Exercise-Induced Extracellular Vesicles Delay the Progression of Prostate Cancer

Extracellular Vesicles

Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise not only reduces the risk of cancer but also improves functional capacity, treatment efficacy and disease outcome in cancer patients. At least partially, these effects are mediated by the secretome of the tissues responding to exercise. The secreted molecules can be released in a carrier-free form or enclosed into extracellular vesicles (EVs). Several recent studies have shown that EVs are actively released into circulation during physical exercise. Here, we for the first time investigated the effects of exercise-induced EVs on the progression of cancer in an F344 rat model of metastatic prostate cancer. Although we did not observe a consistent increase in the circulating EV levels, RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated substantial changes in the RNA content of EVs collected before and immediately after forced wheel running exercise as well as differences between EVs from runners at resting state and sedentary rats. The major RNA biotype in EVs was mRNA, followed by miRNA and rRNA. Molecular functions of differentially expressed RNAs reflected various physiological processes including protein folding, metabolism and regulation of immune responses triggered by the exercise in the parental cells. Intravenous administration of exercise-induced EVs into F344 rats with orthotopically injected syngeneic prostate cancer cells PLS10, demonstrated reduction of the primary tumor volume by 35% and possibly-attenuation of lung metastases. Hence, our data provide the first evidence that exercise-induced EVs may modulate tumor physiology and delay the progression of cancer.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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