Preparation of Monodispersed Nanoporous Eu(III)/Titania Loaded with Ibuprofen: Optimum Loading, Luminescence, and Sustained Release

Extracellular Vesicles

Functional nanomaterials are one of the potential carriers for drug delivery, whereas there are many prerequisites for this purpose. The carrier should be monodispersed, be fluorescent, and have a proper nanostructure to keep/release drug molecules to achieve controlled release, although preparing a nanomaterial which fulfills all the demands is still very challenging. In this paper, we show the preparation of monodispersed nanoporous amorphous titania submicron particles with fluorescent property. They adsorb a model drug molecule-ibuprofen-with their surface coverage up to 100%. Such a perfect loading does not decrease the fluorescent intensity because of any quenching effects but even maximize it. We also demonstrate the release behavior of IBU into simulated body fluid. Interestingly, the present carrier releases most of IBU in 6 h, whereas that modified with the polyethylene glycol moiety takes 48 h to finish releasing IBU, indicating its potential for controlled release applications.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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