Panax ginseng-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Facilitate Anti-Senescence Effects in Human Skin Cells: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Way to Use Ginseng Substances
Cho, Eun-Gyung, Suh-Yeon Choi, Hyoseon Kim, Eun-Jeong Choi, Eun-Jeong Lee, Phil-Jun Park, Jaeyoung Ko, Kwang Pyo Kim, and Heung Soo Baek. "Panax ginseng-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Facilitate Anti-Senescence Effects in Human Skin Cells: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Way to Use Ginseng Substances." Cells 10, no. 3 (2021): 486.
Ginseng is a traditional herbal medicine in eastern Asian countries. Most active constituents in ginseng are prepared via fermentation or organic acid pretreatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by most organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and play central roles in intra- and inter-species communications. Plants produce EVs upon exposure to microbes; however, their direct functions and utility for human health are barely known, except for being proposed as delivery vehicles. In this study, we isolated EVs from ginseng roots (GrEVs) or the culture supernatants of ginseng cells (GcEVs) derived from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and investigated their biological effects on human skin cells. GrEV or GcEV treatments improved the replicative senescent or senescence-associated pigmented phenotypes of human dermal fibroblasts or ultraviolet B radiation-treated human melanocytes, respectively, by downregulating senescence-associated molecules and/or melanogenesis-related proteins. Based on comprehensive lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, the lipidomic profile of GrEVs differed from that of the parental root extracts, showing significant increases in 70 of 188 identified lipid species and prominent increases in diacylglycerols, some phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine), and sphingomyelin, revealing their unique vesicular properties. Therefore, our results imply that GEVs represent a novel type of bioactive and sustainable nanomaterials that can be applied to human tissues for improving tissue conditions and targeted delivery of active constituents.View full article