Comparison of separation methods for immunomodulatory extracellular vesicles from helminths

Extracellular Vesicles

Helminths survive within their host by secreting immunomodulatory compounds, which hold therapeutic potential for inflammatory conditions. Helminth‐derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one such component proposed to possess immunomodulatory activities. Due to the recent discovery of helminth EVs, standardised protocols for EV separation are lacking. Excretory/secretory products of the porcine helminth, Ascaris suum, were used to compare three EV separation methods: Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), ultracentrifugation (UC) and a combination of the two. Their performance was evaluated by EV yield, sample purity and the ability of EVs to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced inflammation in vitro. We found that all three separation methods successfully separated helminth EVs with a similar EV yield. Functional studies showed that EVs from all three methods reduced LPS‐induced levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF‐α) in a dose‐dependent manner. Overall, the three separation methods showed similar performance, however, the combination of UC+SEC presented with slightly higher purity than either method alone.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.