the role of KRAS structural dynamics in recruiting effectors, like RAF kinase, to the membrane for activation.
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2022
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Chemical Modification of Bovine Milk Exosomes, the Biological Nanoparticles of the Future, as a Contrast Agent and Drug Delivery Vehicle
Chemically derived nanoparticles are widely used across many applications. While they showed great promise when first discovered, the main hurdles, such as clearance and targeting, have yet to be overcome. A recently discovered class of biological nanoparticles have the potential to circumvent these disadvantages. Exosomes are biological nanoparticles (30 – 150 nm) excreted from most mammalian cells. While exosomes are typically involved in cellular signaling and traditionally removed from the body to be examined for biomarkers, this work combines chemical modifications and a biological particle for diagnostics and treatment of solid tumor cancer. Exosome involvement in cancer treatment has grown over the past ten years with the encapsulation of RNA, proteins and traditional chemotherapeutics. However, this work takes these ideas and drives them into the future by using bovine milk derived exosomes as (1) an ultrasound contrasting agent and (2) a targeted and triggered chemotherapeutic drug delivery vehicle. As an ultrasound contrast agent, raw and pasteurized bovine milk exosomes were tested and found to be capable of echogenicity without altering the ability to identify key features of the exosome, including the presence of CD63 and miRNA. In the second part of this work a chemically synthesized, hypoxia responsive lipid and a tumor penetrating and targeting peptide, iRGD were integrated into the lipid bilayer of the exosome for chemotherapeutic drug delivery. These modified exosomes were characterized using a variety of techniques, including a novel adhesion assay, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The functional capacity of the modified exosomes to deliver doxorubicin to Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells was also evaluated using a combination of cellular internalization and cytotoxicity assays in both monolayer and 3D spheroid cultures. Overall exosomes have the iv ability to be chemically modified in a variety of ways, opening a door to a new approach to nanoparticle drug delivery and targeted imaging.
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2022
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Circulating Extracellular Vesicle Cargo as Bioinformants of 'at-risk'Carotid Artery Stenosis
Objectives Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Managing patients with asymptomatic disease remains challenging, given the lack of reliable tests to identify the subgroup of patients prone to plaque progression and stroke. Given the functional and diagnostic roles of extracellular vesicle (EV) contents, we hypothesized that plasma EV-derived microRNA (miRNA) differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods EVs were isolated via serial centrifugation followed by enrichment using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) (qEVoriginal columns 70 nm; Izon Science Ltd). EV isolation was confirmed according to MISEV 2018 guidelines: Western blot analysis of common EV markers (CD63, CD81, Alix), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Lipoprotein contamination was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of individual SEC fractions (R&D Systems; DAPA10, DAPB00). Next-generation sequencing was performed on EVs (HTG Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.), and differential miRNA expression evaluated using Partek Genomics Suite software (version 8.0). Results Twelve patient plasma samples were collected (n = 6 symptomatic; n = 6 asymptomatic). The average age of the cohort was 70.0 ± 5.7 years (asymptomatic, 67.0 ± 5.5 vs symptomatic, 72.5 ± 5.5 years). All patients had severe stenoses with similar peak systolic velocity (asymptomatic 403.2 ± 84.43 vs symptomatic 371.6 ± 175.25; P = .50) and internal carotid artery (ICA):common carotid artery (CCA) ratios (asymptomatic, 5.36 ± 1.07 vs symptomatic, 7.3 ± 5.00; P = .50). CD63 expression confirmed EV enrichment in fractions 7 to 10, with minimal lipoprotein contamination. EV isolation was further confirmed by CD81 and Alix expression (n = 3 patient samples per group). Cryo-TEM identified EVs as bi-layered nanoparticles with electron dense cores (Fig 1). NTA revealed no significant differences in EV concentration or size between groups (n = 3; P > .05). Principal component and heatmap analysis of miRNA sequencing data revealed symptomatic carotid plasma samples clustered together, whereas asymptomatic samples were either starkly different (n = 5) or approximated the symptomatic profiles (n = 1), suggesting a disease gradient (Fig 2). When symptomatic carotid plasma EV-miRNA profiles were compared with asymptomatic specimens, 190 miRNAs were differentially expressed, with miRNA-654-5p and miRNA-127-3p being the most upregulated, and downregulated, respectively (P < .05, fold-change −2< or >2, excluding miRNA with counts <100). Gene set enrichment identified regulation of protein metabolic processes, and negative regulation of cell communication, signaling, and signal transduction as predicted targets of differentially expressed EV-miRNA (P-value < .05). Conclusions Plasma EV-miRNA profiles may differentiate symptomatic vs asymptomatic carotid stenosis and, together with clinical characteristics, may be used in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients.
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2022
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Circulating extracellular vesicles from patients with acute chest syndrome disrupt adherens junctions between endothelial cells
Background Small cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can affect endothelial function. We previously found that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have greater numbers of circulating EVs than subjects without the disease, and the EVs differentially disrupt endothelial integrity in vitro. Because endothelial disruption is a critical component of acute chest syndrome (ACS), we hypothesized that EVs isolated during ACS would induce greater endothelial damage than those isolated at baseline. Methods Nine pediatric subjects had plasma isolated at baseline and during ACS from which EVs were isolated. Cultured microvascular endothelial cells were treated with EVs and then studied by immunofluorescence microscopy to localize VE-cadherin and F-actin. Results The EVs had a diameter of 95 nm. They contained CD63 and flotillin-1, which were increased in SCD patients (5–13-fold compared to control) and further increased between baseline and ACS (24–57%). The EVs contained hemoglobin, glycophorin A, and ferritin. Treatment with baseline EVs caused modest separation of endothelial cells, while ACS EVs caused substantial disruptions of the endothelial cell monolayers. EVs from subjects with ACS also caused a 50% decrease in protein levels of VE-cadherin. Conclusions These results suggest that circulating EVs can modulate endothelial integrity contributing to the development of ACS in SCD patients by altering cadherin-containing intercellular junctions. Impact - Sickle cell disease patients have circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that modulate endothelial integrity by altering cadherin-containing intercellular junctions. - - Disruption is more severe by EVs obtained during acute chest syndrome (ACS). - - These results expand our knowledge of the pathophysiology of acute chest syndrome and the vasculopathies of sickle cell disease.
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2022
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Comparative proteome profiling in exosomes derived from porcine colostrum versus mature milk reveals distinct functional proteomes
Exosomes are membranous vesicles of endocytic origin, recently been considered as major players in cell-cell communication. Milk is highly complex, and diverse biocomponents provide adequate nutrition, transfer immunity, and promote adequate neonate development. Milk exosomes are suggested to have a key role in these processes, yet to be further explored, and the alteration of the exosomes' cargo in different stages of lactation stages is important for understanding the factors relevant in nursing and also for improving milk replacer products both for humans and animals. We isolated exosomes from porcine milk in different lactation stages and analyzed their content using a TMT-based high-resolution quantitative proteomic approach. Exosomes were isolated using ultracentrifugation coupled with size exclusion chromatography to enrich milk-derived exosomes in samples obtained at day 0, 7, and 14 after parturition, and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blotting. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed different proteome profiles for colostrum exosomes and milk exosomes. The functional analysis highlighted pathways related to the regulation of homeostasis to be upregulated in colostrum exosomes, and pathways such as endothelial cell development and lipid metabolism to be upregulated in mature milk exosomes. This study endorses the importance of exosomes as active biocomponents of milk and provides knowledge for future studies exploring their role in the regulation of immunity and growth of the newborn.
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2022
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Circulating Serum Exosomal Long Non-Coding RNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer
Background: Exosomes derived from cancer cells encapsulate various kinds of tumor-specific molecules and thus can interact with adjacent or distant cells to mediate information exchange. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in exosomes have the potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current study was aimed to identify circulating exosomal lncRNAs for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Exosomes were isolated from the serum by ultracentrifugation and verified by transmission electron microscope (TEM), qNano, and immunoblotting. Exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 were selected by lncRNA microarray and validated by qPCR in 203 CRC patients and 201 healthy donors. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to assess the diagnostic efficiency of serum exosomal lncRNAs. Results: Exosomal FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 (TCONS_00020073) levels were significantly upregulated in 203 CRC patients and 80 early-stage CRC patients compared to 201 healthy donors, possessing the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.728, 0.660, and 0.682 for CRC, as well as 0.743, 0.660, and 0.689 for early-stage CRC, respectively. Notably, their combination demonstrated the markedly elevated AUC of 0.736 for CRC and 0.758 for early-stage CRC, indicating their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. Conclusions: Our data suggested that exosomal lncRNAs FOXD2-AS1, NRIR, and XLOC_009459 act as the promising biomarkers for the diagnostics of CRC and early-stage CRC.
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2022
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Comparative study of commercial protocols for high recovery of high-purity mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle isolation and their efficient labeling with fluorescent dyes
The extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as carriers for therapeutic molecules and drugs to target disordered tissues. This aimed to compare the protocols used for isolation of MSC-derived EVs by comparing EV collection conditions and three commercial purification kits. We also determined appropriate fluorescent dyes for labeling EVs. MSC-derived EVs were efficiently secreted during cell growth and highly purified by the phosphatidyl serine-based affinity kit. Although the EV membrane was more efficiently labeled with the fluorescent dye PKH67 compared to other probes, the efficiency was not enough to accurately analyze the endothelial cellular uptake of EVs. Results verified the easy protocol for isolating and fluorescently labeling EVs with commercial reagents and kits, but meanwhile, further modification of the protocol is required in order to scale up the amount of EVs derived from MSCs using fluorescent probes. Graphical Abstract The extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as carriers for therapeutic molecules and drugs. This aimed to compare the protocols used for isolation of EVs by comparing EV collection conditions and three commercial purification kits. MSC-derived EVs were efficiently secreted during cell growth and highly purified by the phosphatidyl serine-based affinity kit. Results verified the easy protocol for isolating and fluorescently labeling EVs with commercial reagents and kits, but meanwhile, further modification of the protocol is required in order to scale up the amount of EVs derived from MSCs using fluorescent probes.
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2022
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Comparison and optimization of nanoscale extracellular vesicle imaging by scanning electron microscopy for accurate size-based profiling and morphological analysis
Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been found to play a key role in intercellular communication, offering opportunities for both disease diagnostics and therapeutics. However, lying below the diffraction limit and also being highly heterogeneous in their size, morphology and abundance, these vesicles pose significant challenges for physical characterization. Here, we present a direct visual approach for their accurate morphological and size-based profiling by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To achieve that, we methodically examined various process steps and developed a protocol to improve the throughput, conformity and image quality while preserving the shape of EVs. The study was performed with small EVs (sEVs) isolated from a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line as well as from human serum, and the results were compared with those obtained from nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). While the comparison of the sEV size distributions showed good agreement between the two methods for large sEVs (diameter > 70 nm), the microscopy based approach showed a better capacity for analyses of smaller vesicles, with higher sEV counts compared to NTA. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of identifying non-EV particles based on size and morphological features. The study also showed process steps that can generate artifacts bearing resemblance with sEVs. The results therefore present a simple way to use a widely available microscopy tool for accurate and high throughput physical characterization of EVs.
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2022
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Comparison of extracellular vesicle isolation and storage methods using high-sensitivity flow cytometry
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are of interest for a wide variety of biomedical applications. A major limitation for the clinical use of EVs is the lack of standardized methods for the fast and reproducible separation and subsequent detection of EV subpopulations from biofluids, as well as their storage. To advance this application area, fluorescence-based characterization technologies with single-EV resolution, such as high-sensitivity flow cytometry (HS-FCM), are powerful to allow assessment of EV fractionation methods and storage conditions. Furthermore, the use of HS-FCM and fluorescent labeling of EV subsets is expanding due to the potential of high-throughput, multiplex analysis, but requires further method development to enhance the reproducibility of measurements. In this study, we have applied HS-FCM measurements next to standard EV characterization techniques, including nanoparticle tracking analysis, to compare the yield and purity of EV fractions obtained from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells by two EV isolation methods, differential centrifugation followed by ultracentrifugation and the exoEasy membrane affinity spin column purification. We observed differences in EV yield and purity. In addition, we have investigated the influence of EV storage at 4°C or -80°C for up to one month on the EV concentration and the stability of EV-associated fluorescent labels. The concentration of the in vitro cell derived EV fractions was shown to remain stable under the tested storage conditions, however, the fluorescence intensity of labeled EV stored at 4°C started to decline within one day.
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2022
ev nm
Comparison of isolation methods using commercially available kits for obtaining extracellular vesicles from cow milk
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important for delivering biologically active substances to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. Milk-derived EV are widely known because of their potential for immune enhancement. However, procedures for isolating milk-derived EV have not been fully established. To obtain pure milk-derived EV and accurately reveal their function, such procedures must be established. The aim of the present study was to compare methods using commercially available kits for isolating milk-derived EV. Initially, we investigated procedures to remove casein, which is the major obstacle in determining milk-derived EV purity. We separated whey using centrifugation only, acetic acid precipitation, and EDTA precipitation. Then, we isolated milk-derived EV by ultracentrifugation, membrane affinity column, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), polymer-based isolation, or phosphatidylserine-affinity isolation. Using EV count per milligram of protein, which is a good indicator of purity, we determined that acetic acid precipitation was the best method for removing casein. Using nanoparticle tracking analysis, protein quantity analysis, and RNA quantity analysis, we comprehensively compared each isolation method for its purity and yield. We found that SEC-based qEV column (Izon Science) could collect purer milk-derived EV at higher quantities. Thus, a combination of acetic acid precipitation and qEV can effectively isolate high amounts of pure extracellular vesicles from bovine milk.
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2022
ev vr
Comprehensive analysis and comparison of proteins in salivary exosomes of climacteric and adolescent females
Currently, it is difficult to extract exosomes with stable physicochemical properties from saliva. Furthermore, due to inadequate availability of basic data, the application of salivary exosomes as a diagnostic material is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate an easier method for extraction of exosomes from whole saliva and compared proteins in salivary exosomes derived from subjects of two age groups. Salivary exosomes were extracted from nine females (56.7 ± 1.17 years old; climacteric or 19.9 ± 0.20 years old; adolescent) using commercial reagents and kits and detected using western blotting with anti-exosome marker antibodies. Exosome particle size and exosome-containing proteins were identified using NanoSight® and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. In addition, an efficient method of exosome extraction from saliva using a reagent and without the use of an ultracentrifuge was shown. Our results showed a higher total protein content and larger particle size in climacteric exosomes than in adolescent exosomes. However, adolescent exosomes showed a larger variety of proteins (780 proteins) than the climacteric exosomes (573 proteins). Altogether, 893 proteins were identified in the salivary exosomes. Although viral process-, ribosome- and structural molecule-related proteins were higher in the adolescent exosomes, the levels of major salivary proteins such as immunoglobulins and amylase, were higher in the climacteric exosomes than in the adolescent exosomes. The data presented, which show the fundamental protein composition of salivary exosomes and the changes that occur with age, are beneficial in both diagnostic and biotechnological applications.
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2022
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Comparison of Syringes With Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs: Particle Burden and Protein Aggregates in Brolucizumab, Aflibercept and Bevacizumab
Purpose: In a benchwork particle counting analytical evaluation, the number and type of particles in intravitreal injection formulations of three different agents against vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. Methods: Commercially available ready-to-use aflibercept and brolucizumab glass syringes, vials containing bevacizumab (off-label use in ophthalmology), and repackaged ready-to-use plastic syringes containing bevacizumab were tested without filtration. Total visible, subvisible, and nanoparticles numbers and size distributions were quantified using light obscuration, flow imaging, resonant mass measurement (RMM), tunable resistive pulse sensing, and dynamic light scattering. Results: Repackaged bevacizumab showed overall low particle numbers, aflibercept showed high numbers of micrometer sized particles but low nanoparticle numbers, brolucizumab showed low to moderate numbers of micrometer sized particles but high nanoparticle numbers. RMM measurements identified particles in the nanometer range as either proteinaceous or silicon oil; the nature of the other particles was not further evaluated. Conclusions: Repackaged bevacizumab shows no inferior particle quality compared to ready-to-use products. It is relevant to study nanoparticle load of the products as the micrometer-sized particle numbers do not in all cases correlate to nanoparticle counts. Particularly for the high concentration product Beovu (brolucizumab), high nanoparticle numbers were found despite low numbers of micrometer sized particles. Silicone oil droplets did not account for high particle numbers as the measured numbers were low. Translational Relevance: Different side effects are registered in different frequencies with different intravitreal anti-VEGF-drugs and syringes, which are applied by injection by small 30G needles through the sclera directly to the intravitreal cavity. The study of nanoparticles and silicone oil droplets may be able to contribute to narrowing down the causes.
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2022
ev vr
Dancing with Trojan horses: an interplay between the extracellular vesicles and viruses
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated particles released by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells into the extracellular environment. Depending on their origin, size, and composition, EVs are grouped in several classes, with one of them being exosomes, which are small EVs (SEVs) generated within the endosomal compartment of eukaryotic cells via the unique multivesicular body pathway. Being able to deliver their content (proteins, lipids, small molecules, and nucleic acids) to other cells, exosomes/SEVs are considered as bioactive vesicles with multiple biological functions. Importantly, the composition of exosomes/SEVs depends on the cell and tissue of origin including a set of specific proteins. However, the pathological conditions may lead to the appearance of diseases-specific exosomes/SEVs containing pathology-specific cargoes utilized in the malicious cell-cell communication and spread of malady. Viruses demonstrate complex ‘dancing’ around the exosome biogenesis system, being able to hijack the host systems responsible for the exosome biogenesis. They use the exosome biogenesis system to promote packaging of their capsids, regulate virion production, and virus secretion. They also utilize a Trojan horse stratagem to place virions inside the SEVs and thereby to spread beyond their normal range of cell hosts using the normal EV uptake process. Another illustration of the virus-based utilization of Trojan horse strategy is given by the ability of human viruses to use exosomes/SEVs as carriers of their exogenous miRNA or viral proteins to the non-infected cells. Taken together, these strategies of dancing with Trojan horses can help viruses to fight with the host defense and to spread the infection.
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2022
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Deciphering the Structure and Chemical Composition of Drug Nanocarriers: From Bulk Approaches to Individual Nanoparticle Characterization
Drug nanocarriers (NCs) with sizes usually below 200 nm are gaining increasing interest in the treatment of severe diseases such as cancer and infections. Characterization methods to investigate the morphology and physicochemical properties of multifunctional NCs are key in their optimization and in the study of their in vitro and in vivo fate. Whereas a variety of methods has been developed to characterize “bulk” NCs in suspension, the scope of this review is to describe the different approaches for the NC characterization on an individual basis, for which fewer techniques are available. The accent is put on methods devoid of labelling, which could lead to artefacts. For each characterization method, the principles and approaches to analyze the data are presented in an accessible manner. Aspects related to sample preparation to avoid artefacts are indicated, and emphasis is put on examples of applications. NC characterization on an individual basis allows gaining invaluable information in terms of quality control, on: i) NC localization and fate in biological samples; ii) NC morphology and crystallinity; iii) distribution of the NC components (drugs, shells), and iv) quantification of NCs’ chemical composition. The individual characterization approaches are expected to gain increasing interest in the near future.
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2022
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Defining candidate mRNA and protein EV biomarkers to discriminate ccRCC and pRCC from non-malignant renal cells in vitro
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for over 400,000 new cases and 175,000 deaths annually. Diagnostic RCC biomarkers may prevent overtreatment in patients with early disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a promising source of RCC biomarkers because EVs carry proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) among other biomolecules. We aimed to identify biomarkers and assess biological functions of EV cargo from clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), and benign kidney cell lines. EVs were enriched from conditioned cell media by size exclusion chromatography. The EV proteome was assessed using Tandem Mass Tag mass spectrometry (TMT-MS) and NanoString nCounter technology was used to profile 770 cancer-related mRNA present in EVs. The heterogeneity of protein and mRNA abundance and identification highlighted the heterogeneity of EV cargo, even between cell lines of a similar pathological group (e.g., ccRCC or pRCC). Overall, 1726 proteins were quantified across all EV samples, including 181 proteins that were detected in all samples. In the targeted profiling of mRNA by NanoString, 461 mRNAs were detected in EVs from at least one cell line, including 159 that were present in EVs from all cell lines. In addition to a shared EV cargo signature, pRCC, ccRCC, and/or benign renal cell lines also showed unique signatures. Using this multi-omics approach, we identified 34 protein candidate pRCC EV biomarkers and 20 protein and 8 mRNA candidate ccRCC EV biomarkers for clinical validation.
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2022
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Detection of Tumor-Associated Membrane Receptors on Extracellular Vesicles from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients via Immuno-PCR
Precision cancer medicine for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased patient survival. Nevertheless, targeted agents towards tumor-associated membrane receptors only result in partial remission for a limited time, calling for approaches which allow longitudinal treatment monitoring. Rebiopsy of tumors in the lung is challenging, and metastatic lesions may have heterogeneous signaling. One way ahead is to use liquid biopsies such as circulating tumor DNA or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) secreted by the tumor into blood or other body fluids. Herein, an immuno-PCR-based detection of the tumor-associated membrane receptors EGFR, HER2, and IGF-1R on CD9-positive sEVs from NSCLC cells and pleural effusion fluid (PE) of NSCLC patients is developed utilizing DNA conjugates of antibody mimetics and affibodies, as detection agents. Results on sEVs purified from culture media of NSCLC cells treated with anti-EGFR siRNA, showed that the reduction of EGFR expression can be detected via immuno-PCR. Protein profiling of sEVs from NSCLC patient PE samples revealed the capacity to monitor EGFR, HER2, and IGF-1R with the immuno-PCR method. We detected a significantly higher EGFR level in sEVs derived from a PE sample of a patient with an EGFR-driven NSCLC adenocarcinoma than in sEVs from PE samples of non-EGFR driven adenocarcinoma patients or in samples from patients with benign lung disease. In summary, we have developed a diagnostic method for sEVs in liquid biopsies of cancer patients which may be used for longitudinal treatment monitoring to detect emerging bypassing resistance mechanisms in a noninvasive way.
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2022
ev nm vr
Development of a new methodology to determine size differences of nanoparticles with nanoparticle tracking analysis
The current frontiers in Biology thus in Medicine and Pharmacy are at the nanoscale. Indeed, this is the relevant scale for extracting or synthetizing, visualizing, counting, characterizing and/or modifying nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are highly diverse including: extracellular vesicles (e.g.: exosomes), proteins, viruses and nanovectors or drug delivery systems for instance. To quantify the concentration of nano-sized objects, a growing number of size-tracking instruments is being developed. However, to date, the generated data is only used to provide a concentration measurement. The objective of this study was to determine which sizes of nanoparticles are statistically significant between 2 groups of samples. Using different samples (in silico data; calibrated beads; various biological samples), an approach that statistically compares 2 groups of samples was developed and validated. The proof of concept of the proposed approach was illustrated with applications in the field of Biology, Medicine and Pharmacy using liposomes and extracellular vesicles. For the first time to our knowledge, our results suggest that the presented approach enables comparing different groups of biological samples. It may be extended to situations such as batch 1 versus batch 2; healthy versus disease or non-treated versus treated.
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2022
ev nm vr
Development of fast, reliable and automated isolation and fractionation methods for nanosized subpopulations of human biomacromolecules
This doctoral thesis describes the development of fast, reliable and automated isolation and fractionation methods for nanosized subpopulations of human biomacromolecules. The focus of the study was on subpopulations of lipoproteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are important in the detection of different diseases, such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and may even possess therapeutic potential. In the thesis, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) with selective antibodies immobilized on the monolithic disk columns were utilized for the selective isolation of biomacromolecules from human plasma, while asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF or AF4) was able to fractionate relevant subpopulations of biomacromolecules (e.g., small dense low-density lipoproteins, exomeres, and exosomes) from the isolates. Continuous flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PF-ACE) were employed to study the affinity of the interactions between the antibody and lipoproteins. The first step was to develop a method to study interactions between antibody and lipoproteins to select a high affinity antibody useful for the isolation of lipoprotein subpopulations by IAC. The interaction data obtained with PF-ACE was analyzed to determine the heterogeneity of the interactions with adsorption energy distribution calculations, while the QCM data was processed with interaction maps. The affinity constants obtained with QCM and PF-ACE agreed well with each other. Next, the IAC methods were developed to capture EVs of different cellular origins from human plasma using anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (mAb), while anti-CD61 mAb was exploited to capture platelet-derived EVs. The anti-apolipoprotein B-100 (anti-apoB-100) mAb was exploited to immunocapture apoB-100 containing lipoproteins. The anti-apoB-100 mAb was also characterized by the PF-ACE and QCM studies. Appropriate elution conditions were found for the IAC methods, which has often been an issue with magnetic beads-based immunoaffinity methods. Since IAC allowed selective isolation of EVs and lipoproteins, a size-based separation to their subpopulations with AsFlFFF was introduced as a successive step. This enabled additional characterization of subpopulations by nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blotting, electron microscopy, capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescent detection, zeta potential measurements, as well as free amino acids and glucose analysis with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, IAC was successfully on-line coupled to AsFlFFF, resulting in quick and automated isolation and fractionation of the subpopulations of EVs and lipoproteins. The constructed IAC-AsFlFFF system was able to process reliably 18–38 samples in 24 h with only minor operator involvement, resulting in highly reproducible and gentle fractionation of EV subpopulations in the size range of exomeres and exosomes. Polymeric monolithic disk columns were utilized for the first time for the IAC-based isolation of EVs and their subpopulations from human plasma, and for the detection of exomeres in CD9+ EVs and CD61+ platelet-derived EVs from human plasma samples. The results demonstrated that CD61+ EVs are potentially taking part in gluconeogenesis based on free amino acids and glucose present as cargo.
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2022
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Diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicle‑associated microRNA‑10b and tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potential diagnostic markers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential EV miRNA biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Potential miRNAs were identified by searching public databases and verified by examining clinical samples. The diagnostic value of EV‑associated miR‑10b, plasma miR‑10b and tumor markers (TMs), including α‑fetoprotein (AFP), neuron‑specific enolase, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‑1 (CYFRA211), pro‑gastrin‑releasing‑peptide, carbohydrate antigen (CA)125, CA153, CA199 and CA724, was evaluated via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. By searching the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases, miR‑10b was identified as a potential biomarker. The analysis of clinical samples suggested that EV‑associated miR‑10b from plasma was significantly differentially expressed between LUAD and control samples. EV‑associated miR‑10b could function as a diagnostic marker for LUAD, with an AUC of 0.998, which was higher than the AUCs for TMs such as AFP, CEA, CYFRA211, CA125, CA153, CA199, CA724, pro‑gastrin‑releasing‑peptide and neuron‑specific enolase. In conclusion, EV‑associated miR‑10b may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for LUAD that is superior to plasma miR‑10b and TMs.
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2022
ev nm
Dually targeted bioinspired nanovesicle delays advanced prostate cancer tumour growth in vivo
Prostate cancer (PC) is second-leading cancer in men, with limited treatment options available for men with advanced and metastatic PC. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been exploited as therapeutic targets in PC due to their upregulation in the advanced stages of the disease. To date, several PSA- and PSMA-activatable prodrugs have been developed to reduce the systemic toxicity of existing chemotherapeutics. Bioinspired nanovesicles have been exploited in drug delivery, offering prolonged drug blood circulation and higher tumour accumulation. For the first time, this study describes the engineering of dually targeted PSA/PSMA nanovesicles for advanced PC. PSMA-targeted bioinspired hybrids were prepared by hydrating a lipid film with anti-PSMA-U937 cell membranes and DOX-PSA prodrug, followed by extrusion. The bioinspired hybrids were characterised using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, Dot blot, flow cytometry and Western blot. Cellular binding and toxicity studies in PC cancer cell lines were carried out using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and resazurin assay. Finally, tumour targeting and therapeutic efficacy studies were performed in solid and metastatic C4-2B-tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, our PSMA-targeted hybrids demonstrated high cell uptake in PSMA-expressing cells with significant accumulation in solid and metastatic C4-2B tumour tissues following intravenous administration. More promisingly, our dually targeted PSA/PSMA hybrid significantly slowed down the C4-2B tumour growth in vivo, compared to free DOX-PSA and non-targeted PSA-hybrid. Our PSA/PSMA bioinspired hybrid could offer a highly selective treatment for advanced PC with lower side effects. Statement of significance This study investigates a new approach to treat prostate cancer using dually targeted bioinspired nanovesicle . Our bioinspired vesicles are made mainly of a human blood cell membrane with a ligand recognising a specific marker (PSMA) on the surface of the prostate cancer cells. The present work describes the successful loading of a doxorubicin prodrug linked to a PSA- activatable peptide into these targeted bioinspired nanovesicle , where the active PSA enzyme presents in these cells converts the drug to its active form. Our dually targeted PSA/PSMA hybrid vesicles has successfully improved site-specific prodrug delivery to tackle advanced prostate cancer, offering a novel and effective prostate cancer treatment.
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2022
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Effects of endurance racing on horse plasma extracellular particle miRNA
Background Physical exercise is an essential factor in preventing and treating metabolic diseases by promoting systemic benefits throughout the body. The molecular factors involved in this process are poorly understood. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small non‐coding RNAs that inhibit mRNA transcription. MiRNAs, which can participate in the benefits of exercise to health, circulate in plasma in extracellular particles (EP). Horses that undergo endurance racing are an excellent model to study the impact of long‐duration/low intensity exercise in plasma EP miRNAs. Objectives To evaluate the effects of 160 km endurance racing on horse plasma extracellular particles and their miRNA population. Study design Cohort study. Methods We collected plasma from 5 Arabian horses during five time‐points of an endurance ride. Extracellular particles were purified from plasma and characterised by electron microscopy, resistive pulse sensing (qNano), and western blotting. Small RNAs were purified from horse plasma EP, and sequencing was performed. Results Endurance racing increased EP concentration and average diameter compared to before the race. Western blotting showed a high concentration of extracellular vesicles proteins 2 h after the race, which returned to baseline 15 h after the race. MicroRNA differential expression analysis revealed increasing levels of eca‐miR‐486‐5p during and after the race, and decreasing levels of eca‐miR‐9083 after the end. Conclusions This study adds new data about the variation in plasma EP concentrations after long‐distance exercise and brings new insights about the roles of exercise‐derived EP miRNAs during low‐intensity endurance exercise.
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2022
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Effects of exercise on exosome release and cargo in in vivo and ex vivo models: A systematic review
Exercise-released exosomes have been identified as novel players to mediate cell-to-cell communication in promoting systemic beneficial effects. This review aimed to systematically investigate the effects of exercise on exosome release and cargo, as well as provide an overview of their physiological implications. Among the 436 articles obtained in the database search (WOS, Scopus, and PubMed), 19 articles were included based on eligibility criteria. Results indicate that exercise promotes the release of exosomes without modification of its vesicle size. The literature has primarily shown an exercise-driven increase in exosome markers (Alix, CD63, CD81, and Flot-1), along with other exosome-carried proteins, into circulation. However, exosome isolation, characterization, and phenotyping methodology, as well as timing of sample recovery following exercise can influence the analysis and interpretation of findings. Moreover, a large number of exosome-carried microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, and miR-486, in response to exercise are involved in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle tissue, although antigen-presenting cells, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and platelets are the main sources of exosome release into the circulation. Collectively, with the physiological implications as evidenced by the ex vivo trials, the release of exercise-promoted exosomes and their cargo could provide the potential therapeutic applications via the role of intercellular communication.
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2022
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Effects of exosomes derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells on apoptosis of pre-chondrogenic cells stimulated by inflammatory factors
·To investigate the effect of exosomes derived from umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on apoptosis of murine pre-chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 cells under inflammatory stimulation. ·The exosomes derived from HUVECs were isolated by using an exosome isolation kit. Western blotting was used to detect the exosome marker proteins, including tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), cluster differentiation 9 (CD9) and apoptosis linked gene-2-interacting protein X (Alix). The morphology of exosomes was observed by transmission electron microscope, and the size of exosomes was identified by particle size detection. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the ATDC5 cell uptake of exosomes and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TUNEL staining and flow cytometry were used to examine the effect of exosomes on ATDC5 cell apoptosis stimulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Western blotting was used to detect the effect of exosomes on the expression levels of ATDC5 apoptosis-related proteins such as B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 (c-caspase-3) and anti-oxidative stress-related proteins such as nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap-1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-like protein 1 (NQO-1) under IL-1β stimulation. ·Under the transmission electron microscope, the HUVEC-derived exosomes were oval, hollow, double-layered, and positively expressed exosome markers CD9, Alix and Tsg101. Compared with the ATDC5 cells stimulated by IL-1β, ATDC5 cells stimulated by IL-1β incubated with exosomes had higher level of ROS (P=0.000) and higher apoptosis rate (P=0.000). The expression of Bax, c-caspase-3 and Keap-1 increased, and the expression of Bcl-2, Nrf-2, HO-1 and NQO-1 decreased in ATDC5 cells exposed to IL-1β and exosomes compared to ATDC5 cells only exposed to IL-1β. ·HUVEC-derived exosomes may promote ATDC5 cells apoptosis under the stimulation of IL-1β by inhibiting the ability of ATDC5 cell to resist oxidative stress.
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2022
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Effects of Solidification Conditions on Grain Refinement Capacity of TiC in Directionally Solidified Ti6Al4V Alloy
In this study, the effects of solidification conditions on the grain refinement capacity of heterogeneous nuclei TiC in directionally solidified Ti6Al4V alloy were investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. Ti6Al4V powder with and without TiC particles in a Ti6Al4V sheath was melted and directionally solidified at various solidification rates via the floating zone melting method. In addition, by using the phase field method, the microstructural evolution of directionally solidified Ti6Al4V was simulated by varying the temperature gradient G and solidification rate V. As the solidification rate increased, the increment of the prior β grain number by TiC addition also increased. There are two reasons for this: first, the amount of residual potent heterogeneous nuclei TiC is larger. Second, the amount of TiC particles that can nucleate becomes larger. This is because increasing the constitutional undercooling ΔTc leads to the activation of a smaller radius of heterogeneous nuclei and a higher nucleation probability from each radius. At a cooling rate R higher than that in the floating zone melting experiment (R = 3 to 1000 K/s), the maximum degree of constitutional undercooling ΔTc,Max has a peak value, which suggests that constitutional undercooling ΔTc has a smaller contribution at higher cooling rates, such as those that occur during electron beam melting (EBM), including laser powder bed fusion (LPBF).
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2022
ev nm vr
Measuring particle concentration of multimodal synthetic reference materials and extracellular vesicles with orthogonal techniques: Who is up to the challenge?
The measurement of physicochemical properties of polydisperse complex biological samples, for example, extracellular vesicles, is critical to assess their quality, for example, resulting from their production and isolation methods. The community is gradually becoming aware of the need to combine multiple orthogonal techniques to perform a robust characterization of complex biological samples. Three pillars of critical quality attribute characterization of EVs are sizing, concentration measurement and phenotyping. The repeatable measurement of vesicle concentration is one of the key‐challenges that requires further efforts, in order to obtain comparable results by using different techniques and assure reproducibility. In this study, the performance of measuring the concentration of particles in the size range of 50–300 nm with complementary techniques is thoroughly investigated in a step‐by step approach of incremental complexity. The six applied techniques include multi‐angle dynamic light scattering (MADLS), asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with multi‐angle light scattering (AF4‐MALS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), and high‐sensitivity nano flow cytometry (nFCM). To achieve comparability, monomodal samples and complex polystyrene mixtures were used as particles of metrological interest, in order to check the suitability of each technique in the size and concentration range of interest, and to develop reliable post‐processing data protocols for the analysis. Subsequent complexity was introduced by testing liposomes as validation of the developed approaches with a known sample of physicochemical properties closer to EVs. Finally, the vesicles in EV containing plasma samples were analysed with all the tested techniques. The results presented here aim to shed some light into the requirements for the complex characterization of biological samples, as this is a critical need for quality assurance by the EV and regulatory community. Such efforts go with the view to contribute to both, set‐up reproducible and reliable characterization protocols, and comply with the Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) requirements.
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2022
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Measuring particle size distribution and mass concentration of nanoplastics and microplastics: addressing some analytical challenges in the sub-micron size range
Hypothesis The implementation of the proposal from the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) to restrict the use of nanoplastics (NP) and microplastics (MP) in consumer products will require reliable methods to perform size and mass-based concentration measurements. Analytical challenges arise at the nanometre to micrometre interface, e.g., 800 nm–10 µm, where techniques applicable at the nanometre scale reach their upper limit of applicability and approaches applicable at the micrometre scale must be pushed to their lower limits of detection. Experiments Herein, we compared the performances of nine analytical techniques by measuring the particle size distribution and mass-based concentration of polystyrene mixtures containing both nano and microparticles, with the educational aim to underline applicability and limitations of each technique. Findings Light scattering-based measurements do not have the resolution to distinguish multiple populations in polydisperse samples. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), nano-flowcytometry (nFCM) and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with multiangle light scattering (AF4-MALS) cannot measure particles in the micrometre range. Static light scattering (SLS) is not able to accurately detect particles below 200 nm, and similarly to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM), is not suitable for accurate mass-based concentration measurements. Alternatives for high-resolution sizing and concentration measurements in the size range between 60 nm and 5 µm are tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), that can bridge the gap between the nanometre and micrometre range.
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2022
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CD24 and IgM Stimulation of B Cells Triggers Transfer of Functional B Cell Receptor to B Cell Recipients Via Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated nanoparticles that carry bioactive cargo, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Once taken up by target cells, EVs can modify the physiology of the recipient cells. In past studies, we reported that engagement of the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor CD24 on B lymphocytes (B cells) causes the release of EVs. However, a potential function for these EVs was not clear. Thus, we investigated whether EVs derived from CD24 or IgM-stimulated donor WEHI-231 murine B cells can transfer functional cargo to recipient cells. We employed a model system where donor cells expressing palmitoylated GFP (WEHI-231-GFP) were cocultured, after stimulation, with recipient cells lacking either IgM (WEHI-303 murine B cells) or CD24 (CD24 knockout mouse bone marrow B cells). Uptake of lipid-associated GFP, IgM, or CD24 by labeled recipient cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that stimulation of either CD24 or IgM on the donor cells caused the transfer of lipids, CD24, and IgM to recipient cells. Importantly, we found that the transferred receptors are functional in recipient cells, thus endowing recipient cells with a second BCR or sensitivity to anti-CD24-induced apoptosis. In the case of the BCR, we found that EVs were conclusively involved in this transfer, whereas in the case in the CD24 the involvement of EVs is suggested. Overall, these data show that extracellular signals received by one cell can change the sensitivity of neighboring cells to the same or different stimuli, which may impact B cell development or activation.
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2021
ev vr
Cholangiocyte-Derived Exosomal Long Noncoding RNA PICALM-AU1 Promotes Pulmonary Endothelial Cell EndMT in Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
Background: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an important clinical problem with limited understanding of disease pathologies. Exosome mediated cell-cell communication can modulate various cellular functions by transferring a variety of intracellular components to target cells. A new lncRNA PICALM-AU1 was found and upregulated in the liver of subjects with HPS. However, the expression and biological functions of the lncRNA PICALM-AU1 are still unknown. Methods: HPS rat model was constructed by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). RNA macroarray was used to analyze the expression differential lncRNAs in HPS rat liver. PICALM-AU1 expression in the serum exosome was measured in 56 HPS patients and in 73 patients with liver cirrhosis but not HPS. qPCR, Fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to analyze PICALM-AU1 expression and location. Virus derived PICALM-AU1 upregulation and down regulation were applied in rats and PMVECs cells. The effects of PICALM-AU1 on PMVECs was determined via CCK8 assay and transwell assay. PICALM-AU1 and miR144-3p relationship was analysis by Dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results: In this study, we found lncRNA PICALM-AU1 expressed in the cholangiocyte of liver, secreted as exosome into the serum. PICALM-AU1 carrying serum exosomes induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of PMVECs and promoted lung injury. Furthermore, overexpression of PICALM-AU1 significantly suppressed miR144-3p and subsequently induced ZEB1 expression. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings present a road map of targeting the newly identified cholangiocyte-derived exosomal lncRNA PICALM-AU1 plays a critical role in the pathologic angiogenesis of HPS by promoting EndMT and represents a potential therapeutic target for HPS.
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2021
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Extracellular vesicles from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus stimulate proinflammatory cytokine production and trigger IgE-mediated hypersensitivity …
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from bacteria are enclosed particles carrying biological active molecules. They have been shown to play a role in bacterial communications and delivery of virulence factors to the host cells. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing a variety of infections ranging from impetigo to septicaemia. The EVs released from S. aureus have a high potential to be used for vaccine development against S. aureus infections. However, it is important to clearly understand the impact of SaEVs on the host’s immune response. Our study demonstrated that purified EVs from a clinical isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (SaEVs) significantly stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in mouse immune cells and induced host cell death. An impairment of cytokine production in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-silenced macrophages suggested that SaEVs stimulate proinflammatory response via TLRs 2, 4 and 9. In mouse infection model, the results demonstrated that SaEV immunization did not provide protective effect. In contrast, all SaEV-immunized mice died within Day 1 after methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. After MRSA infection for 3 h, the production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-17 in the spleen of SaEV-immunized mice was significantly higher than that of control mice. On Day 5 after the second immunization, total IgE in the serum was significantly enhanced, and a high titre of Th2-related cytokines was remarkably induced after ex vivo stimulation of the spleen cells with SaEVs. These results suggested that MRSA-derived EVs act as an immunostimulant that induces inflammatory response and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after MRSA infection.
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2021
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Enhancing selectivity of novel outer-selective hollow fiber forward osmosis membrane by polymer nanostructures
An ideal forward osmosis (FO) membrane module for osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) application would have high packing density, low reverse solute flux and low fouling propensity. Recently, an outer-selective hollow fiber forward osmosis (HFFO) membrane has been developed to simultaneously improve packing density and reduce fouling propensity. However, a high reverse solute flux of the HFFO membrane still generates a salinity build-up in the reactor and remains the main challenge of this technology. To tackle this problem, we successfully improved the selectivity of an outer-selective HFFO membrane by incorporating a prior developed formulation based on Pluronic® nanostructures containing water selective proteins into the active layer of the membrane. The assimilation of these nanostructures in the membrane resulted in a significant decrease of the specific reverse solute flux from 0.36 ± 0.01 gL-1 to 0.12 ± 0.02 gL-1 with no significant decrease in water flux. Also, urea was selected as a challenging solute to investigate the selectivity of the developed membranes. In comparison with the pristine membranes, membranes containing nanostructures presented a superior rejection of urea from 87.7 ± 2.0 % to 95.2 ± 0.9 %. The developed membranes are able to be used for future OMBR application tests to prove feasibility of the process. Thus, this study can lead to the development of new membranes suitable for efficient and long-term operation in OMBR configurations. Additionally, the nanostructures investigated here can be used for different thin-film composite membranes as an additive to improve membrane selectivity.
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2021
ev
A scalable coaxial bioprinting technology for mesenchymal stem cell microfiber fabrication and high extracellular vesicle yield
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine; however, the lack of scalable methods for high quantity EV production limits their application. In addition, signature EV-derived proteins shared in 3D environments and 2D surfaces, remain mostly unknown. Herein, we present a platform combining MSC microfiber culture with ultracentrifugation purification for high EV yield. Within this platform, a high quantity MSC solution (∼3 × 108 total cells) is encapsulated in a meter-long hollow hydrogel-microfiber via coaxial bioprinting technology. In this 3D core–shell microfiber environment, MSCs express higher levels of stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2) than in 2D culture, and maintain their differentiation capacity. Moreover, this platform enriches particles by ∼1009-fold compared to conventional 2D culture, while preserving their pro-angiogenic properties. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization results demonstrate that EVs derived from our platform and conventional 2D culturing have unique protein profiles with 3D-EVs having a greater variety of proteins (1023 vs 605), however, they also share certain proteins (536) and signature MSC-EV proteins (10). This platform, therefore, provides a new tool for EV production using microfibers in one culture dish, thereby reducing space, labor, time, and cost.
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2021
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Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived exosomal miR-18b promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis by regulating TCEAL7
Studies have shown that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an irreplaceable role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Therefore, exploring the action and mechanism of CAFs on tumor cells is particularly important. In this study, we compared the effects of CAFs-derived exosomes and normal fibroblasts (NFs)-derived exosomes on breast cancer cells migration and invasion. The results showed that exosomes from both CAFs and NFs could enter into breast cancer cells and CAFs-derived exosomes had a more enhancing effect on breast cancer cells migration and invasion than NFs-derived exosomes. Furthermore, microRNA (miR)-18b was upregulated in CAFs-derived exosomes, and CAFs-derived exosomes miR-18b can promote breast cancer cell migration and metastasis by specifically binding to the 3'UTR of Transcription Elongation Factor A Like 7 (TCEAL7). The miR-18b-TCEAL7 pathway promotes nuclear Snail ectopic activation by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), thereby inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoting cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, CAFs-derived exosomes miR-18b could promote mouse xenograft model tumor metastasis. Overall, our findings suggest that CAFs-derived exosomes miR-18b promote nuclear Snail ectopic by targeting TCEAL7 to activate the NF-κB pathway, thereby inducing EMT, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting CAFs-derived exosome miR-18b may be a potential treatment option to overcome breast cancer progression.
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2021
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Circulating extracellular vesicles of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients have higher RAC1 and induce recapitulation of nephrotic syndrome phenotype in …
Since previous research suggests a role of a circulating factor in the pathogenesis of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS), we speculated that circulating plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a candidate source of such a soluble mediator. Here, we aimed to characterize and try to delineate the effects of these EVs in vitro. Plasma EVs from 20 children with steroid-sensitive NS in relapse and remission, 10 healthy controls, and 6 disease controls were obtained by serial ultracentrifugation. Characterization of these EVs was performed by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Major proteins from plasma EVs were identified via mass spectrometry. Gene Ontology classification analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were performed on selectively expressed EV proteins during relapse. Immortalized human podocyte culture was used to detect the effects of EVs on podocytes. The protein content and particle number of plasma EVs were significantly increased during NS relapse. Relapse NS EVs selectively expressed proteins that involved actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Among these, the level of RAC-GTP was significantly increased in relapse EVs compared with remission and disease control EVs. Relapse EVs were efficiently internalized by podocytes and induced significantly enhanced motility and albumin permeability. Moreover, relapse EVs induced significantly higher levels of RAC-GTP and phospho-p38 and decreased the levels of synaptopodin in podocytes. Circulating relapse EVs are biologically active molecules that carry active RAC1 as cargo and induce recapitulation of the NS phenotype in podocytes in vitro.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Up to now, the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the pathogenesis of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS) has not been studied. Here, we found that relapse NS EVs contain significantly increased active RAC1, induce enhanced podocyte motility, and increase expression of RAC-GTP and phospho-p38 expression in vitro. These results suggest that plasma EVs are biologically active molecules in the pathogenesis of NS.
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2021
ev nm
A complete proteomic profile of human and bovine milk exosomes by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
Background: The present study investigates the proteomic content of milk-derived exosomes. A detailed description of the content of milk exosomes is essential to improve our understanding of the various components of milk and their role in nutrition. Methods: The exosomes used in this study were isolated as previously described and characterized by their morphology, particle concentration, and the presence of exosomal markers. Human and bovine milk exosomes were evaluated using Information-Dependent Acquisition (IDA) Mass Spectrometry. A direct comparison is made between their proteomic profiles. Results: IDA analyses revealed similarities and differences in protein content. About 229 and 239 proteins were identified in the human and bovine milk exosome proteome, respectively, of which 176 and 186 were unique to each species. Fifty-three proteins were common in both groups. These included proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions. Most notably, the 4 abundant milk proteins lactadherin, butyrophilin, perilipin-2, and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were present in the top 20 list for both human and bovine milk exosomes. Conclusion: The milk exosome protein profiles we have provided are crucial new information for the field of infant nutrition. They provide new insight into the components of milk from both humans and bovines.
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2021
ot
Universal Nanopore Platform Integrating Multiple Resistive Pulse Sensors into a Single Microfluidic Device
Resistive pulse sensors have been used to characterise everything from whole cells to small molecules. Their integration into microfluidic devices have simplified sample handling whilst increasing throughput. Typically, these devices measure a limited size range or a specific analyte, making them prone to blockages in complex sample matrixes. To prolong their life and facilitate their use, samples are often filtered or prepared to match the sample with the sensor diameter. Here, we advance our tuneable flow resistive pulse sensor which utilises additively manufactured parts. The sensor allows parts to be easily changed, washed and cleaned, its simplicity and versatility allows components from existing nanopore fabrication techniques such as silicon nitride, polyurethane and glass pipettes to be integrated into a single device. This creates a multi-nanopore sensor that can simultaneously measure particles from 0.1 to 30 m in diameter. The orientation and controlled fluid flow in the device allows the sensors to be placed in series, whereby smaller particles can be measured in the presence of larger ones without the risk of being blocked. We demonstrate the device with a range of nanopore materials commonly found within the literature, the easiest to set up was the pulled glass pipette and glass nanopore membrane. However, the glass nanopore membrane was by far the most robust and reusable component tested. We illustrate the concept of a multi-pore flow resistive pulse sensor, by combining an additively manufactured tuneable sensor, termed sensor 1, with a fixed nanopore sensor, termed sensor 2. Sensor 1 measures particles 2 to 30 m in diameter, whilst sensor 2 can be used to characterise particles as small as 100 nm, depending upon its dimensions.
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2021
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