N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-V (GnT-V)-enriched small extracellular vesicles mediate N-glycan remodeling in recipient cells

Extracellular Vesicles

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) secreted from cancer cells play pivotal roles in cancer metastasis and malignancy by transferring biomolecules and conditioning future metastatic sites. Studies have elucidated structures and functions of glycans on sEVs; however, whether sEVs remodel glycans in recipient cells remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the enzyme activity of glycosyltransferases for complex N-glycan biosynthesis in cancer-derived sEVs and discovered that cancer-related glycosyltransferase, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-V (GnT-V, a.k.a. MGAT5), is selectively enriched in sEVs among various glycosyltransferases. GnT-V in sEVs is a cleaved form, and cleavage by SPPL3 protease is necessary for loading GnT-V in sEVs. Fractionation experiments and single-particle imaging further revealed that GnT-V was enriched in non-exosomal sEVs. Strikingly, we found that enzymatically active GnT-V in sEVs was transferred to recipient cells and the N-glycan structures of recipient cells were remodeled to express GnT-V-produced glycans. Our results suggest GnT-V-enriched sEVs’ role in glycan remodeling in cancer metastasis.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.