Characterizing KRAS Membrane Structures by Data-Driven Molecular Docking

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/References
Stanley, Christopher B., Que N. Van, Frank Heinrich, Mathias Losche, Debsindhu Bhowmik, Arvind Ramanathan, Cesar A. Lopez, Sandrasegaram Gnanakaran, Dwight V. Nissley, and Andrew G. Stephen. "Characterizing KRAS Membrane Structures by Data-Driven Molecular Docking." Biophysical Journal 120, no. 3 (2021): 25a.
Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2 NCI RAS Initiative, Cancer Research Technology Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA, 3 Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 4 Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 5 Data Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA, 6 Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA. KRAS is a GTPase that plays an important role in cell growth and signaling pathways. of the different RAS isoforms, KRAS also has the highest prevalence of mutations related to human cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target in these cases. Once attached to the membrane, KRAS in the active (GTP) form is capable to bind effector proteins, like RAF kinase. However, certain molecular details concerning KRAS conformation and orientational changes when interacting with the membrane and binding partners are not fully understood. To provide new insights, we used a variety of biophysical approaches to characterize KRAS structure and dynamics. Here, we focus on our results utilizing data-driven computational docking to investigate both KRAS and KRAS/ RAF1-RBD (RAS Binding Domain) complex at the membrane. with the HADDOCK program, we incorporated experimental restraints derived from our NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements to dock these KRAS forms to a 70:30 POPC:POPS lipid membrane surface. Using NMR-PRE restraints alone, we performed one series of docking runs with the KRAS G-domain directly interacting with the membrane to discern membrane-proximal states. Based on our experimental evidence, and particularly from NR, a highly populated membrane-distal state also exists, where the G-domain does not directly contact the membrane but KRAS remains tethered via the C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR). Therefore, we also conducted a second series of docking runs that incorporated both NMR-PRE and NR restraints to better elucidate the conformations in this state. From these results, we were able to generate atomistic models for KRAS and KRAS/RAF1-RBD with averaged 1-D profiles closely matching the respective NR profiles. Overall, the findings should assist in elucidating the role of KRAS structural dynamics in recruiting effectors, like RAF kinase, to the membrane for activation.
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Breast cancer extracellular vesicles-derived miR-1290 activates astrocytes in the brain metastatic microenvironment via the FOXA2→CNTF axis to promote progression of brain metastases
Mechanisms underlying breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) are still unclear. In this study, we observed that extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from breast cancer cells with increased expression of tGLI1, a BCBM-promoting transcription factor, strongly activated astrocytes. EV-derived microRNA/miRNA microarray revealed tGLI1-positive breast cancer cells highly secreted miR-1290 and miR-1246 encapsulated in EVs. Genetic knockin/knockout studies established a direct link between tGLI1 and both miRNAs. Datamining and analysis of patient samples revealed that BCBM patients had more circulating EV-miRs-1290/1246 than those without metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-1290 or miR-1246 strongly activated astrocytes whereas their inhibitors abrogated the effect. Conditioned media from miR-1290- or miR-1246-overexpressing astrocytes promoted mammospheres. Furthermore, miRs-1290/1246 suppressed expression of FOXA2 transcription repressor, leading to CNTF cytokine secretion and subsequent activation of astrocytes. Finally, we conducted a mouse study to demonstrate that astrocytes overexpressing miR-1290, but not miR-1246, enhanced intracranial colonization and growth of breast cancer cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that breast cancer EV-derived miR-1290 and miR-1246 activate astrocytes in the brain metastatic microenvironment and that EV-derived miR-1290 promotes progression of brain metastases through the novel EV-miR-1290→FOXA2→CNTF signaling axis.
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2022
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BMSC-EV-derived lncRNA NORAD Facilitates Migration, Invasion, and Angiogenesis in Osteosarcoma Cells by Regulating CREBBP via Delivery of miR-877-3p
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can boost osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and invasion, yet the function of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from BMSCs on OS is scarcely known. This study is aimed at examining the role of BMSC-EVs in OS cells. BMSCs and BMSC-EVs were isolated and identified. The effect of EVs and EVs-si-NORAD on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis was determined. Expressions of NORAD, miR-877-3p, and CREBBP were detected. The binding relationship among NORAD, miR-877-3p, and CREBBP was verified. The miR-877-3p inhibitor or pc-CREBBP was delivered into OS cells treated with EVs-si-NORAD for in vitro analysis. The nude mouse model of the subcutaneous tumor xenograft was established for in vivo analysis. BMSC-EVs promoted OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. BMSC-EVs carried NORAD into OS cells and upregulated CREBBP by sponging miR-877-3p. miR-877-3p downregulation or CREBBP overexpression partly inverted the inhibitory effect of EVs by silencing NORAD on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. In vivo experiments validated that BMSC-EV-derived NORAD facilitated tumor growth by upregulating CREBBP via miR-877-3p. To conclude, BMSC-EV-derived NORAD facilitated OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis by modulating CREBBP via miR-877-3p, which may offer new insights into OS treatment.
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2022
Biomechanical responses of encysted zoospores of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis to hyperosmotic stress are consistent with an ability to turgor regulate
Zoospores are motile, asexual reproductive propagules that enable oomycete pathogens to locate and infect new host tissue. While motile, they have no cell wall and maintain tonicity with their external media using water expulsion vacuoles. Once they locate host tissue, they encyst and form a cell wall, enabling the generation of turgor pressure that will provide the driving force for germination and invasion of the host. It is not currently known how these spores respond to the osmotic stresses that might arise due to different environments on and around their hosts that have different osmotic strengths. We have made microaspiration (MA) measurements on > 800 encysted zoospores and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on 12 encysted zoospores to determine their mechanical properties and how these change after hyperosmotic stress. Two types of encysted zoospores (Type A and Type B) were produced from the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, that differed in their morphology and response. With a small hyperosmotic stress (using 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 155.4 and 295.6 mOsmol/kg), Type A zoospores initially became stiffer, with an increase in the Young's modulus (E) over 30 mins from 0.16 MPa to 0.25 and 0.22 MPa respectively. E then returned to its original value after 120 min. With a greater osmotic stress (using 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 438.2, 587.2 and 787.6 mOsmol/kg) the reverse occurred, with an initial decrease in E over 30 - 60 mins to values of 0.1, 0.08 and 0.09 MPa respectively, before recovery to the original value after 120 min. In 0.5 M sorbitol this recovery was only observed with AFM, but not with MA. Type B zoospores, which may be primary/secondary spores about to release secondary/tertiary spores, or else spores that were damaged during encystment, initially stiffened in response to the lower hyperosmotic stresses with a slight increase in E (from 0.077 to 0.1 MPa after 15 min (with both 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol) before recovering to the original value after 60 min. These spores showed no change in response to the higher osmotic stresses. The responses of the Type A spores are consistent with rapid changes in cell wall thickness and a turgor regulation mechanism. Turgor regulation is further supported by microscopic observations of the Type A spores showing protoplast retraction from the cell wall followed by deplasmolysis, coupled with measurements of spore volume. As far as we are aware this is the first demonstration of turgor regulation, not just in encysted zoospores, but in oomycetes in general.
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2022
vr
Bioanalytics for Influenza Virus-Like Particle Characterization and Process Monitoring
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are excellent platforms for the development of influenza vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, their characterization is challenging due to VLPs' unique biophysical and biochemical properties. To cope with such complexity, multiple analytical techniques have been developed to date (e.g., single-particle analysis, thermal stability, or quantification assays), most of which are rarely used or have been successfully demonstrated for being applicable for virus particle characterization. In this study, several biophysical and biochemical methods have been evaluated for thorough characterization of monovalent and pentavalent influenza VLPs from diverse groups (A and B) and subtypes (H1 and H3) produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS). Particle size distribution and purity profiles were monitored during the purification process using two complementary technologies - nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). VLP surface charge at the selected process pH was also assessed by this last technique. The morphology of the VLP (size, shape, and presence of hemagglutinin spikes) was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Circular dichroism was used to assess VLPs' thermal stability. Total protein, DNA, and baculovirus content were also assessed. All VLPs analyzed exhibited similar size ranges (90-115 nm for NTA and 129-141 nm for TRPS), surface charges (average of -20.4 mV), and morphology (pleomorphic particles resembling influenza virus) exhibiting the presence of HA molecules (spikes) uniformly displayed on M1 protein scaffold. Our data shows that HA titers and purification efficiency in terms of impurity removal and thermal stability were observed to be particle dependent. This study shows robustness and generic applicability of the tools and methods evaluated, independent of VLP valency and group/subtype. Thus, they are most valuable to assist process development and enhance product characterization.
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2022
ev
Assessment of extracellular vesicle isolation methods from human stool supernatant
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are of growing interest due to their potential diagnostic, disease surveillance, and therapeutic applications. While several studies have evaluated EV isolation methods in various biofluids, there are few if any data on these techniques when applied to stool. The latter is an ideal biospecimen for studying EVs and colorectal cancer (CRC) because the release of tumour markers by luminal exfoliation into stool occurs earlier than vascular invasion. Since EV release is a conserved mechanism, bacteria in stool contribute to the overall EV population. In this study, we assessed five EV separation methods (ultracentrifugation [UC], precipitation [EQ-O, EQ-TC], size exclusion chromatography [SEC], and ultrafiltration [UF]) for total recovery, reproducibility, purity, RNA composition, and protein expression in stool supernatant. CD63, TSG101, and ompA proteins were present in EV fractions from all methods except UC. Human (18s) and bacterial (16s) rRNA was detected in stool EV preparations. Enzymatic treatment prior to extraction is necessary to avoid non-vesicular RNA contamination. Ultrafiltration had the highest recovery, RNA, and protein yield. After assessing purity further, SEC was the isolation method of choice. These findings serve as the groundwork for future studies that use high throughput omics technologies to investigate the potential of stool-derived EVs as a source for novel biomarkers for early CRC detection.
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2022
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Anti-inflammatory effects of extracellular vesicles from Morchella on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells via the ROS-mediated p38 MAPK signaling pathway
Morchella is a kind of important edible and medicinal fungi, which is rich in polysaccharides, enzymes, fatty acids, amino acids and other active components. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a typical membrane structure, and the vesicles contain some specific lipids, miRNAs and proteins, and their can deliver the contents to different cells to change their functions. The present study investigated whether Morchella produce extracellular vesicles and its anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW246.7 macrophages. The experimental results showed that Morchella produced extracellular vesicles and significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a model of LPS-induced inflammation. In addition, the expression of inflammatory factor-related genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed dose-dependent inhibition. Morchella extracellular vesicles also can inhibit the inflammatory response induced by LPS by inhibiting the production of ROS and reducing the phosphorylation levels of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These results indicate that the Morchella extracellular vesicles can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory substance in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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2022
ev
Analyses of single extracellular vesicles from non-small lung cancer cells to reveal effects by Epidermal growth factor inhibitor treatments
Abstract Precision cancer medicine have changed the treatment landscape of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as illustrated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) towards mutated Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Yet, responses to such TKIs e.g., erlotinib and osimertinib among patients are heterogenous and there is a need for non-invasive blood-based analytics to follow treatment response and reveal resistance to improve patient’s treatment outcome. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as an important source of tumor biomarkers promising to revolutionize liquid biopsy-based diagnosis of cancer. However, high heterogeneity has been a major bottleneck. The pathological signature is often hidden in the differential expression of membrane proteins in a subset of EVs which are difficult to identify with bulk techniques. Using a fluorescence-based approach, we for the first time demonstrate that the single-EV technique can be used to monitor the treatment response of targeted cancer therapies such as TKIs towards EGFR. To test the hypothesis, we analyzed the membrane proteins of native EVs extracted from EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell line, both prior and post treatment with EGFR-TKIs erlotinib or osimertinib. The selected cell line being refractory to erlotinib and responsive to osimertinib makes it a suitable model system. The expression level of five surface proteins; two common tetraspanins (CD9, CD81) and three markers of specific interest in lung cancer (EGFR, PD-L1, HER2) were studied. The data suggest that in contrast to erlotinib, the osimertinib treatment increases the population of PD-L1, EGFR and HER2 positive EVs while the expression level per EV decreases for all the three markers. The PD-L1 and HER2 expressing EV population seems to increase by several fold because of osimertinib treatment. The observations agree with the previous reports performed on cellular level indicating the biomarker potential of EVs for liquid-biopsy based monitoring of targeted cancer treatments. Highlights Membrane protein analyses of single EVs may reveal distinct differences when lung cancer cells are refractory vs responsive under different EGFR-TKI treatments. Comparison of 1 st generation erlotinib and 3 rd generation osimertinib shows clear signature on the expression of PD-L1, EGFR, HER2 on single EVs Colocalization showed a change in common marker combinations before after treatment. PD-L1 expression per vesicle decreases while the number of PD-L1 positive EVs increases as a result of osimertinib treatment, indicating that such signature may not be detectable under bulk analysis
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2022
ev
An electro-optical bead-nanochip technology for the ultrasensitive and multi-dimensional detection of small extracellular vesicles and their markers
ABSTRACT Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes, are enriched in multiomics information mirroring their parental cells. They have been investigated in health and disease and utilised in several applications from drug discovery to diagnostics. In disease diagnostics, sEVs can be sampled via a blood draw, enabling the convenient liquid biopsy of the tissue they originate from. However, few applications with sEVs have been translated into clinical practice. We developed a Nanoparticle EXOsome Sensing (NEXOS) technology, for the ultrasensitive and multi-dimensional detection of sEVs. NEXOS comprises two methods: a novel nanoelectronics method, E-NEXOS, and a high-throughput optical detection method, O-NEXOS. Both methods share the same steps for the immunocapture and antibody-labelling of sEVs and can be combined to derive differentiated detection parameters. As a proof of concept, we show the analytical detection and sensitivity of these methods in detecting pre-prepared cancer cell-derived CD9 + CD81 + and CD9 + HER2 + sEVs. Both sEV populations were diluted in PBS and spiked in processed plasma. We also provide a novel approach for the determination of target sEVs (TEVs), target epitopes in sEVs (TEPs), and epitopes per target sEV, as yet unseen from current and emerging technologies. Further, we demonstrate the higher sensitivity of O-NEXOS compared to the gold standard techniques, as well as demonstrating that E-NEXOS possesses commensurate sensitivity whilst only being powered by 36 nanogap-based sensors per nanochip. Finally, this manuscript lays the groundwork for a scalable electronics miniaturization of E-NEXOS nanochip with millions of nanogap-based sensors for the translation of NEXOS into standard clinical practice.
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2022
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Addressing MISEV guidance using targeted LC‐MS/MS: A method for the detection and quantification of extracellular vesicle‐enriched and contaminant protein markers from blood
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane‐bound nanosized particles released by cells into bodily fluids containing an array of molecular cargo. Several characteristics, including stability and accessibility in biofluids such as blood and urine, make EVs and associated cargo attractive biomarkers and therapeutic tools. To promote robust characterisation of EV isolates, the minimal requirements for the study of extracellular vesicles (MISEV) guidelines recommend the analysis of proteins in EV samples, including positive EV‐associated markers and negative contaminant markers based on commonly co‐isolated components of the starting material. Western blot is conventionally used to address the guidelines; however, this approach is limited in terms of quantitation and throughput and requires larger volumes than typically available for patient samples. The increasing application of EVs as liquid biopsy in clinical contexts requires a high‐throughput multiplexed approach for analysis of protein markers from small volumes of starting material. Here, we document the development and validation of a targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) assay for the quantification of markers associated with EVs and non‐vesicle contaminants from human blood samples. The assay was highly sensitive, requiring only a fraction of the sample consumed for immunoblots, fully quantitative and high throughput. Application of the assay to EVs isolated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and precipitation revealed differences in yield, purity and recovery of subpopulations.
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2022
ev
A secretory form of Parkin‐independent mitophagy contributes to the repertoire of extracellular vesicles released into the tumour interstitial fluid in vivo
We characterized the in vivo interstitial fluid (IF) content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) using the GFP-4T1 syngeneic murine cancer model to study EVs in-transit to the draining lymph node. GFP labelling confirmed the IF EV tumour cell origin. Molecular analysis revealed an abundance of IF EV-associated proteins specifically involved in mitophagy and secretory autophagy. A set of proteins required for sequential steps of fission-induced mitophagy preferentially populated the CD81+/PD-L1+ IF EVs; PINK1, TOM20, and ARIH1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (required for Parkin-independent mitophagy), DRP1 and FIS1 (mitochondrial peripheral fission), VDAC-1 (ubiquitination state triggers mitophagy away from apoptosis), VPS35, SEC22b, and Rab33b (vacuolar sorting). Comparing in vivo IF EVs to in vitro EVs revealed 40% concordance, with an elevation of mitophagy proteins in the CD81+ EVs for both murine and human cell lines subjected to metabolic stress. The export of cellular mitochondria proteins to CD81+ EVs was confirmed by density gradient isolation from the bulk EV isolate followed by anti-CD81 immunoprecipitation, molecular sieve chromatography, and MitoTracker export into CD81+ EVs. We propose the 4T1 in vivo model as a versatile tool to functionally characterize IF EVs. IF EV export of fission mitophagy proteins has broad implications for mitochondrial function and cellular immunology.
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2022
ev
A novel microRNA signature for the detection of melanoma by liquid biopsy
Background Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and metastatic disease is associated with a significant survival rate drop. There is an urgent need for consistent tumor biomarkers to scale precision medicine and reduce cancer mortality. Here, we aimed to identify a melanoma-specific circulating microRNA signature and assess its value as a diagnostic tool. Methods The study consisted of a discovery phase and two validation phases. Circulating plasma extracellular vesicles (pEV) associated microRNA profiles were obtained from a discovery cohort of metastatic melanoma patients and normal subjects as controls. A pEV-microRNA signature was obtained using a LASSO penalized logistic regression model. The pEV-microRNA signature was subsequently validated both in a publicly available dataset and in an independent internal cohort. Results We identified and validated in three independent cohorts a panel of melanoma-specific circulating microRNAs that showed high accuracy in differentiating melanoma patients from healthy subjects with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1.00, 0.94 and 0.75 respectively. Investigation of the function of the pEV-microRNA signature evidenced their possible immune suppressive role in melanoma patients. Conclusions We demonstrate that a blood test based on circulating microRNAs can non-invasively detect melanoma, offering a novel diagnostic tool for improving standard care. Moreover, we revealed an immune suppressive role for melanoma pEV-microRNAs.
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2022
ev
A new transgene mouse model using an extravesicular EGFP tag enables affinity isolation of cell-specific extracellular vesicles
The in vivo function of cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenging to establish since cell-specific EVs are difficult to isolate and differentiate. We, therefore, created an EV reporter using truncated CD9 to display enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on the EV surface. CD9truc-EGFP expression in cells did not affect EV size and concentration but enabled co-precipitation of EV markers TSG101 and ALIX from the cell-conditioned medium by anti-GFP immunoprecipitation. We then created a transgenic mouse where CD9truc-EGFP was inserted in the inverse orientation and double-floxed, ensuring irreversible Cre recombinase-dependent EV reporter expression. We crossed the EV reporter mice with mice expressing Cre ubiquitously (CMV-Cre), in cardiomyocytes (αMHC-MerCreMer) and renal tubular epithelial cells (Pax8-Cre), respectively. The CD9truc-EGFP positive mice showed Cre-dependent EGFP expression, and plasma CD9truc-EGFP EVs were immunoprecipitated only from CD9truc-EGFP positive CD9truc-EGFPxCMV-Cre and CD9truc-EGFPxαMHC-Cre mice, but not in CD9truc-EGFPxPax8-Cre and CD9truc-EGFP negative mice. In urine samples, CD9truc-EGFP EVs were detected by immunoprecipitation only in CD9truc-EGFP positive CD9truc-EGFPxCMV-Cre and CD9truc-EGFPxPax8-Cre mice, but not CD9truc-EGFPxαMHC-Cre and CD9truc-EGFP negative mice. In conclusion, our EV reporter mouse model enables Cre-dependent EV labeling, providing a new approach to studying cell-specific EVs in vivo and gaining a unique insight into their physiological and pathophysiological function.
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2022
ev
A new strategy to count and sort neutrophil‐derived extracellular vesicles: Validation in infectious disorders
Newly recognized polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) functions include the ability to release subcellular mediators such as neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) involved in immune and thrombo-inflammatory responses. Elevation of their plasmatic level has been reported in a variety of infectious and cardiovascular disorders, but the clinical use of this potential biomarker is hampered by methodological issues. Although flow cytometry (FCM) is currently used to detect NDEVs in the plasma of patients, an extensive characterization of NDEVs has never been done. Moreover, their detection remains challenging because of their small size and low antigen density. Therefore, the objective of the present study was first to establish a surface antigenic signature of NDEVs detectable by FCM and therefore to improve their detection in biological fluids by developing a strategy allowing to overcome their low fluorescent signal and reduce the background noise. By testing a large panel of 54 antibody specificities already reported to be positive on PMNs, we identified a profile of 15 membrane protein markers, including 4 (CD157, CD24, CD65 and CD66c) never described on NDEVs. Among them, CD15, CD66b and CD66c were identified as the most sensitive and specific markers to detect NDEVs by FCM. Using this antigenic signature, we developed a new strategy combining the three best antibodies in a cocktail and reducing the background noise by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This strategy allowed a significant improvement in NDEVs enumeration in plasma from sepsis patients and made it feasible to efficiently sort NDEVs from COVID-19 patients. Altogether, this work opens the door to a more valuable measurement of NDEVs as a potential biomarker in clinical practice. A similar strategy could also be applied to improve detection by FCM of other rare subpopulations of EVs generated by tissues with limited access, such as vascular endothelium, cancer cells or placenta.
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2022
ev
4-1BBL-containing leukemic extracellular vesicles promote immunosuppressive effector regulatory T cells
Chronic and acute myeloid leukemia evade immune system surveillance and induce immunosuppression by expanding proleukemic Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). High levels of immunosuppressive Tregs predict inferior response to chemotherapy, leukemia relapse, and shorter survival. However, mechanisms that promote Tregs in myeloid leukemias remain largely unexplored. Here, we identify leukemic extracellular vesicles (EVs) as drivers of effector proleukemic Tregs. Using mouse model of leukemia-like disease, we found that Rab27a-dependent secretion of leukemic EVs promoted leukemia engraftment, which was associated with higher abundance of activated, immunosuppressive Tregs. Leukemic EVs attenuated mTOR-S6 and activated STAT5 signaling, as well as evoked significant transcriptomic changes in Tregs. We further identified specific effector signature of Tregs promoted by leukemic EVs. Leukemic EVs-driven Tregs were characterized by elevated expression of effector/tumor Treg markers CD39, CCR8, CD30, TNFR2, CCR4, TIGIT, and IL21R and included 2 distinct effector Treg (eTreg) subsets: CD30+CCR8hiTNFR2hi eTreg1 and CD39+TIGIThi eTreg2. Finally, we showed that costimulatory ligand 4-1BBL/CD137L, shuttled by leukemic EVs, promoted suppressive activity and effector phenotype of Tregs by regulating expression of receptors such as CD30 and TNFR2. Collectively, our work highlights the role of leukemic extracellular vesicles in stimulation of immunosuppressive Tregs and leukemia growth. We postulate that targeting of Rab27a-dependent secretion of leukemic EVs may be a viable therapeutic approach in myeloid neoplasms.
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2022
ev
A high-throughput methodology for the efficient isolation of highly pure extracellular vesicles from skeletal muscle myoblasts
Background: Skeletal muscle extracellular vesicles (SM-EVs) regulate gene expression events in myogenic differentiation. Optimising effective SM-EV isolation methods offering high levels of purity will be important to accurately define their composition and functionality. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) applied in combination with ultrafiltration (UF) has the potential to increase sample throughput, scalability and selectivity. However, an optimal UF+SEC methodology has not been tested for the isolation of myotube derived EVs. Our aim was to compare two different UF protocols and define an optimal window of SEC fractions to maximise SM-EVs recovery and sample purity. Methods: C2C12 myotube conditioned medium was pre-concentrated using Amicon® Ultra 15 or Vivaspin®20, 100KDa UF columns and processed by SEC (IZON, qEV 70nm). The resulting thirty fractions obtained were individually analysed to identify an optimal fraction window for EV recovery. Results: EV markers Alix and TSG101 could be detected up to fraction 13, while CD9 and Annexin A2 only up to fraction 6. ApoA1+ lipoprotein contaminants were detected from fraction 6 onwards for both protocols. Amicon and Vivaspin UF preconcentration protocols led to qualitative and quantitative variations in EV marker profiles and purity. Eliminating lipoprotein co-isolation by reducing the SEC fraction window resulted in a net loss of particles, but increased measures of sample purity and had only a negligible impact on the presence of EV marker proteins. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study developed optimal UF+SEC protocols for the isolation of SM-EVs based on sample purity (fractions 1-5) and total abundance (fractions 2-10). The resulting protocols will be valuable in isolating highly pure SM-EV preparations for biomarker studies.
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2022
A MicroRNA Next-Generation-Sequencing Discovery Assay (miND) for Genome-Scale Analysis and Absolute Quantitation of Circulating MicroRNA Biomarkers
The plasma levels of tissue-specific microRNAs can be used as diagnostic, disease severity and prognostic biomarkers for chronic and acute diseases and drug-induced injury. Thereby, the combination of diverse microRNAs into biomarker signatures using multivariate statistics seems especially powerful from the perspective of tissue and condition specific microRNA shedding into the plasma. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enables one to analyse circulating microRNAs on a genome-scale level, it suffers from potential biases (e.g., adapter ligation bias) and lacks absolute transcript quantitation as well as tailor-made quality controls. In order to develop a robust NGS discovery assay for genome-scale quantitation of circulating microRNAs, we first evaluated the sensitivity, repeatability and ligation bias of four commercially available small RNA library preparation protocols. The protocol from RealSeq Biosciences was selected based on its performance and usability and coupled with a novel panel of exogenous small RNA spike-in controls to enable quality control and absolute quantitation, thus ensuring comparability of data across independent NGS experiments. The established microRNA Next-Generation-Sequencing Discovery Assay (miND) was validated for its relative accuracy, precision, analytical measurement range and sequencing bias and was considered fit-for-purpose for microRNA biomarker discovery. Summarized, all these criteria were met, and thus, our analytical platform is considered fit-for-purpose for microRNA biomarker discovery from biofluids in the setting of any diagnostic, prognostic or patient stratification need. The established miND assay was tested on serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid (SF) and extracellular vesicles (EV) extracted from cell culture medium of primary cells and proved its potential to be used across different sample types.
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2022
ev
A multi‐omics approach identifies pancreatic cancer cell extracellular vesicles as mediators of the unfolded protein response in normal pancreatic epithelial cells
Although cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (cEVs) are thought to play a pivotal role in promoting cancer progression events, their precise effect on neighbouring normal cells is unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of pancreatic cancer ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) derived EVs on recipient non-tumourigenic pancreatic normal epithelial cells upon internalization. We demonstrate that cEVs are readily internalized and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in treated normal pancreatic epithelial cells within 24 h. We further show that PDAC cEVs increase cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and that these changes are regulated at least in part, by the UPR mediator DDIT3. Subsequently, these cells release several inflammatory cytokines. Leveraging a layered multi-omics approach, we analysed EV cargo from a panel of six PDAC and two normal pancreas cell lines, using multiple EV isolation methods. We found that cEVs were enriched for an array of biomolecules which can induce or regulate ER stress and the UPR, including palmitic acid, sphingomyelins, metabolic regulators of tRNA charging and proteins which regulate trafficking and degradation. We further show that palmitic acid, at doses relevant to those found in cEVs, is sufficient to induce ER stress in normal pancreas cells. These results suggest that cEV cargo packaging may be designed to disseminate proliferative and invasive characteristics upon internalization by distant recipient normal cells, hitherto unreported. This study is among the first to highlight a major role for PDAC cEVs to induce stress in treated normal pancreas cells that may modulate a systemic response leading to altered phenotypes. These findings highlight the importance of EVs in mediating disease aetiology and open potential areas of investigation toward understanding the role of cEV lipids in promoting cell transformation in the surrounding microenvironment.
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2022
A comparative analysis of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human and feline plasma
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoparticles found in all biological fluids, capable of transporting biological material around the body. Extensive research into the physiological role of EVs has led to the development of the Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) framework in 2018. This framework guides the standardisation of protocols in the EV field. To date, the focus has been on EVs of human origin. As comparative medicine progresses, there has been a drive to study similarities between diseases in humans and animals. To successfully research EVs in felines, we must validate the application of the MISEV guidelines in this group. EVs were isolated from the plasma of healthy humans and felines. EV characterisation was carried out according to the MISEV guidelines. Human and feline plasma showed a similar concentration of EVs, comparable expression of known EV markers and analogous particle to protein ratios. Mass spectrometry analyses showed that the proteomic signature of EVs from humans and felines were similar. Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, showed two distinct subpopulations of EVs isolated from human plasma, whereas only one subpopulation was isolated from feline plasma. Metabolomic profiling showed similar profiles for humans and felines. In conclusion, isolation, and characterisation of EVs from humans and felines show that MISEV2018 guidelines may also be applied to felines. Potential comparative medicine studies of EVs may provide a model for studying naturally occurring diseases in both humans and felines.
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2022
ev
A common vesicle proteome drives fungal biofilm development
Extracellular vesicles mediate community interactions among cells ranging from unicellular microbes to complex vertebrates. Extracellular vesicles of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans are vital for biofilm communities to produce matrix, which confers environmental protection and modulates community dispersion. Infections are increasingly due to diverse Candida species, such as the emerging pathogen Candida auris, as well as mixed Candida communities. Here, we define the composition and function of biofilm-associated vesicles among five species across the Candida genus. We find similarities in vesicle size and release over the biofilm lifespan. Whereas overall cargo proteomes differ dramatically among species, a group of 36 common proteins is enriched for orthologs of C. albicans biofilm mediators. To understand the function of this set of proteins, we asked whether mutants in select components were important for key biofilm processes, including drug tolerance and dispersion. We found that the majority of these cargo components impact one or both biofilm processes across all five species. Exogenous delivery of wild-type vesicle cargo returned mutant phenotypes toward wild type. To assess the impact of vesicle cargo on interspecies interactions, we performed cross-species vesicle addition and observed functional complementation for both biofilm phenotypes. We explored the biologic relevance of this cross-species biofilm interaction in mixed species and mutant studies examining the drug-resistance phenotype. We found a majority of biofilm interactions among species restored the community's wild-type behavior. Our studies indicate that vesicles influence the development of protective monomicrobial and mixed microbial biofilm communities.
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2022
ev
Blockade of exosome release alters HER2 trafficking to the plasma membrane and gives a boost to Trastuzumab
Objective(s) Exosomal HER2 has been evidenced to interfere with antibody-induced anti-tumor effects. However, whether the blockade of HER2+ exosomes release would affect antibody-mediated tumor inhibition has yet to be investigated. Methods Exosomes derived from BT-474, SK-BR3 and SK-OV3 (HER2-overexpressing tumor cells) and MDA-MB-231 cells (HER2 negative) were purified and characterized by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay, western blotting and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Inhibition of exosome release was achieved by neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) inhibitor, GW4869. The effects of exosome blockade on the anti-proliferative effects, apoptosis induction, and antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of Trastuzumab were examined using MTT, flow cytometry, and LDH release assays. Also, the effects of exosome inhibition on the surface expression and endocytosis/internalization of HER2 were studied by flow cytometry. Results Purified exosomes derived from HER2 overexpressing cancer cells were positive for HER2 protein. Blockade of exosome release was able to significantly improve apoptosis induction, anti-proliferative and ADCC responses of Trastuzumab dose dependently. The pretreatment of Trastuzumab/purified NK cells, but not PBMCs, with HER2+ exosomes could also decrease the ADCC effects of Trastuzumab. Exosome inhibition also remarkably downregulated surface HER2 levels in a time-dependent manner, but does not affect its endocytosis/internalization. Conclusion Based on our findings, HER2+ exosomes may benefit tumor progression by dually suppressing Trastuzumab-induced tumor growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of NK cells. It seems that concomitant blocking of exosome release might be an effective approach for improving the therapeutic effects of Trastuzumab, and potentially other HER2-directed mAbs. In addition, the exosome secretion pathway possibly contributes to the HER2 trafficking to plasma membrane, since the blockade of exosome secretion decreased surface HER2 levels.
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2022
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Serum-isolated exosomes from Piscirickettsia salmonis-infected Salmo salar specimens enclose bacterial DnaK, DnaJ and GrpE chaperones
Background Endosomally produced by eukaryotic cells, exosomes are microvesicles involved in cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes have shown a wide range of therapeutic potential as a drug or vaccine delivery system, and they are useful as biomarkers in several disease processes. Another biological function described is pathogen dissemination through host-derived molecules released during infection, thus modulating the immune response in the host. Results This work characterizes the exosomal fraction recovered from serum of Piscirickttesia salmonis-challenged Salmo salar specimens and from the corresponding non-challenged controls. Exosomes presented a spherical morphology and particle size distribution within 50–125 nm, showing similar parameters in both groups. The mass spectrometry analysis of exosomes isolated at 14 and 21 d post-challenge showed the presence of peptides corresponding to the three proteins of Hsp70/DnaK chaperone system (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE). BLAST search of these peptides showed the specificity to P. salmonis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD023594. Conclusions The chaperones were found with >95% identity in the core genome when aligned to 73 genomes of P. salmonis. The proteins also showed a high degree of similarity with other microorganisms, where this system has proven to be vital for their survival under stress conditions. The presence of these three proteins in exosomes isolated from challenged fish sera calls for further study into their potential role in bacterium pathogenicity.
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2022
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The Proteome of Extracellular Vesicles Produced by the Human Gut Bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron In Vivo Is Influenced by Environmental and Host-Derived Factors
Bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) released from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria provide an effective means of communication and trafficking of cell signaling molecules. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) BEVs produced by members of the intestinal microbiota can impact host health by mediating microbe-host cell interactions. A major unresolved question, however, is what factors influence the composition of BEV proteins and whether the host influences protein packaging into BEVs and secretion into the GIT. To address this, we have analyzed the proteome of BEVs produced by the major human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron both in vitro and in vivo in the murine GIT in order to identify proteins specifically enriched in BEVs produced in vivo. We identified 113 proteins enriched in BEVs produced in vivo, the majority (62/113) of which accumulated in BEVs in the absence of any changes in their expression by the parental cells. Among these selectively enriched proteins, we identified dipeptidyl peptidases and an asparaginase and confirmed their increased activity in BEVs produced in vivo. We also showed that intact BEVs are capable of degrading bile acids via a bile salt hydrolase. Collectively these findings provide additional evidence for the dynamic interplay of host-microbe interactions in the GIT and the existence of an active mechanism to drive and enrich a selected group of proteins for secretion into BEVs in the GIT.
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2022
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Silica Inverse Opal Nanostructured Sensors for Enhanced Immunodetection of Extracellular Vesicles by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized circulating assemblies that contain biomarkers considered promising for early diagnosis within neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Recently, acoustic wave biosensors, in particular based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), have emerged as a sensitive, label-free, and selective EV characterization platform. A rational approach to further improving sensing detection limits relies on the nanostructuration of the sensor surfaces. To this end, inorganic inverse opals (IOs) derived from colloidal self-assembly present a highly tunable and scalable nanoarchitecture of suitable feature sizes and surface chemistry. This work systematically investigates their use in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) for enhanced QCM-D EV detection. Precise tuning of the architecture parameters delivered improvements in detection performance to sensitivities as low as 6.24 × 107 particles/mL. Our findings emphasize that attempts to enhance acoustic immunosensing via increasing the surface area by 3D nanostructuration need to be carefully analyzed in order to exclude solvent and artifact entrapment effects. Moreover, the use of 2D nanostructured electrodes to compartmentalize analyte anchoring presents a particularly promising design principle.
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2022
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A novel serum extracellular vesicle protein signature to monitor glioblastoma tumor progression
Detection of tumor progression in patients with glioblastoma remains a major challenge. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potential biomarkers and can be detected in the blood of patients with glioblastoma. In this study, we evaluated the potential of serum-derived EVs from glioblastoma patients to serve as biomarker for tumor progression. EVs from serum of glioblastoma patients and healthy volunteers were separated by size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation. EV markers were defined by using a proximity-extension assay and bead-based flow cytometry. Tumor progression was defined according to modified RANO criteria. EVs from the serum of glioblastoma patients (n=67) showed an upregulation of CD29, CD44, CD81, CD146, C1QA, and histone H3 as compared to serum EVs from healthy volunteers (p value range: <0.0001 – 0.08). For two independent cohorts of glioblastoma patients, we noted upregulation of C1QA, CD44, and histone H3 upon tumor progression, but not in patients with stable disease. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, a combination of CD29, CD44, CD81, C1QA, and histone H3 correlated with RANO-defined tumor progression with an AUC of 0.76. Measurement of CD29, CD44, CD81, C1QA, and histone H3 in serum-derived EVs of glioblastoma patients, along with standard MRI assessment, has the potential to improve detection of true tumor progression and thus could be a useful biomarker for clinical decision making.
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2022
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Exploiting extracellular vesicles for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarkers from liquid biopsies
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-surrounded structures containing transmembrane proteins and enclosing cytosolic proteins and nucleic acids. They are released in the extracellular space by both normal and neoplastic cells and play an important role in cell-cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, through the transfer of their functional cargo to recipient cells. EVs are highly abundant in biological fluids, and even more represented in cancer patients’ biofluids, therefore many studies suggested that they can be instrumental in liquid biopsies as prognostic markers or for early detection of tumors. Moreover, being secreted by potentially all the cells, they can serve in oncology to represent the tumor heterogeneity, which is underestimated by the current diagnostic tools. Given their small size, EVs are difficult to isolate in a high-throughput way and, therefore, one of the main obstacles to their clinical application, is that the existing isolation methods are impractical. During these years, I worked at the development and optimization of a novel technique that allows purification of heterogeneous EVs from biological fluids in an efficient, fast and reproducible way. This technique, named Nickel-Based Isolation (NBI), is a biochemical assay that allows obtaining polydisperse EVs in a physiological pH solution, therefore, preserving their morphology, heterogeneity, and stability. We tested and optimized this assay in protein-enriched systems and comparing it to the techniques currently used to characterize and measure EVs, such as flow cytometry and Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing. We challenged the reproducibility of this method by isolating EVs from different biological fluids. Interestingly, the EVs purified with NBI result more intact and stable compared to the ones obtained with other methods, and can be studied in a clinical setting and used as an innovative tool for detection of molecules associated with diseases. We demonstrated the specificity of the procedure by using individual isolated vesicles in biochemical and molecular assay, optimized to characterize the biological content of EVs. We were able to detect picomolar concentration of PSMA on 105 EVs isolated from plasma of prostate cancer patients and BRAF-V600E transcript in just 103 EVs from the plasma of colon cancer patients, reaching unprecedented matching with tissue biopsy results. We also investigated the transcriptome of EVs isolated from glioblastoma cancer stem cells, in order to exploit the potential of EVs as diagnostic markers.
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2022
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Resistance Exercise Differentially Alters Extracellular Vesicle Size and Subpopulation Characteristics in Healthy Men and Women: An Observational Cohort Study
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are established mediators of adaptation to exercise. Currently, there are no published data comparing changes in EVs between men and women after resistance exercise. PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that EV profiles would demonstrate a sex-specific signature following resistance exercise. METHODS: Ten men and 10 women completed an acute heavy resistance exercise test for back squats using 75% of their one-repetition maximum. Blood was drawn before and immediately after exercise. EVs were isolated from plasma using size exclusion chromatography and stained with antibodies associated with exosomes (CD63), microvesicles (VAMP3), apoptotic bodies (THSD1), and a marker for skeletal muscle EVs (SGCA). RESULTS: CD63+ EV concentration and proportion of total EVs increased 23% (p=0.006) and 113% (p=0.005) in both sexes. EV mean size declined in men (p=0.020), but not women, suggesting a relative increase in small EVs in men. VAMP3+ EV concentration and proportion of total EVs increased by 93% (p=0.025) and 61% (p=0.030) in men and women, respectively. SGCA+ EV concentration was 69% higher in women compared to men independent of time (p=0.007). Differences were also observed for CD63, VAMP3, and SGCA median fluorescence intensity, suggesting altered surface protein density according to sex and time. There were no significant effects of time or sex on THSD1+ EVs or fluorescence intensity. CONCLUSION: EV profiles, particularly among exosome-associated and muscle-derived EVs, exhibit sex-specific differences in response to resistance exercise which should be further studied to understand their relationship to training adaptations.
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2022
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Surface-engineered extracellular vesicles for targeted delivery of therapeutic RNAs and peptides for cancer therapy
The advent of novel therapeutics in recent years has urged the need for a safe, non-immunogenic drug delivery vector capable of delivering therapeutic payloads specifically to diseased cells, thereby increasing therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have garnered attention in recent years as a potentially ideal vector for drug delivery, taking into account their intrinsic ability to transfer bioactive cargo to recipient cells and their biocompatible nature. However, natural EVs are limited in their therapeutic potential and many challenges need to be overcome before engineered EVs satisfy the levels of efficiency, stability, safety and biocompatibility required for therapeutic use. Here, we demonstrate that an enzyme-mediated surface functionalization method in combination with streptavidin-mediated conjugation results in efficient surface functionalization of EVs. Surface functionalization using the above methods permits the stable and biocompatible conjugation of peptides, single domain antibodies and monoclonal antibodies at high copy number on the EV surface. Functionalized EVs demonstrated increased accumulation in target cells expressing common cancer associated markers such as CXCR4, EGFR and EpCAM both in vitro and in vivo. The functionality of this approach was further highlighted by the ability of targeting EVs to specifically deliver therapeutic antisense oligonucleotides to a metastatic breast tumor model, resulting in increased knockdown of a targeted oncogenic microRNA and improved metastasis suppression. The method was also used to equip EVs with a bifunctional peptide that targets EVs to leukemia cells and induces apoptosis, leading to leukemia suppression. Moreover, we conducted extensive testing to verify the biocompatibility, and safety of engineered EVs for therapeutic use, suggesting that surface modified EVs can be used for repeated dose treatment with no detectable adverse effects. This modular, biocompatible method of EV engineering offers a promising avenue for the targeted delivery of a range of therapeutics while addressing some of the safety concerns associated with EV-based drug delivery.
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2022
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Identification of storage conditions stabilizing extracellular vesicles preparations
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a key role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes and hold great potential for therapeutic and diagnostic use. Despite significant advances within the last decade, the key issue of EV storage stability remains unresolved and under investigated. Here, we aimed to identify storage conditions stabilizing EVs and comprehensively compared the impact of various storage buffer formulations at different temperatures on EVs derived from different cellular sources for up to 2 years. EV features including concentration, diameter, surface protein profile and nucleic acid contents were assessed by complementary methods, and engineered EVs containing fluorophores or functionalized surface proteins were utilized to compare cellular uptake and ligand binding. We show that storing EVs in PBS over time leads to drastically reduced recovery particularly for pure EV samples at all temperatures tested, starting already within days. We further report that using PBS as diluent was found to result in severely reduced EV recovery rates already within minutes. Several of the tested new buffer conditions largely prevented the observed effects, the lead candidate being PBS supplemented with human albumin and trehalose (PBSHAT). We report that PBS-HAT buffer facilitates clearly improved short-term and long-term EV preservation for samples stored at -80◦C, stability throughout several freeze-thaw cycles, and drastically improved EV recovery when using a diluent for EV samples for downstream applications.
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicles as mediators of flavonoid effects -Impact of flavanone metabolites on postprandial endothelial EVs and their miRNA content endothelial EVs and their miRNA content
Objectives/background: Recurrent alteration of metabolism in the postprandial phase due to high food intake or unbalanced diet has been identified as a risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Among the physiological modifications occurring after a meal, the postprandial release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been poorly investigated. EVs are shed membrane particles of less than 1µm in diameter that convey proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. These structures constitute a hot topic in biology as potential health biomarkers and as actors of cell-to-cell communication. Some rare studies have demonstrated that dietary polyphenols lowered the release of EVs associated to vascular disorders. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of polyphenols on the secretion, the content and the biological function of postprandial EVs. The objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of flavanone metabolites on postprandial endothelial EVs and their miRNA content. Materials/Methods: EVs were isolated from medium of human aortic endothelial cells incubated in basal condition or post-prandial-like condition including or not a physiologically relevant mix of hesperidin metabolites. EVs were characterized (size, concentration) by a tunable resistive pulse sensing method and phenotyped by immuno-staining coupled with electronic microscopy. EV miRNA content was assessed by microarray. Results/Findings: The physiologically relevant mix of hesperidin metabolites decreased the release of endothelial EVs associated to the postprandial stimulation, without any change of EV size distribution. EV miRNA content differed intensively between basal and post-prandial-like conditions. We observed that hesperidin metabolites mix reversed miRNA profile changes produced by the postprandial stimulation. The computational enrichment analysis of these EV miRNA profiles suggest huge potential biological functions for these vesicles. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that flavanone metabolites modulate the secretion and the miRNA content of stimulated postprandial endothelial EVs. This support the capacity of flavanone metabolites to counteract EV-mediated detrimental effects of a postprandial.
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2022
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Overview and Update on Extracellular Vesicles: Considerations on Exosomes and Their Application in Modern Medicine
In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the knowledge of cell-secreted extracellular vesicle functions. They are membrane enclosed and loaded with proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules. After being released into the extracellular environment, some of these vesicles are delivered to recipient cells; consequently, the target cell may undergo physiological or pathological changes. Thus, extracellular vesicles as biological nano-carriers, have a pivotal role in facilitating long-distance intercellular communication. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate this communication process is important not only for basic science but also in medicine. Indeed, extracellular vesicles are currently seen with immense interest in nanomedicine and precision medicine for their potential use in diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. This paper aims to summarize the latest advances in the study of the smallest subtype among extracellular vesicles, the exosomes. The article is divided into several sections, focusing on exosomes’ nature, characteristics, and commonly used strategies and methodologies for their separation, characterization, and visualization. By searching an extended portion of the relevant literature, this work aims to give a quick outline of advances in exosomes’ extensive nanomedical applications. Moreover, considerations that require further investigations before translating them to clinical applications are summarized.
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2022
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Preconditioning Methods to Improve Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Regeneration—A Systematic Review
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have long been used in research for bone regeneration, with evidence of their beneficial properties. In the segmental area ofMSC-based therapies,MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also shown great therapeutic effects in several diseases, including bone healing. This study aimed to assess whether the conditioning ofMSCs improves the therapeutic effects of their derived extracellular vesicles for bone egeneration. Electronic research was performed until February 2021 to recover the studies in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, andWeb of Science. The studies were screened based on the inclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted, including in vitro and in vivo experiments, and the animal studies were evaluated for risk of bias by the SYRCLE tool. A total of 463 studies were retrieved, and 18 studies met the inclusion criteria (10 studies for their in vitro analysis, and 8 studies for their in vitro and in vivo analysis). The conditioning methods reported included: osteogenic medium; dimethyloxalylglycine; dexamethasone; strontium-substituted calcium silicate; hypoxia; 3D mechanical microenvironment; and the overexpression of miR-375, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and mutant hypoxia-inducible factor-1 . The conditioning methods ofMSCs in the reported studies generate exosomes able to significantly promote bone regeneration. However, heterogeneity regarding cell source, conditioning method, EV isolation and concentration, and defect model was observed among the studies. The different conditioning methods reported in this review do improve the therapeutic effects ofMSC-derived EVs for bone regeneration, but they still need to be addressed in larger animal models for further clinical application.
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2022
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Single Gene Mutations in Pkd1 or Tsc2 Alter Extracellular Vesicle Production and Trafficking
Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are born with normal or near-normal kidneys that later develop cysts and prematurely lose function. Both renal cystic diseases appear to be mediated, at least in part, by disease-promoting extracellular vesicles (EVs) that induce genetically intact cells to participate in the renal disease process. We used centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography to isolate the EVs for study. We characterized the EVs using tunable resistive pulse sensing, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. We performed EV trafficking studies using a dye approach in both tissue culture and in vivo studies. We have previously reported that loss of the Tsc2 gene significantly increased EV production and here demonstrate that the loss of the Pkd1 gene also significantly increases EV production. Using a cell culture system, we also show that loss of either the Tsc2 or Pkd1 gene results in EVs that exhibit an enhanced uptake by renal epithelial cells and a prolonged half-life. Loss of the primary cilia significantly reduces EV production in renal collecting duct cells. Cells that have a disrupted Pkd1 gene produce EVs that have altered kinetics and a prolonged half-life, possibly impacting the duration of the EV cargo effect on the recipient cell. These results demonstrate the interplay between primary cilia and EVs and support a role for EVs in polycystic kidney disease pathogenesis.
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2022
vr
Anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 effect of extracellular vesicles released from mesenchymal stem cells
As of 10 December 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by SARS‐CoV‐2 accounted for 267 million people with up to 5.3 million deaths worldwide (https://covid19.who.int). Since late 2019, much progress has been made in response to the COVID‐19 pandemic, including the rapid developments of effective vaccines and the treatment guidelines consisting of antiviral drugs, immunomodulators, and critical care support (https://covid19.who.int). However, SARS‐CoV‐2 evolves over time as its genome has a high mutation rate that leads to reasonable concerns of breakthrough infection due to immune escape and resistant strain emergence under antiviral pressure (Lipsitch et al., 2021; Szemiel et al., 2021). A newly emerging Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant rings alarms around the globe that, perhaps, the COVID‐19 war has just begun. Relentless efforts should be made to advance our knowledge and treatment regimens against COVID‐19. These included studies of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy that aimed to mitigate cytokine storm and promote tissue repair in severely ill patients with COVID‐19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (Hashemian et al., 2021; Meng et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2021). Nevertheless, as extensively discussed in a recent review by Dr. Phillip W. Askenase of Yale University School of Medicine, the immunomodulatory and regenerative effects of MSC therapy are mediated through MSC‐derived extracellular vesicles (MSC‐EVs) (Askenase, 2020), while the use of MSC‐EVs has less safety concerns of thromboembolism, arrhythmia and malignant transformation. In this direction, MSC‐EV investigations for COVID‐19 treatment would be more appealing and undeniable if MSC‐EVs also exhibit anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 effects. A previous study revealed that MSC‐EVs pertained antiviral activity against influenza virus in a preclinical model (Khatri et al., 2018). It is known that MSCs are highly resistant to viral infections (Wu et al., 2018), including SARS‐CoV‐2 (Avanzini et al., 2021). We, therefore, hypothesized that the EVs released from MSCs could inhibit SARS‐CoV‐2 infection.
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2022
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Human corneal stromal stem cells express anti-fibrotic microRNA-29a and 381-5p – A robust cell selection tool for stem cell therapy of corneal scarring
Introduction Corneal blindness due to scarring is treated with corneal transplantation. However, a global problem is the donor material shortage. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that cell-based therapy using corneal stromal stem cells (CSSCs) suppresses corneal scarring, potentially mediated by specific microRNAs transported in extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, not every CSSC batch from donors achieves similar anti-scarring effects. Purpose To examine miRNA profiles in EVs from human CSSCs showing “healing” versus “non-healing” effects on corneal scarring and to design a tool to select CSSCs with strong healing potency for clinical applications. Methods Small RNAs from CSSC-EVs were extracted for Nanostring nCounter Human miRNA v3 assay. MicroRNAs expressed > 20 folds in “healing” EVs (P < 0.05) were subject to enriched gene ontology (GO) term analysis. MiRNA groups with predictive regulation on inflammatory and fibrotic signalling were studied by mimic transfection to (1) mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) for M1 phenotype assay; (2) human corneal keratocytes for cytokine-induced fibrosis, and (3) human CSSCs for corneal scar prevention in vivo. The expression of miR-29a was screened in additional CSSC batches and the anti-scarring effect of cells was validated in mouse corneal wounds. Results Twenty-one miRNAs were significantly expressed in “healing” CSSC-EVs and 9 miRNA groups were predicted to associate with inflammatory and fibrotic responses, and tissue regeneration (P <10−6). Overexpression of miR-29a and 381-5p significantly prevented M1 phenotype transition in RAW264.7 cells after lipopolysaccharide treatment, suppressed transforming growth factor β1-induced fibrosis marker expression in keratocytes, and reduced scarring after corneal injury. High miR-29a expression in EV fractions distinguished human CSSCs with strong healing potency, which inhibited corneal scarring in vivo. Conclusion We characterized the anti-inflammatory and fibrotic roles of miR-29a and 381-5p in CSSCs, contributing to scar prevention. MiR-29a expression in EVs distinguished CSSCs with anti-scarring quality, identifying good quality cells for a scarless corneal healing.
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2022
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Unveiling the Native Morphology of Extracellular Vesicles from Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by Atomic Force and Cryogenic Electron Microscopy
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures in biofluids with enormous diagnostic/prognostic potential for application in liquid biopsies. Any such downstream application requires a detailed characterization of EV concentration, size and morphology. This study aimed to observe the native morphology of EVs in human cerebrospinal fluid after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, they were separated by gravity-driven size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The enrichment of EVs in early SEC fractions was confirmed by immunoblot for transmembrane proteins CD9 and CD81. These fractions were then pooled, and the concentration and particle size distribution were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (around 1010 particles/mL, mode 100 nm) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (around 109 particles/mL, mode 150 nm). Liquid AFM and cryo-TEM investigations showed mode sizes of about 60 and 90 nm, respectively, and various morphology features. AFM revealed round, concave, multilobed EV structures; and cryo-TEM identified single, double and multi-membrane EVs. By combining AFM for the surface morphology investigation and cryo-TEM for internal structure differentiation, EV morphological subpopulations in cerebrospinal fluid could be identified. These subpopulations should be further investigated because they could have different biological functions.
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2022
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Immunization with a bicistronic DNA vaccine modulates systemic IFN-γ and IL-10 expression against Vibrio cholerae infection
Introduction. Cholera is an acute enteric infection caused by Vibrio cholerae , particularly in areas lacking access to clean water. Despite the global effort to improve water quality in these regions, the burden of cholera in recent years has not yet declined. Interest has therefore extended in the use of bicistronic DNA vaccine encoding ctxB and tcpA genes of V. cholerae as a potential vaccine. Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The potential of a bicistronic DNA vaccine, pVAX-ctxB-tcpA has not been determined in vitro and in vivo. Aim. The goal of present study was to evaluate in vitro expression and in vivo potential of pVAX-ctxB-tcpA vaccine against V. cholerae . Methodology. The pVAX-ctxB-tcpA was transiently transfected into mammalian COS-7 cells, and the in vitro expression was assessed using fluorescence and Western blot analyses. Next, the vaccine was encapsulated into sodium alginate using water-in-oil emulsification and evaluated for its efficiency in different pH conditions. Subsequently, oral vaccination using en(pVAX-ctxB-tcpA) was performed in vivo. The animals were challenged with V. cholerae O1 El Tor after 2 weeks of vaccination using the Removable Intestinal Tie-Adult Rabbit Diarrhoea (RITARD) model. Following the infection challenge, the rabbits were monitored for evidence of symptoms, and analysed for systemic cytokine expression level (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. The in vitro expression of pVAX-ctxB-tcpA was successfully verified via fluorescence and Western blot analyses. Meanwhile, in vivo analysis demonstrated that the en(pVAX-ctxB-tcpA) was able to protect the RITARD model against V. cholerae infection due to a lack of evidence on the clinical manifestations of cholera following bacterial challenge. Furthermore, the bicistronic group showed an upregulation of systemic IFN-γ and IL-10 following 12 days of vaccination, though not significant, suggesting the possible activation of both T-helper 1 and 2 types of response. However, upon bacterial challenge, the gene expression of all cytokines did not change. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the bicistronic plasmid DNA vaccine, pVAX-ctxB-tcpA, showed a potential role in inducing immune response against cholera through upregulation of in vitro gene and protein expression as well as in vivo cytokine gene expression, particularly IFN-γ and IL-10.
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2022
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A Comparison of Blood Plasma Small Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment Strategies for Proteomic Analysis
Proteomic analysis of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) poses a significant challenge. A ‘gold-standard’ method for plasma sEV enrichment for downstream proteomic analysis is yet to be established. Methods were evaluated for their capacity to successfully isolate and enrich sEVs from plasma, minimise the presence of highly abundant plasma proteins, and result in the optimum representation of sEV proteins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma from four cattle (Bos taurus) of similar physical attributes and genetics were used. Three methods of sEV enrichment were utilised: ultracentrifugation (UC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and ultrafiltration (UF). These methods were combined to create four groups for methodological evaluation: UC + SEC, UC + SEC + UF, SEC + UC and SEC + UF. The UC + SEC method yielded the highest number of protein identifications (IDs). The SEC + UC method reduced plasma protein IDs compared to the other methods, but also resulted in the lowest number of protein IDs overall. The UC + SEC + UF method decreased sEV protein ID, particle number, mean and mode particle size, particle yield, and did not improve purity compared to the UC + SEC method. In this study, the UC + SEC method was the best method for sEV protein ID, purity, and overall particle yield. Our data suggest that the method and sequence of sEV enrichment strategy impacts protein ID, which may influence the outcome of biomarker discovery studies.
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2022
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Bioengineered 3D tissue model of intestine epithelium with oxygen gradients to sustain human gut microbiome
The human gut microbiome is crucial to host physiology and health. Therefore, stable in vitro coculture of primary human intestinal cells with a microbiome community is essential for understanding intestinal disease progression and revealing novel therapeutic targets. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold system to regenerate an in vitro human intestinal epithelium that recapitulates many functional characteristics of the in vivo small intestine. The epithelium, derived from human intestinal enteroids, contains mature intestinal epithelial cell types and possesses selectively permeable barrier functions. Importantly, by properly positioning the scaffolds cultured under normal atmospheric conditions, two physiologically relevant oxygen gradients, a proximal-to-distal oxygen gradient along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a radial oxygen gradient across the epithelium, were distinguished in the tissues when the lumens were faced up and down in cultures, respectively. Furthermore, the presence of the low oxygen gradients supported the coculture of intestinal epithelial cells along with a complex living commensal gut microbiome (including obligate anaerobes) to simulate temporal microbiome dynamics in the native human gut. This unique silk scaffold platform may enable the exploration of microbiota-related mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and host-pathogen dynamics in infectious diseases including the potential to explore the human microbiome-gut-brain axis and potential novel microbiome-based therapeutics.
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2022
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Citrus limon L.-Derived Nanovesicles Show an Inhibitory Effect on Cell Growth in p53-Inactivated Colorectal Cancer Cells via the Macropinocytosis Pathway
Edible plant-derived nanovesicles have been explored as effective materials for preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, dependent on gene status, as a K-Ras-activating mutation via the macropinocytosis pathway. Approximately 70% of CRC harbors the p53 mutation, which is strongly associated with a poor prognosis for CRC. However, it has not been revealed whether p53 inactivation activates the macropinocytosis pathway or not. In this study, we investigated parental cells, wild-type or null for p53 treated with Citrus limon L.-derived nanovesicles, as potential materials for CRC prevention. Using ultracentrifugation, we obtained C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles, the diameters of which were approximately 100 nm, similar to that of the exosomes derived from mammalian cells. C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles showed inhibitory effects on cell growth in not p53-wild, but also in p53-inactivated CRC cells. Furthermore, we revealed that the macropinocytosis pathway is activated by p53 inactivation and C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles were up taken via the macropinocytosis pathway. Notably, although C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles contained citrate, the inhibitory effects of citrate were not dependent on the p53 status. We thus provide a novel mechanism for the growth inhibition of C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles via macropinocytosis and expect to develop a functional food product containing them for preventing p53-inactivation CRC incidence.
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2022
Benchmarking a Microfluidic-Based Filtration for Isolating Biological Particles
Isolating particles from complex fluids is a crucial approach in multiple fields including biomedicine. In particular, biological matrices contain a myriad of distinct particles with different sizes and structures. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), for instance, are nanosized particles carrying vital information from donor to recipient cells, and they have garnered significant impact on disease diagnostics, drug delivery, and theranostics applications. Among all the EV types, exosome particles are one of the smallest entities, sizing from 30 to 100 nm. Separating such small substances from a complex media such as tissue culture and serum is still one of the most challenging steps in this field. Membrane filtration is one of the convenient approaches for these operations; yet clogging, low-recovery, and high fouling are still major obstacles. In this study, we design a two-filter-integrated microfluidic device focusing on dead-end and cross-flow processes at the same time, thereby minimizing any interfering factors on the recovery. The design of this platform is also numerically assessed to understand pressure-drop and flow rate effects over the procedure. As a model, we isolate exosome particles from human embryonic kidney cells cultured in different conditions, which also mimic complex fluids such as serum. Moreover, by altering the flow direction, we refresh the membranes for minimizing clogging issues and benchmark the platform performance for multitime use. By comprehensively analyzing the design and operation parameters of this platform, we address the aforementioned existing barriers in the recovery, clogging, and fouling factors, thereby achieving the use of a microfluidic device multiple times for bio-nanoparticle isolation without any notable issues.
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2022
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The impact of storage on extracellular vesicles: A systematic study
Mounting evidence suggests that storage has an impact on extracellular vesicles (EVs) properties. While −80◦C storage is a widespread approach, some authors proposed improved storage strategies with conflicting results. Here, we designed a systematic study to assess the impact of −80◦C storage and freeze-thaw cycles on EVs. We tested the differences among eight storage strategies and investigated the possible fusion phenomena occurring during storage. EVs were collected from human plasma and murine microglia culture by size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation, respectively. The analysis included: concentration, size and zeta potential (tunable resistive pulse sensing), contaminant protein assessment; flow cytometry for the analysis of two single fluorescent-tagged EVs populations (GFP and mCherry), mixed before preservation. We found that −80◦C storage reduces EVs concentration and sample purity in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, it increases the particle size and size variability and modifies EVs zeta potential, with a shift of EVs in sizecharge plots. None of the tested conditions prevented the observed effects. Freezethaw cycles lead to an EVs reduction after the first cycle and to a cycle-dependent increase in particle size. With flow cytometry, after storage, we observed a significant population of double-positive EVs (GFP+-mCherry+). This observation may suggest the occurrence of fusion phenomena during storage. Our findings show a significant impact of storage on EVs samples in terms of particle loss, purity reduction and fusion phenomena leading to artefactual particles. Depending on downstream analyses and experimental settings, EVs should probably be processed from fresh, non-archival, samples in majority of cases.
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2022
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Weekly treatment with SAMiRNA targeting the androgen receptor ameliorates androgenetic alopecia
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men and women. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen receptor (AR) levels are increased in patients with AGA, and DHT-AR signaling correlates strongly with AGA pathogenesis. In this study, treatment with self-assembled micelle inhibitory RNA (SAMiRNA) nanoparticle-type siRNA selectively suppressed AR expression in vitro. Clinical studies with application of SAMiRNA to the scalp and massaging to deliver it to the hair follicle confirmed its efficacy in AGA. For identification of a potent SAMiRNA for AR silencing, 547 SAMiRNA candidates were synthesized and screened. SAMiRNA-AR68 (AR68) was the most potent and could be efficiently delivered to human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) and hair follicles, and this treatment decreased the AR mRNA and protein levels. We confirmed that 10 µM AR68 elicits no innate immune response in human PBMCs and no cytotoxicity up to 20 µM with HFDP and HaCaT cells. Clinical studies were performed in a randomized and double-blind manner with two different doses and frequencies. In the low-dose (0.5 mg/ml) clinical study, AR68 was applied three times per week for 24 weeks, and through quantitative analysis using a phototrichogram, we confirmed increases in total hair counts. In the high-dose (5 mg/ml) clinical study, AR68 was given once per week for 24 weeks and showed 83% efficacy in increasing hair counts compared with finasteride. No side effects were observed. Therefore, SAMiRNA targeting AR mRNA is a potential novel topical treatment for AGA.
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2022
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Extracellular vesicles derived from human Sertoli cells: characterizations, proteomic analysis, and miRNA profiling
Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain thousands of proteins and nucleic acids, playing an important role in cell–cell communications. Sertoli cells have been essential in the testis as a “nurse cell”. However, EVs derived from human Sertoli cells (HSerCs) have not been well investigated. Methods EVs were isolated from HSerCs via ultracentrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, tunable resistive pulse sensing, and Western blotting. The cargo carried by HSerCs-EVs was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and GeneChip miRNA Arrays. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to reveal potential functions of HSerCs-EVs. Results A total of 860 proteins with no less than 2 unique peptides and 88 microRNAs with high signal values were identified in HSerCs-EVs. Biological processes related to molecular binding, enzyme activity, and regulation of cell cycle were significantly enriched. Specifically, many proteins in HSerCs-EVs were associated with spermatogenesis and regulation of immune system, including Septins, Large proline-rich protein BAG6, Clusterin, and Galectin-1. Moreover, abundant microRNAs within HSerCs-EVs (miR-638, miR-149-3p, miR-1246, etc.) had a possible impact on male reproductive disorders such as asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia. Conclusions Our study has shown that HSerCs-EVs contain diverse components such as proteins and microRNAs. Further research is required to evaluate HSerCs-EVs in spermatogenesis, which are underutilized but highly potent resources with particular promise for male infertility.
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2022
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Neuron-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Antidepressant Response
Background Previous work has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) change as a function of antidepressant treatment (ADT) response. However, it is unclear how representative these peripherally detected miRNA changes are to those occurring in the brain. Our goal was to use peripherally extracted neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEV) to investigate neuronal miRNA changes associated with antidepressant response. Methods Samples were collected at two time points (baseline and after 8 weeks of follow-up) from depressed patients who responded (N=20) and did not respond (N=20) to escitalopram treatment, as well as controls (N=20). Total extracellular vesicles (EVs) were extracted from plasma, and then further enriched for NDEV by immunoprecipitation with L1CAM. EV size was measured using tunable resistive pulse sensing, and exosomal miRNA cargo was extracted and sequenced. Subsequently, studies in cell lines and postmortem tissue were conducted. Results Characterization of NDEVs revealed they were smaller than other EVs isolated from plasma (p<0.0001), had brain-specific neuronal markers, and contained miRNAs enriched for brain functions (p<0.0001) Furthermore, NDEVs from depressed patients were smaller than controls (p<0.05), and NDEV size increased with ADT response (p<0.01). Finally, changes in NDEV cargo, specifically changes in miR-21-5p, miR-30d-5p and miR-486-5p together (p<0.01), were associated with ADT response. Targets of these three miRNAs were altered in brain tissue from depressed individuals (p<0.05). Conclusions Together, this study indicates that changes in peripherally isolated NDEV can act as both a clinically accessible and informative biomarker of ADT response specifically through size and cargo.
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2022
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Characterizing Extracellular Vesicles and Particles Derived from Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and Myotubes and the Effect of Acute Contractile Activity
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), released from all cells, are essential to cellular communication and contain biomolecular cargo that can affect recipient cell function. Studies on the effects of contractile activity (exercise) on EVs usually rely on plasma/serum-based assessments, which contain EVs from many different cells. To specifically characterize skeletal muscle–derived vesicles and the effect of acute contractile activity, we used an in vitro model where C2C12 mouse myoblasts were differentiated to form myotubes. EVs were isolated from conditioned media from muscle cells at pre-differentiation (myoblasts) and post-differentiation (myotubes) and also from acutely stimulated myotubes (1 h @ 14 V, C-Pace EM, IonOptix, Westwood, MA, USA) using total exosome isolation reagent (TEI, ThermoFisher (Waltham, MA, USA), referred to as extracellular particles [EPs]) and differential ultracentrifugation (dUC; EVs). Myotube-EPs (~98 nm) were 41% smaller than myoblast-EPs (~167 nm, p < 0.001, n = 8–10). Two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effect for the size distribution of myotube vs. myoblast-EPs (p < 0.01, n = 10–13). In comparison, myoblast-EPs displayed a bimodal size distribution profile with peaks at <200 nm and 400–600, whereas myotube-Eps were largely 50–300 nm in size. Total protein yield from myotube-EPs was nearly 15-fold higher than from the myoblast-EPs, (p < 0.001 n = 6–9). Similar biophysical characteristics were observed when EVs were isolated using dUC: myotube-EVs (~195 nm) remained 41% smaller in average size than myoblast-EVs (~330 nm, p = 0.07, n = 4–6) and had comparable size distribution profiles to EPs isolated via TEI. Myotube-EVs also had 4.7-fold higher protein yield vs. myoblast EVs (p < 0.05, n = 4–6). Myotube-EPs exhibited significantly decreased expression of exosomal marker proteins TSG101, CD63, ALIX and CD81 compared with myoblast-EPs (p < 0.05, n = 7–12). Conversely, microvesicle marker ARF6 and lipoprotein marker APO-A1 were only found in the myotube-EPs (p < 0.05, n = 4–12). There was no effect of acute stimulation on myotube-EP biophysical characteristics (n = 7) or on the expression of TSG101, ARF6 or CD81 (n = 5–6). Myoblasts treated with control or acute stimulation–derived EPs (13 g/well) for 48 h and 72 h showed no changes in mitochondrial mass (MitoTracker Red, ThermoFisher,Waltham, MA, USA), cell viability or cell count (n = 3–4). Myoblasts treated with EP-depleted media (72 h) exhibited ~90% lower cell counts (p < 0.01, n = 3). Our data show that EVs differed in size, distribution, protein yield and expression of subtype markers pre vs. post skeletal muscle–differentiation into myotubes. There was no effect of acute stimulation on biophysical profile or protein markers in EPs. Acute stimulation–derived EPs did not alter mitochondrial mass or cell count/viability. Further investigation into the effects ofchronic contractile activity on the biophysical characteristics and cargo of skeletal muscle–specific EVs are warranted.
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2022
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Antimicrobial potential of probiotic cell-free and Carum copticum L. seed extracts co-nanoencapsulated in cellulose acetate fibers
The aim of this work was to co-nanoencapsulate Lactobacillus acidophilus (LCFE) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (BCFE) cell-free extract and zenyan (Carum copticum L.) seed water (ZWE) and ethanolic (ZEE) extract in electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers and evaluate antimicrobial potential. The zeta potential, SEM image, antibacterial (MIC and MBC), and antifungal (MIC and MFC) activities were evaluated. TPC (total phenol content) of water and ethanol extract of zenyan seed were 14.05 and 136.44 mg GAE/g, respectively. A zeta potential of −40.25, −45.80, −43.71, 48.55, 35.50, 47.93, 31.50, 44.69, and −29.61 mV was found for nanofibers of pure CA (cellulose acetate), CA/LCFE, CA/BCFE, CA/ZWE, CA/ZEE, CA/LCFE/ZWE, CA/LCFE/ ZEE, CA/BCFE/ZWE, and CA/LCFE/ZEE, respectively. CA electrospun nanofiber loaded with different extracts showed nanosized diameter and uniform structure. Nanoencapsulated extracts showed considerably higher antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to free extracts. Antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cell-free extract was higher than bifidobacteria, which indicated the presence of the higher amount of antibacterial compounds in lactobacilli extract. Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes) had the lowest MIC and MBC of free and nanoencapsulated extracts while Gram-negatives (E. coli, S. dysenteriae, and S. enteritidis) had higher MIC and MBC. CA-coated zenyan extracts (water and ethanolic) inhibited the growth of the assayed fungi at the MIC ranging 0.25 to 0.95%. These concentrations were 1.5–2 times lower than those obtained for pure extracts. For nanoencapsulated cellfree extracts of both probiotics, the MIC values were about five times lower than the free extracts. The highest antimicrobial activity obtained for CA nanofibers contained zenyan ethanolic extract and cell-free extract of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria.
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2022
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Methodology to Detect Biological Particles Using a Biosensing Surface Integrated in Resistive Pulse Sensing
Resistive pulse sensing (RPS) is an analytical method that can be used to individually count particles from a small sample. RPS simply monitors the physical characteristics of particles, such as size, shape, and charge density, and the integration of RPS with biosensing is an attractive theme to detect biological particles such as virus and bacteria. In this report, a methodology of biosensing on RPS was investigated. Polydopamine (PD), an adhesive component of mussels, was used as the base material to create a sensing surface. PD adheres to most materials, such as noble metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers; as a result, PD is a versatile intermediate layer for the fabrication of a biosensing surface. As an example of a biological particle, human influenza A virus (H1N1 subtype) was used to monitor translocation of particles through the pore membrane. When virus-specific ligands (6′-sialyllactose) were immobilized on the pore surface, the translocation time of the virus particles was considerably extended. The detailed translocation data suggest that the viral particles were trapped on the sensing surface by specific interactions. In addition, virus translocation processes on different pore surfaces were distinguished using machine learning. The result shows that the simple and versatile PD-based biosensor surface design was effective. This advanced RPS measurement system could be a promising analytical technique.
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2022
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Modified Bovine Milk Exosomes for Doxorubicin Delivery to Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Biological nanoparticles, such as exosomes, offer an approach to drug delivery because of their innate ability to transport biomolecules. Exosomes are derived from cells and an integral component of cellular communication. However, the cellular cargo of human exosomes could negatively impact their use as a safe drug carrier. Additionally, exosomes have the intrinsic yet enigmatic, targeting characteristics of complex cellular communication. Hence, harnessing the natural transport abilities of exosomes for drug delivery requires predictably targeting these biological nanoparticles. This manuscript describes the use of two chemical modifications, incorporating a neuropilin receptor agonist peptide (iRGD) and a hypoxia-responsive lipid for targeting and release of an encapsulated drug from bovine milk exosomes to triple-negative breast cancer cells. Triple-negative breast cancer is a very aggressive and deadly form of malignancy with limited treatment options. Incorporation of both the iRGD peptide and hypoxia-responsive lipid into the lipid bilayer of bovine milk exosomes and encapsulation of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin, created the peptide targeted, hypoxia-responsive bovine milk exosomes, iDHRX. Initial studies confirmed the presence of iRGD peptide and the exosomes’ ability to target the αvβ3 integrin, overexpressed on triple-negative breast cancer cells’ surface. These modified exosomes were stable under normoxic conditions but fragmented in the reducing microenvironment created by 10 mM glutathione. In vitro cellular internalization studies in monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) spheroids of triple-negative breast cancer cells confirmed the cell-killing ability of iDHRX. Cell viability of 50% was reached at 10 μM iDHRX in the 3D spheroid models using four different triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Overall, the tumor penetrating, hypoxia-responsive exosomes encapsulating doxorubicin would be effective in reducing triple-negative breast cancer cells’ survival.
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2022
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Erythrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles aggravate inflammation by promoting the proinflammatory macrophage phenotype through TLR4–MyD88–NF-κB–MAPK pathway
Transfusion of stored erythrocytes is associated with the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critical infections, but the mechanism is incompletely understood. Previous studies have suggested that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be potential risk factors for the occurrence of transfusion-related immunomodulation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of RBC-derived EVs under inflammatory conditions and explore the underlying mechanisms. In vivo, the activity of EVs was evaluated in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Our results showed that EVs significantly aggravated the inflammatory response to sepsis in serum and lung tissue by promoting the production of the proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and reduced the survival rate of septic mice in vivo. Importantly, adoptive transfer of EVs-pretreated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) obviously aggravated systemic proinflammatory factors in mice after CLP surgery. In vitro, the proinflammatory properties of EVs were shown to elevate TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDMs. Moreover, EVs promoted LPS-induced macrophage polarization into a proinflammatory phenotype. The underlying mechanism might involve EV-mediated up-regulation of TLR4–MyD88–NF-κB–MAPK activity to favor macrophage cytokine production.
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2022
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A functional corona around extracellular vesicles enhances angiogenesis, skin regeneration and immunomodulation
Nanoparticles can acquire a plasma protein corona defining their biological identity. Corona functions were previously considered for cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here we demonstrate that nano-sized EVs from therapy-grade human placental-expanded (PLX) stromal cells are surrounded by an imageable and functional protein corona when enriched with permissive technology. Scalable EV separation from cell-secreted soluble factors via tangential flow-filtration (TFF) and subtractive tandem mass-tag (TMT) proteomics revealed significant enrichment of predominantly immunomodulatory and proangiogenic proteins. Western blot, calceinbased flow cytometry, super-resolution and electron microscopy verified EV identity. PLX-EVs partly protected corona proteins from protease digestion. EVs significantly ameliorated human skin regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo, induced differential signalling in immune cells, and dose-dependently inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro. Corona removal by size-exclusion or ultracentrifugation abrogated angiogenesis. Re-establishing an artificial corona by cloaking EVs with fluorescent albumin as a model protein or defined proangiogenic factors was depicted by superresolution microscopy, electron microscopy and zeta-potential shift, and served as a proof-of-concept. Understanding EV corona formation will improve rational EVinspired nano-therapy design.
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2022
Cardioprotective effect of extracellular vesicles derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocyte on hyperglycemic cardiomyocytes through alleviation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in diabetes mellitus (DM) via connecting the immune cell response to tissue injury, besides stimulation to muscle insulin resistance, while DM is associated with increased risks for major cardiovascular complications. Under DM, chronic hyperglycemia, and subsequent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) further lead to cardiac growth remodeling and dysfunction. The purinergic drug ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Although it is widely used in cardioprotection, the underlying molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly elucidated. Here, we aimed to understand how ticagrelor exerts its cardio-regulatory effects. For this purpose, we investigated the anti-oxidative and cardioprotective effect of EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated cardiomyocytes under DM conditions. To mimic DM in cardiomyocytes, we used high glucose incubated H9c2-cells (HG). HG cells were treated with EVs, which were derived from either ticagrelor-pretreated or untreated H9c2-cells. Our results demonstrated that ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-derived EVs significantly decreased the hyperglycemia-induced aberrant ROS production, prevented the development of apoptosis and ER stress, and alleviated oxidative stress associated miRNA-expression profile. Importantly, EVs derived from ticagrelor-pretreated H9c2-cells enhanced endothelial cell migration and tube formation, suggesting a modulation of the EV profile in cardiomyocytes. Our data, for the first time, indicate that ticagrelor can exert an important regulatory effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy through extracellular vesicular modulation behind its receptor-inhibition-related effects.
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2022
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Bioanalytics for Influenza Virus-Like Particle Characterization and Process Monitoring
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are excellent platforms for the development of influenza vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, their characterization is challenging due to VLPs’ unique biophysical and biochemical properties. To cope with such complexity, multiple analytical techniques have been developed to date (e.g., single-particle analysis, thermal stability, or quantification assays), most of which are rarely used or have been successfully demonstrated for being applicable for virus particle characterization. In this study, several biophysical and biochemical methods have been evaluated for thorough characterization of monovalent and pentavalent influenza VLPs from diverse groups (A and B) and subtypes (H1 and H3) produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS). Particle size distribution and purity profiles were monitored during the purification process using two complementary technologies — nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). VLP surface charge at the selected process pH was also assessed by this last technique. The morphology of the VLP (size, shape, and presence of hemagglutinin spikes) was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Circular dichroism was used to assess VLPs’ thermal stability. Total protein, DNA, and baculovirus content were also assessed. All VLPs analyzed exhibited similar size ranges (90–115 nm for NTA and 129–141 nm for TRPS), surface charges (average of −20.4 mV), and morphology (pleomorphic particles resembling influenza virus) exhibiting the presence of HA molecules (spikes) uniformly displayed on M1 protein scaffold. Our data shows that HA titers and purification efficiency in terms of impurity removal and thermal stability were observed to be particle dependent. This study shows robustness and generic applicability of the tools and methods evaluated, independent of VLP valency and group/subtype. Thus, they are most valuable to assist process development and enhance product characterization.
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicles in Type 1 Diabetes: A Versatile Tool
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting nearly 35 million people. This disease develops as T-cells continually attack the -cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which leads to -cell death, and steadily decreasing secretion of insulin. Lowered levels of insulin minimize the uptake of glucose into cells, thus putting the body in a hyperglycemic state. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease, there is a need for novel developments in the diagnostics and management of type 1 diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bound nanoparticles that contain diverse content from their cell of origin and can be used as a biomarker for both the onset of diabetes and transplantation rejection. Furthermore, vesicles can be loaded with therapeutic cargo and delivered in conjunction with a transplant to increase cell survival and long-term outcomes. Crucially, several studies have linked EVs and their cargos to the progression of type 1 diabetes. As a result, gaining a better understanding of EVs would help researchers better comprehend the utility of EVs in regulating and understanding type 1 diabetes. EVs are a composition of biologically active components such as nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites, and lipids that can be transported to particular cells/tissues through the blood system. Through their varied content, EVs can serve as a flexible aid in the diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes. In this review, we provide an overview of existing knowledge about EVs. We also cover the role of EVs in the pathogenesis, detection, and treatment of type 1 diabetes and the function of EVs in pancreas and islet -cell transplantation.
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2022
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Men and Women Display Distinct Extracellular Vesicle Biomarker Signatures in Response to Military Operational Stress
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of physiological changes that occur during physical exertion. This study examined the effects physical exertion with and without sleep and caloric restriction on EV size, concentration, and surface proteins in men and women. METHODS: Twenty participants (10 men) completed a 5-d simulated military operational stress protocol with daily physical exertion. Blood was drawn before and immediately after exertion at baseline (D1) and following 48-hr of sleep and caloric restriction (D3). EV size and concentration were assessed using nanoparticle tracking analysis. EVs were identified with markers associated with exosomes (CD63), microvesicles (VAMP3), apoptotic bodies (THSD1), and skeletal muscle-derived EVs (SGCA) and quantified using imaging flow cytometry. Interactive and main effects of sex, day, and time on EVs were assessed using three-way ANOVAs. RESULTS: EV concentration declined pre- to post-exertion in women on D1 and D3 but was stable in men. EV size increased from pre- to post-exertion and from D1 to D3 in men and women. Physical exertion following sleep and caloric restriction increased CD63+ EV concentration, proportion of total EVs, and CD63 surface protein expression regardless of sex. The proportion of SGCA+ EVs increased in men and women following exertion and from D1 to D3 but were higher in women than men. No differences were observed in VAMP3+ and THSD1+ EVs. CONCLUSION: This study identified sexually dimorphic EV profiles in response to various stressors. Further investigations are necessary to determine if dimorphic EV responses affect health and performance outcomes during stress.
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2022
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