BMSC-EV-derived lncRNA NORAD Facilitates Migration, Invasion, and Angiogenesis in Osteosarcoma Cells by Regulating CREBBP via Delivery of miR-877-3p

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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can boost osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and invasion, yet the function of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from BMSCs on OS is scarcely known. This study is aimed at examining the role of BMSC-EVs in OS cells. BMSCs and BMSC-EVs were isolated and identified. The effect of EVs and EVs-si-NORAD on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis was determined. Expressions of NORAD, miR-877-3p, and CREBBP were detected. The binding relationship among NORAD, miR-877-3p, and CREBBP was verified. The miR-877-3p inhibitor or pc-CREBBP was delivered into OS cells treated with EVs-si-NORAD for in vitro analysis. The nude mouse model of the subcutaneous tumor xenograft was established for in vivo analysis. BMSC-EVs promoted OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. BMSC-EVs carried NORAD into OS cells and upregulated CREBBP by sponging miR-877-3p. miR-877-3p downregulation or CREBBP overexpression partly inverted the inhibitory effect of EVs by silencing NORAD on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. In vivo experiments validated that BMSC-EV-derived NORAD facilitated tumor growth by upregulating CREBBP via miR-877-3p. To conclude, BMSC-EV-derived NORAD facilitated OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis by modulating CREBBP via miR-877-3p, which may offer new insights into OS treatment.
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex microbial community, which contributes to its homeostasis. A disrupted microbiome can cause GI-related diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), therefore identifying host-microbe interactions is crucial for better understanding gut health. Bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs), released into the gut lumen, can cross the mucus layer and access underlying immune cells. To study BEV-host interactions, we examined the influence of BEVs generated by the gut commensal bacterium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, on host immune cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing data and host-microbe protein-protein interaction networks were used to predict the effect of BEVs on dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes focusing on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. We identified biological processes affected in each immune cell type and cell-type specific processes including myeloid cell differentiation. TLR pathway analysis highlighted that BEV targets differ among cells and between the same cells in healthy versus disease (ulcerative colitis) conditions. The in silico findings were validated in BEV-monocyte co-cultures demonstrating the requirement for TLR4 and Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) in BEV-elicited NF-kB activation. This study demonstrates that both cell-type and health status influence BEV-host communication. The results and the pipeline could facilitate BEV-based therapies for the treatment of IBD.
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Extracellular vesicles from pristane-treated CD38-deficient mice express an anti-inflammatory neutrophil protein signature, which reflects the mild lupus severity elicited in these mice
In CD38-deficient ( Cd38-/- ) mice intraperitoneal injection of pristane induces a lupus-like disease, which is milder than that induced in WT mice, showing significant differences in the inflammatory and autoimmune processes triggered by pristane. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are present in all body fluids. Shed by cells, their molecular make-up reflects that of their cell of origin and/or tissue pathological situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the protein composition, protein abundance, and functional clustering of EV released by peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) in the pristane experimental lupus model, to identify predictive or diagnostic biomarkers that might discriminate the autoimmune process in lupus from inflammatory reactions and/or normal physiological processes. In this study, thanks to an extensive proteomic analysis and powerful bioinformatics software, distinct EV subtypes were identified in the peritoneal exudates of pristane-treated mice: 1) small EV enriched in the tetraspanin CD63 and CD9, which are likely of exosomal origin; 2) small EV enriched in CD47 and CD9, which are also enriched in plasma-membrane, membrane-associated proteins, with an ectosomal origin; 3) small EV enriched in keratins, ECM proteins, complement/coagulation proteins, fibrin clot formation proteins, and endopetidase inhibitor proteins. This enrichment may have an inflammation-mediated mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition origin, representing a protein corona on the surface of peritoneal exudate EV; 4) HDL-enriched lipoprotein particles. Quantitative proteomic analysis allowed us to identify an anti-inflammatory, Annexin A1-enriched pro-resolving, neutrophil protein signature, which was more prominent in EV from pristane-treated Cd38-/- mice, and quantitative differences in the protein cargo of the ECM-enriched EV from Cd38-/- vs WT mice. These differences are likely to be related with the distinct inflammatory outcome shown by Cd38-/- vs WT mice in response to pristane treatment. Our results demonstrate the power of a hypothesis-free and data-driven approach to transform the heterogeneity of the peritoneal exudate EV from pristane-treated mice in valuable information about the relative proportion of different EV in a given sample and to identify potential protein markers specific for the different small EV subtypes, in particular those proteins defining EV involved in the resolution phase of chronic inflammation.
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2022
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Extracellular vesicle‐bound DNA in urine is indicative of kidney allograft injury
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Extracellular vesicle-bound DNA in urine is indicative of kidney allograft injury
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicle Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed Inner and Outer Protein Analysis
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2022
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Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Dot Blotting for Multiplexed EV Protein Detection in Complex Biofluids
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale vesicles secreted from cells, carrying biomolecular cargos similar to their cells of origin. Measuring the protein content of EVs in biofluids can offer a crucial insight into human health and disease. For example, detecting tumor-derived EVs' protein markers can aid in early diagnosis of cancer, which is life-saving. In order to use these EV proteins for diagnosis, sensitive and multiplexed methods are required. The current methods for EV protein detection typically require large sample consumption due to challenges with sensitivity and often need an EV isolation step for complex biofluid samples such as blood plasma. In this work, we have developed a simple and sensitive method for multiplexed detection of protein markers on EV membrane surfaces, which we call "EV dot blotting", inspired by conventional dot blotting techniques. After optimization of multiple factors such as antibody concentration, blocking reagent, type of 3D membranes, and use of gold nanoparticles for signal enhancement, cancer-cell-derived EVs were spiked in pooled normal human plasma for conducting a multiplexed assay in a microarray format. Without the need of isolating EVs from blood plasma, a limit of detection of 3.1 × 105 EVs/mL or 1863 EVs/sample was achieved for CD9 protein, 4.7 × 104 EVs/mL or 281 EVs/sample for CD24, and 9.0 × 104 EVs/mL or 538 EVs/sample for EpCAM, up to 4 orders of magnitude lower than those of conventional ELISA. This platform offers sensitive, multiplexed, simple, and low-cost EV protein detection directly from complex biofluids with minimal sample consumption, providing a useful tool for multiplexed EV protein quantification for a variety of applications.
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2022
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Extracellular 20S proteasome secreted via microvesicles can degrade poorly folded proteins and inhibit Galectin‐3 agglutination activity
Proteasomes are major non-lysosomal proteolytic complexes localized in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Strikingly, high levels of extracellular proteasome have also been evidenced in the plasma (p-proteasome) of patients with specific diseases. Here, we examined the process by which proteasomes are secreted, as well as their structural and functional features once in the extracellular space. We demonstrate that assembled 20S core particles are secreted by cells within microvesicles budding from the plasma membrane. Part of the extracellular proteasome pool is also free of membranes in the supernatant of cultured cells, and likely originates from microvesicles leakage. We further demonstrate that this free proteasome released by cells (cc-proteasome for cell culture proteasome) possesses latent proteolytic activity and can degrade various extracellular proteins. Both standard (no immune-subunits) and intermediate (containing some immune-subunits) forms of 20S are observed. Moreover, we show that galectin-3, which displays a highly disordered N-terminal region, is efficiently cleaved by purified cc-proteasome, without SDS activation, likely after its binding to PSMA3 (α7) subunit through its intrinsically disordered region. As a consequence, galectin-3 is unable to induce red blood cells agglutination when preincubated with cc-proteasome. These results highlight potential novel physio- and pathologic functions for the extracellular proteasome.
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2022
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Exosomes Recovered From the Plasma of COVID-19 Patients Expose SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Derived Fragments and Contribute to the Adaptive Immune Response
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly spread across the globe starting from February 2020. It is well established that during viral infection, extracellular vesicles become delivery/presenting vectors of viral material. However, studies regarding extracellular vesicle function in COVID-19 pathology are still scanty. Here, we performed a comparative study on exosomes recovered from the plasma of either MILD or SEVERE COVID-19 patients. We show that although both types of vesicles efficiently display SARS-CoV-2 spike-derived peptides and carry immunomodulatory molecules, only those of MILD patients are capable of efficiently regulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. Accordingly, by mass spectrometry, we show that the proteome of exosomes of MILD patients correlates with a proper functioning of the immune system, while that of SEVERE patients is associated with increased and chronic inflammation. Overall, we show that exosomes recovered from the plasma of COVID-19 patients possess SARS-CoV-2-derived protein material, have an active role in enhancing the immune response, and possess a cargo that reflects the pathological state of patients in the acute phase of the disease.
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2022
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Exosomes Derived From Mesenchymal Stem Cells Pretreated With Ischemic Rat Heart Extracts Promote Angiogenesis via the Delivery of DMBT1
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) have been shown to promote angiogenesis. Treating MSCs with ischemic rat brain extracts was sufficient to augment their benefits in stroke. However, no similar analyses of ischemic heart extracts have been performed to date. We aim to determine whether MSC-Exos derived from MSCs pretreated with ischemic rat heart extract were able to promote angiogenesis and to clarify underlying mechanisms. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of heart extracts revealed a significant increase of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 24 h post-MI (myocardial infarction) modeling, and time-dependent decreases in hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). MTT and wound healing assays revealed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) migration and proliferation increased following MSCE-Exo treatment (exosomes derived from MSC pretreated with ischemic heart extracts of 24 h post-MI) relative to MSCN-Exo treatment (exosomes derived from MSC pretreated with normal heart extracts). Proteomic analyses of MSCE-Exo and MSCN-Exo were conducted to screen for cargo proteins promoting angiogenesis. Result revealed several angiogenesis-related proteins were upregulated in MSCE-Exo, including DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1). When DMBT1 was silenced in MSCs, HUVECs with MSCDMBT1 RNAi-Exo treatment exhibited impaired proliferative and migratory activity and reductions of DMBT1, p-Akt, β-catenin, and VEGF. To explore how ischemic heart extracts took effects, ELISA was conducted showing a significant increase of IL-22 at 24 h post-MI modeling. P-STAT3, IL22RA1, DMBT1, and VEGF proteins were increased in MSCE relative to MSCN, and VEGF and DMBT1 were increased in MSCE-Exos. Together, these suggest that IL-22 upregulation in ischemic heart extracts can increase DMBT1 in MSCs. Exosomes derived from those MSCs deliver DMBT1 to HUVECs, thereby enhancing their migratory and proliferative activity.
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2022
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Exosomally Targeting microRNA23a Ameliorates Microvascular Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction Following Rickettsial Infection
Spotted fever group rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia (R) are devastating human infections, which mainly target microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) and can induce lethal EC barrier dysfunction in the brain and lungs. Our previous evidence reveals that exosomes (Exos) derived from rickettsial-infected ECs, namely R-ECExos, can induce disruption of the tight junctional (TJ) protein ZO-1 and barrier dysfunction of human normal recipient brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Given that we have observed that microRNA23a (miR23a), a negative regulator of endothelial ZO-1 mRNA, is selectively sorted into R-ECExos, the aim of the present study was to characterize the potential functional role of exosomal miR23a delivered by R-ECExos in normal recipient BMECs. We demonstrated that EC-derived Exos (ECExos) have the capacity to deliver oligonucleotide RNAs to normal recipient BMECs in an RNase-abundant environment. miR23a in ECExos impairs normal recipient BMEC barrier function, directly targeting TJ protein ZO-1 mRNAs. In separate studies using a traditional in vitro model and a novel single living-cell biomechanical assay, our group demonstrated that miR23a anti-sense oligonucleotide-enriched ECExos ameliorate R-ECExo-provoked recipient BMEC dysfunction in association with stabilization of ZO-1 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Exo-based therapy could potentially prove to be a promising strategy to improve vascular barrier function during bacterial infection and concomitant inflammation.
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2022
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Exercise-Induced Extracellular Vesicles Delay the Progression of Prostate Cancer
Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise not only reduces the risk of cancer but also improves functional capacity, treatment efficacy and disease outcome in cancer patients. At least partially, these effects are mediated by the secretome of the tissues responding to exercise. The secreted molecules can be released in a carrier-free form or enclosed into extracellular vesicles (EVs). Several recent studies have shown that EVs are actively released into circulation during physical exercise. Here, we for the first time investigated the effects of exercise-induced EVs on the progression of cancer in an F344 rat model of metastatic prostate cancer. Although we did not observe a consistent increase in the circulating EV levels, RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated substantial changes in the RNA content of EVs collected before and immediately after forced wheel running exercise as well as differences between EVs from runners at resting state and sedentary rats. The major RNA biotype in EVs was mRNA, followed by miRNA and rRNA. Molecular functions of differentially expressed RNAs reflected various physiological processes including protein folding, metabolism and regulation of immune responses triggered by the exercise in the parental cells. Intravenous administration of exercise-induced EVs into F344 rats with orthotopically injected syngeneic prostate cancer cells PLS10, demonstrated reduction of the primary tumor volume by 35% and possibly-attenuation of lung metastases. Hence, our data provide the first evidence that exercise-induced EVs may modulate tumor physiology and delay the progression of cancer.
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2022
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Excretory-secretory products from the brown stomach worm, Teladorsagia circumcincta, exert antimicrobial activity in in vitro growth assays
Background Over the past decade, evidence has emerged of the ability of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites to alter the composition of the host gut microbiome; however, the mechanism(s) underpinning such interactions remain unclear. In the current study, we (i) undertake proteomic analyses of the excretory-secretory products (ESPs), including secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), of the ‘brown stomach worm’ Teladorsagia circumcincta, one of the major agents causing parasite gastroenteritis in temperate areas worldwide; (ii) conduct bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterise antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with putative antimicrobial activity; and (iii) assess the bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic properties of T. circumcincta EVs, and whole and EV-depleted ESPs, using bacterial growth inhibition assays. Methods Size-exclusion chromatography was applied to the isolation of EVs from whole T. circumcincta ESPs, followed by EV characterisation via nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Proteomic analysis of EVs and EV-depleted ESPs was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and prediction of putative AMPs was performed using available online tools. The antimicrobial activities of T. circumcincta EVs and of whole and EV-depleted ESPs against Escherichia coli were evaluated using bacterial growth inhibition assays. Results Several molecules with putative antimicrobial activity were identified in both EVs and EV-depleted ESPs from adult T. circumcincta. Whilst exposure of E. coli to whole ESPs resulted in a significant reduction of colony-forming units over 3 h, bacterial growth was not reduced following exposure to worm EVs or EV-depleted ESPs. Conclusions Our data points towards a bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic function of T. circumcincta ESPs, likely mediated by molecules with antimicrobial activity. Graphical Abstract
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2022
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Excessive activation of IL-33/ST2 in cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes invasion and metastasis in ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent and has high mortality rates due to metastasis and relapse. The cross communication between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer-associated macrophages (CAMs) in the ovarian tumor microenvironment leads to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the role of overproduction of IL-33/ST2 in the CAFs of ovarian cancer is still unclear. The expression of IL-33, ST2, apoptosis-related proteins and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was measured by western blotting. Primary normal fibroblasts and CAFs from ovarian cancerous tissue were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the medium was used to stimulate blood-derived monocytes. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the frequency of M2-like macrophages in blood-derived monocytes from patients with ovarian cancer. Cell invasion were evaluated using Transwell assays. A xenograft model was used to study tumor growth in ST2-knockout and wild-type NOD-SCID mice. The results demonstrated higher expression of IL-33 and ST2 in carcinoma tissues compared with in para-carcinoma tissues, and there was a survival improvement associated with elevated IL-33. IL-33 and culture supernatants from CAFs, rather than normal ovarian fibroblasts, led to a higher expression of M2 macrophage marker genes in human blood-derived monocytes. Invasion and migration were aggravated in COC1 cells co-cultured with CAF-induced CAMs, and the EMT marker genes were upregulated. It was reported that EMT marker genes were downregulated and tumor volumes were significantly reduced in ST2-deficient mice. Overall, the IL-33/ST2 axis in ovarian cancer might integrate IL-33-expressing CAFs with M2 type-like CAMs, which aggravated invasion and metastasis by promoting EMT.
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2022
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EVOO Promotes a Less Atherogenic Profile Than Sunflower Oil in Smooth Muscle Cells Through the Extracellular Vesicles Secreted by Endothelial Cells
Background: Little is known about the effect of extra virgin olive (EVOO) and sunflower oil (SO) on the composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by endothelial cells and the effects of these EVs on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). These cells play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Methods: We evaluated the effects of endothelial cells-derived EVs incubated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins obtained after a high-fat meal with EVOO (EVOO-EVs) and SO (SO-EVs), on the transcriptomic profile of SMCs. Results: We found 41 upregulated and 19 downregulated differentially expressed (DE)-miRNAs in EVOO-EVs. Afterwards, SMCs were incubated with EVOO-EVs and SO-EVs. SMCs incubated with SO-EVs showed a greater number of DE-mRNA involved in pathways related to cancer, focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and MAPK, toll-like receptor, chemokine and Wnt signaling pathways than in SMCs incubated with EVOO-EVs. These DE-mRNAs were involved in biological processes related to the response to endogenous stimulus, cell motility, regulation of intracellular signal transduction and cell population proliferation. Conclusion: EVOO and SO can differently modify the miRNA composition of HUVEC-derived EVs. These EVs can regulate the SMCs transcriptomic profile, with SO-EVs promoting a profile more closely linked to the development of atherosclerosis than EVOO-EVs.
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2022
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Evaluation of cutaneous and circulating (serum and exosomes) levels of chemokines (CCL17, CCL22, CCL27 and CCL28) in atopic dogs and their correlation with severity of the disease
BACKGROUND: Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex multifactorial disease characterised by an exaggerated immunological response. Little is known about the role that cutaneous and circulating chemokines play in disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the messenger (m)RNA and protein levels of selected chemokines in skin and serum of healthy and atopic dogs, and in the atopic group to determine whether there is a correlation with disease severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skin biopsies and blood samples were taken from 12 privately owned atopic [lesional (AD-L) and nonlesional (AD-NL) skin] and 12 privately owned healthy dogs. Circulating exosomes were extracted from the serum. Cutaneous and exosomal mRNA levels of CCL17, CCL22, CCL27 and CCL28 were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were evaluated using canine-specific ELISA kits. The severity and extent of the clinical signs also were assessed in the atopic dogs using Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index, 4th iteration (CADESI-04) and a validated pruritus Visual Analog Scale (pVAS). RESULTS: The expression of CCL28 exosomes in skin was greater in AD-L when compared to healthy (P = 0.019) and AD-NL (P = 0.002) samples. However, serum expression was lower in dogs with AD compared to healthy dogs (P = 0.03). A higher expression of CCL17 and CCL22 was seen in AD-L when compared to healthy skin (P = 0.018 and P = 0.019, respectively). There also was a positive correlation between clinical scores and CCL22 (AD-NL; r = 0.6, P = 0.05) and between the pruritus score and CCL22 (AD-L; r = 0.6, P = 0.05). Differences in CCL27 concentrations were not observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study suggests that CCL17, CCL22 and CCL28 may play a role in the cutaneous inflammatory response in atopic dogs. They may be considered as markers of disease severity, although further studies are needed to validate these findings.
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2022
Evaluation of Biopolymer Materials and Synthesis Techniques to Develop a Rod-Shaped Biopolymer Surrogate for Legionella pneumophila
Biopolymer microparticles have been developed for applications that require biocompatibility and biodegradability, such as drug delivery. In this study, we assessed the production of microparticles using carnauba wax, κ-carrageenan, alginate, and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with the aim of developing a novel, DNA-tracer-loaded, biopolymer surrogate with a size, shape, surface charge, and relative hydrophobicity similar to stationary-phase Legionella pneumophila to mimic the bacteria's mobility and persistence in engineered water systems. We found that the type and concentration of biopolymer, reaction conditions, and synthesis methods affected the morphology, surface charge, relative hydrophobicity, and DNA tracer loading efficiency of the biopolymer microparticles produced. Carnauba wax, κ-carrageenan, and alginate (Protanal®, and low and medium viscosity) produced highly polydisperse microspheres. In contrast, PLGA and alginate-CaCO3 produced uniform microspheres and rod-shaped microparticles, respectively, with high DNA tracer loading efficiencies (PLGA 70% and alginate-CaCO3 95.2 ± 5.7%) and high reproducibilities. Their synthesis reproducibility was relatively high. The relative hydrophobicity of PLGA microspheres closely matched the cell surface hydrophobicity of L. pneumophila but not the bacterial morphology, whereas the polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer assembly was required to enhance the relative hydrophobicity of alginate-CaCO3 microparticles. Following this surface modification, alginate-CaCO3 microparticles represented the best match to L. pneumophila in size, morphology, surface charge, and relative hydrophobicity. This new biopolymer surrogate has the potential to be used as a mimic to study the mobility and persistence of L. pneumophila in water systems where the use of the pathogen is impractical and unsafe.
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2022
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Epigenetic alterations in gut and brain of adult rats after oral administration of miR-320-3p and miR-375-3p at mid-lactation, and preventive potential of miR-320-3p on early weaning stress
Abstract Aim To investigate if the artificial delivery of microRNAs naturally present in the breastmilk can impact the gut and brain of young rats according to weaning. Methods Animals from a new transgenic rat line expressing green-fluorescent protein in the endocrine lineage (cholecystokinin expressing cells) received at Day-12, near neural diversification, a single oral bolus of mir-320-3p or miR-375-3p, embedded in DiOleyl-Succinyl-Paromomycin (DOSP), and were further early (Day-15) or regularly (Day-30) weaned. Relevant miRNA (miR-320-3p, miR-375-3p, miR-375-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-504), polr3d , hspb6 , inflammation, enteroendocrine, and circadian clock-related mRNAs, chromatin complexes, and duodenal cell density were assayed at 8h post-inoculation and at Day-45. Results The miR-320-3p/DOSP induced immediate effects on H3K4me3 chromatin complexes with polr3d promoter (p<0.05) but no long-term effects. On regular weaning, at Day-45, both miR-320-3p and 375-3p were down-regulated in the stomach, up-regulated in the hypothalamus (p<0.001) but only miR-320-3p was up-regulated in the duodenum. After early weaning, the miR-320-3p and miR-375-3p levels were down-regulated in the stomach and the duodenum, but up-regulated in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus. Combining miR-320-3p/DOSP with early weaning enhanced miR-320-3p and chromogranin A expression in the duodenum. In the hippocampus, the miR-504 was down-regulated for both sexes, but in the brain stem, up regulated only for females, along with miR-320-3p and miR-16-5p levels. In the hypothalamus, clock levels were up regulated for both sexes. In the miR-375-3p/DOSP group, the density of enteroendocrine duodenal cells increased. The long-term effect of miR-375-3p/DOSP was more limited, according to the fourfold lower number of predicted targets than with miR-320-3p. Conclusion Addressing oral miRNA-320-3p loads to duodenal cell lineage is paving the way for the design of new therapeutics, manipulating long term consequences of early life stress.
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2022
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EphA2 on urinary extracellular vesicles as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and its effect on the invasiveness of bladder cancer
Background Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) secreted from bladder cancer contain cancer-specific proteins that are potential diagnostic biomarkers. We identified and evaluated a uEV-based protein biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and analysed its functions. Methods Biomarker candidates, selected by shotgun proteomics, were validated using targeted proteomics of uEVs obtained from 49 patients with and 48 individuals without bladder cancer, including patients with non-malignant haematuria. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantifying the uEV protein biomarker without ultracentrifugation and evaluated urine samples from 36 patients with and 36 patients without bladder cancer. Results Thirteen membrane proteins were significantly upregulated in the uEVs from patients with bladder cancer in shotgun proteomics. Among them, eight proteins were validated by target proteomics, and Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) was the only protein significantly upregulated in the uEVs of patients with bladder cancer, compared with that of patients with non-malignant haematuria. The EV-EphA2-CD9 ELISA demonstrated good diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 61.1%, specificity: 97.2%). We showed that EphA2 promotes proliferation, invasion and migration and EV-EphA2 promotes the invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells. Conclusions We established EV-EphA2-CD9 ELISA for uEV-EphA2 detection for the non-invasive early clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer.
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2022
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Enhanced Delivery of Rose Bengal by Amino Acids Starvation and Exosomes Inhibition in Human Astrocytoma Cells to Potentiate Anticancer Photodynamic Therapy Effects
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising anticancer strategy based on the light energy stimulation of photosensitizers (PS) molecules within a malignant cell. Among a multitude of recently challenged PS, Rose bengal (RB) has been already reported as an inducer of cytotoxicity in different tumor cells. However, RB displays a low penetration capability across cell membranes. We have therefore developed a short-term amino acids starvation protocol that significantly increases RB uptake in human astrocytoma cells compared to normal rat astrocytes. Following induced starvation uptake, RB is released outside cells by the exocytosis of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Thus, we have introduced a specific pharmacological treatment, based on the GW4869 exosomes inhibitor, to interfere with RB extracellular release. These combined treatments allow significantly reduced nanomolar amounts of administered RB and a decrease in the time interval required for PDT stimulation. The overall conditions affected astrocytoma viability through the activation of apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, we have developed for the first time a combined scheme to simultaneously increase the RB uptake in human astrocytoma cells, reduce the extracellular release of the drug by EVs, and improve the effectiveness of PDT-based treatments. Importantly, this strategy might be a valuable approach to efficiently deliver other PS or chemotherapeutic drugs in tumor cells.
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2022
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Engineering a Single Extracellular Vesicle Protein and RNA Assay (siEVPRA) via In Situ Fluorescence Microscopy in a UV Micropatterned Array
Abstract The physical and molecular heterogeneity of extracellular vesicles (EVs) confounds bulk biomarker characterization, thus encouraging the development of novel assays capable of profiling EVs at a single-vesicle resolution. Here, we present a single EV (siEV) protein and RNA assay ( siEV PRA) to simultaneously detect proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) in siEVs. The siEV PRA consists of an array of microdomains embedded on a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated glass surface produced via UV photopatterning, functionalized with antibodies to target siEV subpopulations. Fluorescently labeled antibodies and RNA-targeting molecular beacons (MBs) were used to generate signals for proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs on siEVs detected by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), outperforming the sensitivities of ELISA and PCR by three orders of magnitude. Using the siEV PRA, we analyzed EVs harvested from glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and demonstrated vesicular heterogeneity in protein, mRNA, and miRNA expression through colocalization analyses, and validated the results by bulk RNA sequencing. We further demonstrated the clinical utility of the siEV PRA by detecting different mRNAs and miRNAs associated with GBM in patient samples. Together, these results indicate that the siEV PRA provides an effective platform to investigate the heterogeneity of proteins and RNAs in subpopulations of EVs.
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2022
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Engineered Cas9 extracellular vesicles as a novel gene editing tool
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have shown promise as biological delivery vehicles, but therapeutic applications require efficient cargo loading. Here, we developed new methods for CRISPR/Cas9 loading into EVs through reversible heterodimerization of Cas9-fusions with EV sorting partners. Cas9-loaded EVs were collected from engineered Expi293F cells using standard methodology, characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy and analysed for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated functional gene editing in a Cre-reporter cellular assay. Light-induced dimerization using Cryptochrome 2 combined with CD9 or a Myristoylation-Palmitoylation-Palmitoylation lipid modification resulted in efficient loading with approximately 25 Cas9 molecules per EV and high functional delivery with 51% gene editing of the Cre reporter cassette in HEK293 and 25% in HepG2 cells, respectively. This approach was also effective for targeting knock-down of the therapeutically relevant PCSK9 gene with 6% indel efficiency in HEK293. Cas9 transfer was detergent-sensitive and associated with the EV fractions after size exclusion chromatography, indicative of EV-mediated transfer. Considering the advantages of EVs over other delivery vectors we envision that this study will prove useful for a range of therapeutic applications, including CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing.
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2022
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Efficient Small Extracellular Vesicles (EV) Isolation Method and Evaluation of EV-Associated DNA Role in Cell–Cell Communication in Cancer
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) play essential roles in intercellular signaling both in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Comprehensive studies of dsDNA associated with sEVs are hampered by a lack of methods, allowing efficient separation of sEVs from free-circulating DNA and apoptotic bodies. In this work, using controlled culture conditions, we enriched the reproducible separation of sEVs from free-circulated components by combining tangential flow filtration, size-exclusion chromatography, and ultrafiltration (TSU). EV-enriched fractions (F2 and F3) obtained using TSU also contained more dsDNA derived from the host genome and mitochondria, predominantly localized inside the vesicles. Three-dimensional reconstruction of high-resolution imaging showed that the recipient cell membrane barrier restricts a portion of EV-DNA. Simultaneously, the remaining EV-DNA overcomes it and enters the cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, EV-DNA associates with dsDNA-inflammatory sensors (cGAS/STING) and endosomal proteins (Rab5/Rab7). Relevant to cancer, we found that EV-DNA isolated from leukemia cell lines communicates with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a critical component in the BM microenvironment. Furthermore, we illustrated the arrangement of sEVs and EV-DNA at a single vesicle level using super-resolution microscopy. Altogether, employing TSU isolation, we demonstrated EV-DNA distribution and a tool to evaluate the exact EV-DNA role of cell-cell communication in cancer.
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2022
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Efficient anti-tumor immunotherapy using tumor epitope-coated biodegradable nanoparticles combined with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and an anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody
Background Vaccination with tumor peptide epitopes associated with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is an attractive approach directed at inducing tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, challenges remain in improving the therapeutic efficacy of peptide epitope vaccines, including the low immunogenicity of peptide epitopes and insufficient stimulation of innate immune components in vivo. To overcome this, we aimed to develop and test an innovative strategy that elicits potent CTL responses against tumor epitopes. The essential feature of this strategy is vaccination using tumor epitope-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) in combination with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Methods Carboxylated NPs were prepared using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly(ethylene/maleic anhydride), covalently conjugated with anti-H-2KbmAbs, and then attached to H-2Kb molecules isolated from the tumor mass (H-2b). Native peptides associated with the H-2Kbmolecules of H-2Kb-attached NPs were exchanged with tumor peptide epitopes. The tumor-specific CTL-inducing and anti-tumor activities of the tumor epitope-loaded NPs were examined in mice bearing EG7-OVA thymoma or B16-F10 melanoma. In addition, the anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy of the NPs was examined in combination with poly-IC, anti-PD1 mAb, or both. Results Tumor peptide epitope-loaded NPs efficiently induced tumor-specific CTLs when used to immunize tumor-bearing mice as well as normal mice. This activity of the NPs significantly was increased when co-administered with poly-IC. Accordingly, the NPs exerted significant anti-tumor effects in mice implanted with EG7-OVA thymoma or B16-F10 melanoma, and the anti-tumor activity of the NPs was significantly increased when applied in combination with poly-IC. The most potent anti-tumor activity was observed when the NPs were co-administered with both poly-IC and anti-PD1 mAb. Conclusions Immunization with tumor epitope-loaded NPs in combination with poly-IC and anti-PD1 mAb in tumor-bearing mice can be a powerful means to induce tumor-specific CTLs with therapeutic anti-tumor activity.
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2022
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Effects of different ratios of omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of sows on the proteome of milk-derived extracellular vesicles
Milk is a nutrient-rich biofluid that contains several biocomponents with distinctive functions, including extracellular vesicles (EV). Milk EV have been associated with the regulation of the newborn's immune system and to influence essential cellular development. The EV proteome comprises the protein constituents and cargo; changes in these compartments could impact their role mediating communication. The ratio of dietary ω-6 to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is known to affect health and inflammation, and to induce changes in milk fatty acid composition, but no reports have included the milk EV fraction so far. We isolated EV from milk samples obtained on days 0, 7, and 14 after parturition from sows receiving either a standard diet or a test diet enriched in ω-3 (ω6:ω3 = 4:1). Small milk-derived EV were isolated using ultracentrifugation coupled with size exclusion chromatography, and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blotting. Using a TMT-based high-resolution quantitative approach, the proteomics analysis revealed variations in the milk EV proteome within the diet groups with differences in the abundance of spondin-2 and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein. Future studies are encouraged to explore further dietary effects on milk EV composition and their relation to the offspring's development. SIGNIFICANCE: Milk EV are known as key players mediating the regulation of the infant's immune system and growth. The EV proteome comprises the protein constituents and protein cargo, and any changes in this system could impact their role in intercellular communication. This study aimed at evaluating how different ω-6:ω-3 ratios in the maternal diet could translate to the milk EV proteome. This is relevant for basic research, but also has applied aspects in animal nutrition and health and may provide new perspectives for feeding additives.
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2022
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Effect of Exosomes Secreted from N-acetylcysteine Pretreated Cardiomyocytes on Aging-induced ROS Production
Objectives: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on the aging-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in cardiomyocytes via exosomes released from cardiomyocytes at the molecular level. Materials and Methods: The aging model was performed by incubating rat left ventricular cell line H9c2 with D-galactose (D-Gal; 50 mg/mL) for 48 hours. Exosomes released from H9c2 pretreated with NAC were incubated with aged cardiomyocytes and their effects on the enhanced ROS production and MMP depolarization with aging were compared with both normal control cells and aged cells without exosomes. ROS and MMP measurements were calculated relative to the confocal microscope using specific fluorescent dyes (DCFDA and FCCP) by visualizing the change in fluorescence intensity. MiR-21 expression, which is also accepted as a ROS marker, and cDNA synthesis qRT-PCR measurements were performed following exosomal miRNA isolation. Results: Seventy-two-hour incubation of aging-modeled cardiomyocytes with exosomes isolated from H9c2 incubated with NAC significantly suppresses the increased ROS production associated with aging and normalizes depolarized MMP. On the other hand, NAC treatment significantly suppressed exosomal miR-21 expression in normal healthy cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: These findings indicate that ROS-targeted agents used in the treatment of heart damage may specifically suppress mitochondrionderived ROS production, which increases uncontrollably through an exosome-based paracrine mechanism. Our study also demonstrates, for the first time in the literature, that NAC induces exosomal miRNA modulation in pretreated cardiomyocytes. These findings indicate that the administration of exosomes obtained from cardiomyocytes with enhanced antioxidant system is a new treatment approach for aging-related inadequate heart function.
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2022
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Dual rolling circle amplification-enabled ultrasensitive multiplex detection of exosome biomarkers using electrochemical aptasensors
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. An effective diagnostic system that enables early cancer detection is required for timely diagnosis and better treatment outcomes. Here, we developed an ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the multiplex detection of exosome biomarkers based on the electrochemical signals of metal ions. Specifically, a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was first modified with a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), ionic liquid (IL), and chitosan (CHT) composite, and then gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were deposited via electrodeposition (GNPs/MWCNT-IL-CHT). To capture target exosomes, an aptamer specific for CD63, the universal exosome surface protein, was immobilized on the GNPs/MWCNT-IL-CHT/SPCE. When EpCAM or HER-2 positive exosomes were present in the sample, they could bind to EpCAM or HER-2 aptamers with primer sequences that acted as a rolling circle amplification reaction initiator, thereby generating numerous poly-guanine and poly-thymine repeats of a metal ion binding sequence, which produced strong electrochemical signals upon complexation with copper and lead ions. Using the proposed, multiplex exosome analysis system, EpCAM- and HER-2-positive exosomes were simultaneously detected with high specificity and a detection limit of 1 particle mL-1. In addition, its clinical applicability was validated via spike-and-recovery experiments using human serum samples.
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2022
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Distinct non-coding RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles from M1 and M2 human primary macrophages
Abstract Macrophages are important antigen presenting cells which can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) carrying functional cargo including non-coding RNAs. Macrophages can be broadly classified into M1 ‘classical’ and M2 ‘alternatively-activated’ macrophages. M1 macrophages have been linked with inflammation-associated pathologies, whereas a switch towards an M2 phenotype indicates resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Here, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the small RNA cargo of EVs from human M1 and M2 primary macrophages. Using small RNA sequencing, we identified several types of small non-coding RNAs in M1 and M2 macrophage EVs including miRNAs, isomiRs, tRNA fragments, piRNA, snRNA, snoRNA and Y-RNA fragments. Distinct differences were observed between M1 and M2 EVs, with higher relative abundance of miRNAs, and lower abundance of tRNA fragments in M1 compared to M2 EVs. MicroRNA-target enrichment analysis identified several gene targets involved in gene expression and inflammatory signalling pathways. EVs were also enriched in tRNA fragments, primarily originating from the 5’ end or the internal region of the full length tRNAs, many of which were differentially abundant in M1 and M2 EVs. Similarly, several other small non-coding RNAs, namely piRNAs, snRNAs, snoRNAs and Y-RNA fragments, were differentially enriched in M1 and M2 EVs; we discuss their putative roles in macrophage EVs. In conclusion, we show that M1 and M2 macrophages release EVs with distinct RNA cargo, which has the potential to contribute to the unique effect of these cell subsets on their microenvironment.
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2022
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Differential expression of aerobic oxidative metabolism-related proteins in diabetic urinary exosomes
Background: As a metabolic disease, any abnormality in the aerobic oxidation pathway of glucose may lead to the occurrence of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the changes in proteins related to aerobic oxidative metabolism in urinary exosomes of diabetic patients and normal controls of different ages, and to further verify their correlation with the pathogenesis of diabetes. Methods: Samples were collected, and proteomic information of urinary exosomes was collected by LC-MS/MS. ELISA was used to further detect the expression of aerobic and oxidative metabolism-related proteins in urinary exosomes of diabetic patients and normal controls of different ages, and to draw receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate its value in diabetes monitoring. Results: A total of 17 proteins involved in aerobic oxidative metabolism of glucose were identified in urinary exosome proteins. Compared with normal control, the expressions of PFKM, GAPDH, ACO2 and MDH2 in diabetic patients were decreased, and the expression of IDH3G was increased. The concentrations of PFKM, GAPDH and ACO2 in urinary exosomes were linearly correlated with the expression of MDH2 (P<0.05). These four proteins vary with age, with the maximum concentration in the 45-59 age group. PFKM, GAPDH, ACO2, and MDH2 in urinary exosomes have certain monitoring value. When used in combination, the AUC was 0.840 (95% CI 0.764-0.915). Conclusions: In diabetic patients, aerobic oxidative metabolism is reduced, and the expression of aerobic oxidative metabolism-related proteins PFKM, GAPDH, ACO2, and MDH2 in urinary exosomes is reduced, which may become potential biomarkers for monitoring changes in diabetes.
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2022
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Differential Effects of APOE Genotype on MicroRNA Cargo of Cerebrospinal Fluid Extracellular Vesicles in Females With Alzheimer’s Disease Compared to Males
Multiple biological factors, including age, sex, and genetics, influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Of the 6.2 million Americans living with Alzheimer's dementia in 2021, 3.8 million are women and 2.4 million are men. The strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is apolipoprotein E-e4 (APOE-e4). Female APOE-e4 carriers develop AD more frequently than age-matched males and have more brain atrophy and memory loss. Consequently, biomarkers that are sensitive to biological risk factors may improve AD diagnostics and may provide insight into underlying mechanistic changes that could drive disease progression. Here, we have assessed the effects of sex and APOE-e4 on the miRNA cargo of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles (EVs) in AD. We used ultrafiltration (UF) combined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to enrich CSF EVs (e.g., Flotillin+). CSF EVs were isolated from female and male AD or controls (CTLs) that were either APOE-e3,4 or -e3,3 positive (n = 7/group, 56 total). MiRNA expression levels were quantified using a custom TaqMan™ array that assayed 190 miRNAs previously found in CSF, including 25 miRNAs that we previously validated as candidate AD biomarkers. We identified changes in the EV miRNA cargo that were affected by both AD and sex. In total, four miRNAs (miR-16-5p, -331-3p, -409-3p, and -454-3p) were significantly increased in AD vs. CTL, independent of sex and APOE-e4 status. Pathway analysis of the predicted gene targets of these four miRNAs with identified pathways was highly relevant to neurodegeneration (e.g., senescence and autophagy). There were also three miRNAs (miR-146b-5p, -150-5p, and -342-3p) that were significantly increased in females vs. males, independent of disease state and APOE-e4 status. We then performed a statistical analysis to assess the effect of APOE genotype in AD within each sex and found that APOE-e4 status affects different subsets of CSF EV miRNAs in females vs. males. Together, this study demonstrates the complexity of the biological factors associated with AD risk and the impact on EV miRNAs, which may contribute to AD pathophysiology.
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2022
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Development of Enzymatic Depletion Methods for Preparation of Small Extracellular Vesicles with Long Blood-Circulation Half-Life
Abstract Purpose Phosphatidylserine (PS)-deficient small extracellular vesicle (sEV) subpopulations (PS(−) sEVs) circulate in blood for long periods; hence, they are expected to have therapeutic applications. However, limited production of PS(−) sEVs makes their application difficult. In this study, a method for the preparation of such populations using an enzymatic reaction was developed. Methods Bulk sEVs collected from a cell culture supernatant via ultracentrifugation were subjected to an enzymatic reaction using phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD). The yield of PS(−) sEVs was estimated using magnetic beads that bind to PS(+) sEVs. Then, the physical properties and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the sEVs were evaluated. Results Enzymatic depletion of PS exposed on sEV surfaces using PSD increased the yield of PS(−) sEVs. PSD treatment hardly changed the physicochemical properties of PS(−) sEVs. Moreover, the serum concentration profile and PK parameters of the PS(−) sEVs derived from PSD-treated bulk sEVs indicated a long blood-circulation half-life. Conclusions Treatment of sEVs with PSD successfully reduced surface PS levels and increased the amount of the PS(−) sEV subpopulation among bulk sEVs. This protocol of efficient preparation of PS(−) sEVs based on PSD treatment, as well as information on the basic PK, can be foundational for the therapeutic application of sEVs.
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2022
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Development of an injectable alginate-collagen hydrogel for cardiac delivery of extracellular vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized particles with attractive therapeutic potential for cardiac repair. However, low retention and stability after systemic administration limit their clinical translation. As an alternative, the combination of EVs with biomaterial-based hydrogels (HGs) is being investigated to increase their exposure in the myocardium and achieve an optimal therapeutic effect. In this study, we developed and characterized a novel injectable in-situ forming HG based on alginate and collagen as a cardiac delivery vehicle for EVs. Different concentrations of alginate and collagen crosslinked with calcium gluconate were tested. Based on injectability studies, 1% alginate, 0.5 mg/mL collagen and 0.25% calcium gluconate HG was selected as the idoneous combination for cardiac administration using catheter-based systems. Rheological examination revealed that the HG possessed an internal gel structure, weak mechanical properties and low viscosity, facilitating an easy administration. In addition, EVs were successfully incorporated and homogeneously distributed in the HG. After administration in a rat model of myocardial infarction, the HG showed long-term retention in the heart and allowed for a sustained release of EVs for at least 7 days. Thus, the combination of HGs and EVs represents a promising therapeutic strategy for myocardial repair. Besides EVs delivery, the developed HG could represent a useful platform for cardiac delivery of multiple therapeutic agents.
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2022
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Development of a microfluidic droplet platform with an antibody-free magnetic-bead-based strategy for high through-put and efficient EVs isolation
In this study, we present a novel microfluidic droplet-based strategy for high performance isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs). For EVs capture and release, a magnetic bead-based approach without having recourse to any antibody was optimized in batch and then adapted to the microfluidic droplet system. This antibody-free capture approach relies on the presence of a water-excluding polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), to precipitate EVs on the surface of negatively charged magnetic beads. We significantly improved the reproducibility of EV recovery and avoided positive false bias by including a washing step and optimizing the protocol. Well-characterized EV standards derived from pre-purified bovine milk were used for EVs isolation performance evaluation. An EVs recovery of up to 25% estimated with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was achieved for this batchwise PEG-based approach. The confirmation of isolated EVs identity was also made with our recently developed method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) detection. In parallel, a purpose-made droplet platform working with magnetic tweezers was developed for translation of this PEG-based method into a droplet microfluidic protocol to further improve the performance in terms of EVs capture efficiency and high throughput. The droplet-based protocol offers a significant improvement of recovery rate (up to 50%) while reducing sample and reagent volumes (by more than 10 folds) and operation time (by 3 folds) compared to the batch-wise mode.
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2022
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Development of a cell‐free strategy to recover aged skeletal muscle after disuse
Extended periods of bed rest and limb immobilization are required for healing post-injury or disease, yet disuse can result in significant muscle atrophy and decreased quality of life in older adults. Physical rehabilitation is commonly prescribed to recover these deficits, yet accumulation of reactive oxygen species and sustained rates of protein degradation persist during the rehabilitation period that can significantly delay or prevent recovery. Pericytes, considered the primary mesenchymal and vascular stromal cell in skeletal muscle, secrete beneficial factors that maintain baseline muscle mass, yet minimal information exists regarding the pericyte response to disuse and recovery. In the current study, single-cell RNA sequencing and functional assays were performed to demonstrate that pericytes in mouse skeletal muscle lose the capacity to synthesize antioxidants during disuse and recovery. This information was used to guide the design of a strategy in which healthy donor pericytes were stimulated with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) to produce small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that effectively restored myofibre size in adult and aged muscle after disuse. Proteomic assessment detected 11 differentially regulated proteins in primed sEVs that may account for recovery of muscle, including proteins associated with extracellular matrix composition and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant processes. This study demonstrates that healthy H2 O2 -primed pericyte-derived sEVs effectively improve skeletal muscle recovery after immobilization, presenting a novel acellular approach to rebuild muscle mass in older adults after a period of disuse. KEY POINTS: Previous studies suggest that prolonged oxidative stress is a barrier to skeletal muscle recovery after a period of immobilization. In this study we demonstrate that muscle-resident perivascular stromal cells (pericytes) become dysfunctional and lack the capacity to mount an antioxidant defence after disuse in mice. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of healthy pericytes in vitro simulates the release of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that effectively recover skeletal muscle fibre size and extracellular matrix remodelling in young adult and aged mice after disuse. Pericyte-derived sEVs present a novel acellular strategy to recover skeletal muscle after disuse.
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2022
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Determining extracellular vesicles properties and miRNA cargo variability in bovine milk from healthy cows and cows undergoing subclinical mastitis
BackgroundSubclinical mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland lacking clinical symptoms, is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in dairy farming worldwide. Milk microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers of different mammary gland conditions, including subclinical mastitis. However, little is known about the robustness of EVs analysis regarding sampling time-point and natural infections. To estimate the reliability of EVs measurements in raw bovine milk, we first evaluated changes in EVs size and concentration using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) during three consecutive days of sampling. Then, we analysed daily differences in miRNA cargo using small RNA-seq. Finally, we compared milk EVs differences from naturally infected udder quarters with their healthy adjacent quarters and quarters from uninfected udders, respectively.ResultsWe found that the milk EV miRNA cargo was very stable over the course of three days regardless of the health status of the quarter, and that infected quarters did not induce relevant changes in milk EVs of adjacent healthy quarters. Chronic subclinical mastitis induced changes in milk EV miRNA cargo, but neither in EVs size nor concentration. We observed that the changes in immunoregulatory miRNAs in quarters with chronic subclinical mastitis were cow-individual, however, the most upregulated miRNA was bta-miR-223-3p across all individuals.ConclusionsOur results showed that the miRNA profile and particle size characteristics remained constant throughout consecutive days, suggesting that miRNAs packed in EVs are physiological state-specific. In addition, infected quarters were solely affected while adjacent healthy quarters remained unaffected. Finally, the cow-individual miRNA changes pointed towards infection-specific alterations.
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2022
Design and scale-up of amorphous drug nanoparticles production via a one-step anhydrous continuous process
Polymeric nanoparticle drug delivery systems are increasingly viewed as crucial building blocks for efficacious treatments of disease conditions. However, production methods at commercially practical scales pose a significant challenge for successfully translating such technology. This paper describes a novel, anhydrous, twin-screw extrusion (TSE) platform-based technology to overcome the issues associated with developing and scale-up production of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. With polyol as the process medium, the proposed TSE platform enables the encapsulation of the drug and reduction of particle size in a one-step process without the requirement for organic solvents or water. pH-responsive nanoparticle drug delivery of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, naproxen, and celecoxib, was successfully produced using the TSE process. Remarkably, these resulted in nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 80 to 240 nm, up to 98 % drug encapsulation efficiency, and maximum production throughput of 400 g/hour. pH-responsive drug release for both naproxen and celecoxib was also achieved: immediate drug release with enhanced solubility was obtained for naproxen-Eudragit®E nanoparticles (6 times higher) at pH 1.2 and celecoxib-HPMCAS nanoparticles (15 times higher) at pH 6.8, whilst sustained drug release was achieved for naproxen-Eudragit®E nanoparticles at pH 6.8 and celecoxib-HPMCAS nanoparticles at pH 1.2. We expect this platform technology to streamline the development and scale-up production of various polymeric nanoparticle drug delivery systems.
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2022
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Culture of human nasal olfactory stem cells and their extracellular vesicles as advanced therapy medicinal products
Abstract The olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cell (OE-MSC) are mesenchymal stem cells originating from the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa. They have neurogenic and immune-modulatory properties and showed therapeutic potential in animal models of spinal cord trauma, hearing loss, Parkinsons’s disease, amnesia, and peripheral nerve injury. In this paper we designed a protocol that meet the requirements set by human health agencies to manufacture these stem cells for clinical applications. Once purified, OE-MSCs can be used per se or expanded in order to get the extracellular vesicles (EV) they secrete. A protocol for the extraction of these vesicles was validated and the EV from the OE-MSC were functionally tested on an in vitro model. Nasal mucosa biopsies from three donors were used to validate the manufacturing process of clinical grade OE-MSC. All stages were performed by expert staff of the cell therapy laboratory according to aseptic handling manipulations, requiring grade A laminar airflow. Enzymatic digestion provides more rapidly a high number of cells and is less likely to be contaminated. Foetal calf serum was replaced with human platelet lysate and allowed stronger cell proliferation, with the optimal percentage of platelet lysate being 10%. Cultivated OE-MSCs are sterile, highly proliferative (percentage of CFU-F progenitors was 15,5%) and their maintenance does not induce chromosomal rearrangement (karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis were normal). These cells express the usual phenotypic markers of OE-MSC. Purification of the EVs was performed with ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography. Purified vesicles expressed the recognized markers of EVs (Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (“MISEV”) guidelines) and promoted cell differentiation and neurite elongation in a model of neuroblastoma Neuro2a cell line. We developed a safer and more efficient manufacturing process for clinical-grade olfactory stem cells, these cells can now be used in humans. A phase I clinical trial will begin soon.An efficient protocol for the purification of the OE-MSC EVs have been validated. These EVs exert neurogenic properties in vitro . More studies are needed to understand the exact mechanisms of action of these EVs and prove their efficacy and safety in animal models.
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2022
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CRISPR-Cas9 Editing of TLR4 to Improve the Outcome of Cardiac Cell Therapy
Background: Inflammation and fibrosis limit the reparative properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). We hypothesized that disrupting the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene would switch hMSCs toward a reparative phenotype and improve the outcome of cell therapy for infarct repair. Methods and results: We developed and optimized a new electroporation protocol for CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. This protocol achieved a 68% success rate when applied to isolated hMSCs from the heart and epicardial fat of patients with ischemic heart disease. While cell editing lowered TLR4 expression in hMSCs, it did not affect classical markers of hMSCs, proliferation, and migration rate. Protein mass spectrometry analysis revealed that edited cells secreted fewer proteins involved in inflammation. Analysis of biological processes revealed that TLR4 editing reduced processes linked to inflammation and extracellular organization. Furthermore, edited cells expressed less NF-ƙB and secreted lower amounts of extracellular vesicles, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines than unedited hMSCs. Cell therapy with both edited and unedited hMSCs improved survival, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Postmortem histologic analysis revealed clusters of edited cells that survived in the scar tissue 28 days after MI. Morphometric analysis showed that implantation of edited cells increased the area of myocardial islands in the scar tissue, reduced the occurrence of transmural scar, increased scar thickness, and decreased expansion index. Conclusions: We show, for the first time, that CRISPR-Cas9-based disruption of the TLR4-gene reduces pro-inflammatory polarization of hMSCs, and improves infarct healing and remodeling in mice. Our results provide a new approach to improve the outcomes of cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases.
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2022
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Conducting Polymer-Coated Carbon Cloth Captures and Releases Extracellular Vesicles by a Rapid and Controlled Redox Process
Electrochemical techniques offer great opportunities for the capture of chemical and biological entities from complex mixtures and their subsequent release into clean buffers for analysis. Such methods are clean, robust, rapid, and compatible with a wide range of biological fluids. Here, we designed an electrochemically addressable system, based on a conducting terpolymer [P(EDOT-co-EDOTSAc-co-EDOTEG)] coated onto a carbon cloth substrate, to selectively capture and release biological entities using a simple electrochemical redox process. The conducting terpolymer composition was optimized and the terpolymer-coated carbon cloth was extensively characterized using electrochemical analysis, Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, water contact angle analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The conductive terpolymer possesses a derivative of EDOT with an acetylthiomethyl moiety (EDOTSAc), which is converted into a "free" thiol that then undergoes reversible oxidation/reduction cycles at +1.0 V and -0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. That redox process enables electrochemical capture and on-demand release. We first demonstrated the successful electrochemical capture/release of a fluorescently labeled IgG antibody. The same capture/release procedure was then applied to release extracellular vesicles (EVs), originating from both MCF7 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell line bioreactors. EVs were captured using the substrate-conjugated HER2 antibody which was purified from commercially available trastuzumab. Capture and release of breast cancer EVs using a trastuzumab-derived HER2 antibody has not been reported before (to the best of our knowledge). A rapid (2 min) release at a low potential (-0.8 V) achieved a high release efficiency (>70%) of the captured, HER2+ve, SKBR3 EVs. The developed system and the electrochemical method are efficient and straightforward and have vast potential for the isolation and concentration of various biological targets from large volumes of biological and other (e.g., environmental) samples.
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2022
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Computational analysis of serum-derived extracellular vesicle miRNAs in juvenile sheep model of single stage Fontan procedure
Patients with single ventricle heart defects requires a series of staged open-heart procedures, termed Fontan palliation. However, while lifesaving, these operations are associated with significant morbidity and early mortality. The attendant complications are thought to arise in response to the abnormal hemodynamics induced by Fontan palliation, although the pathophysiology underlying these physicochemical changes in cardiovascular and other organs remain unknown. Here, we investigated the microRNA (miRNA) content in serum and serum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) by sequencing small RNAs from a physiologically relevant sheep model of the Fontan operation. The differential expression analysis identified the enriched miRNA clusters in (1) serum vs. serum-derived EVs and (2) pre-Fontan EVs vs. post-Fontan EVs. Metascape analysis showed that the overexpressed subset of EV miRNAs by Fontan procedure target liver-specific cells, underscoring a potentially important pathway involved in the liver dysfunction that occurs as a consequence of Fontan palliation. We also found that post-Fontan EV miRNAs were associated with senescence and cell death, whereas pre-Fontan EV miRNAs were associated with stem cell maintenance and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This study shows great potential to identify novel circulating EV biomarkers from Fontan sheep serum that may be used for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics for patients that have undergone Fontan palliation.
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2022
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Comprehensive Characterization of Platelet-Enriched MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Platelet Activation
Dysregulation of platelet function is causally connected to thrombus formation and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, assessing platelet reactivity is crucial. However, current platelet function tests come with pitfalls, limiting clinical use. Plasma miRNA signatures have been suggested as novel biomarkers for predicting/diagnosing cardiovascular diseases and monitoring antiplatelet therapy. Here, we provide results from a comprehensive study on the feasibility of using circulatory platelet miRNAs as surrogate markers of platelet activation. We performed small RNA-Seq on different blood cell types to confirm known and identify novel platelet-enriched miRNAs and validated a panel of 16 miRNAs using RT-qPCR. To identify the main carrier of these blood-based platelet miRNAs, we enriched and analyzed distinct microvesicle populations. Platelets were stimulated with GPVI and P2Y12 agonists in vitro to monitor the release of the selected miRNAs following activation. Finally, the miRNA panel was also measured in plasma from mice undergoing the Folts intervention (recurrent thrombus formation in the carotid artery). Applying an unbiased bioinformatics-supported workflow to our NGS data, we were able to confirm a panel of previously established miRNA biomarker candidates and identify three new candidates (i.e., miR-199a-3p, miR-151a-5p, and miR-148b-3p). Basal levels of platelet-derived miRNAs in plasma were mainly complexed with proteins, not extracellular vesicles. We show that changes in miRNA levels due to platelet activation are detectable using RT-qPCR. In addition, we highlight limitations of studying the in vitro release of miRNAs from platelets. In vivo thrombosis resulted in significant elevations of platelet-derived miRNA levels in mice. In conclusion, we provide in-depth evidence that activated platelets release miRNAs, resulting in measurable changes in circulatory miRNA levels, rendering them promising biomarker candidates.
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2022
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Comparison of interferometric light microscopy with nanoparticle tracking analysis for the study of extracellular vesicles and bacteriophages
ABSTRACT Research on extracellular vesicles (EVs) and bacteriophages (phages) has been steadily expanding over the past decades as many of their roles in medicine, biology, and ecosystems have been unveiled. Such interest has brought about the need for new tools to quantify and determine the sizes of these biological nanoparticles. A new device based on interferometric light microscopy (ILM), the Videodrop, was recently developed for this purpose. Here, we compared this new device to two nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) devices, the NanoSight and the ZetaView, for the analysis of EVs and phages. We used EVs isolated from bacteria, fecal samples, bovine milk and human cells, and phages of various sizes and shape, ranging from 30 to 120 nm of diameter. While NTA instruments correctly enumerated most phages, the Videodrop detected only the largest one, indicating a lower sensitivity threshold compared to the NTA devices. Nevertheless, the performance of the Videodrop compared favorably to that of the NTA devices for the determination of the concentration of eukaryotic EV samples. The NanoSight instrument provided the most precise size distributions but the Videodrop was by far the most time-saving device, making it worthy of consideration for studies conducted on a large number of samples.
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2022
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Comparative analysis of tangential flow filtration and ultracentrifugation, both combined with subsequent size exclusion chromatography, for the isolation of small extracellular vesicles
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) provide major promise for advances in cancer diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics, ascribed to their distinctive cargo reflective of pathophysiological status, active involvement in intercellular communication, as well as their ubiquity and stability in bodily fluids. As a result, the field of sEV research has expanded exponentially. Nevertheless, there is a lack of standardisation in methods for sEV isolation from cells grown in serum-containing media. The majority of researchers use serum-containing media for sEV harvest and employ ultracentrifugation as the primary isolation method. Ultracentrifugation is inefficient as it is devoid of the capacity to isolate high sEV yields without contamination of non-sEV materials or disruption of sEV integrity. We comprehensively evaluated a protocol using tangential flow filtration and size exclusion chromatography to isolate sEVs from a variety of human and murine cancer cell lines, including HeLa, MDA-MB-231, EO771 and B16F10. We directly compared the performance of traditional ultracentrifugation and tangential flow filtration methods, that had undergone further purification by size exclusion chromatography, in their capacity to separate sEVs, and rigorously characterised sEV properties using multiple quantification devices, protein analyses and both image and nano-flow cytometry. Ultracentrifugation and tangential flow filtration both enrich consistent sEV populations, with similar size distributions of particles ranging up to 200 nm. However, tangential flow filtration exceeds ultracentrifugation in isolating significantly higher yields of sEVs, making it more suitable for large-scale research applications. Our results demonstrate that tangential flow filtration is a reliable and robust sEV isolation approach that surpasses ultracentrifugation in yield, reproducibility, time, costs and scalability. These advantages allow for implementation in comprehensive research applications and downstream investigations.
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2022
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Combination of Tipifarnib and Sunitinib Overcomes Renal Cell Carcinoma Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors via Tumor-Derived Exosome and T Cell Modulation
In recent years, circulating extracellular miRNAs have emerged as a useful tool for the molecular characterization and study of tumors' biological functions. However, the high heterogeneity in sample processing, isolation of circulating fraction, RNA extraction, and sequencing hamper the reproducibility and the introduction of these biomarkers in clinical practice. In this paper, we compare the content and the performance of miRNA sequencing in plasma-derived samples processed with different isolation protocols. We tested three different fractions of miRNA from healthy-donor human blood: whole plasma (WP), free-circulating (FC) and EV-associated, isolated by either column (ccEV) or size exclusion chromatography (secEV) miRNAs. An additional cohort of 18 lung cancer patients was analyzed. Protein profiles of ccEV and secEV were compared and miRNA expression profiles were assessed through sequencing. Slight differences were found between ccEV and secEV expressions of typical EV markers. Conversely, sequencing performance and the mirnome profile varied between RNA extracted using different isolation methods. Sequencing performance was better in FC samples. Higher varieties of miRNAs were identified in WP and FC with respect to ccEV and secEV. Analysis of free-circulating and EV-associated miRNA profiles in lung cancer patients demonstrated the reliability of the biomarkers identifiable on plasma with these approaches.
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2022
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CNS endothelial derived extracellular vesicles are biomarkers of active disease in multiple sclerosis
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, heterogenous disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Currently, active disease is determined by physician confirmed relapse or detection of contrast enhancing lesions via MRI indicative of BBB permeability. However, clinical confirmation of active disease can be cumbersome. As such, disease monitoring in MS could benefit from identification of an easily accessible biomarker of active disease. We believe extracellular vesicles (EV) isolated from plasma are excellent candidates to fulfill this need. Because of the critical role BBB permeability plays in MS pathogenesis and identification of active disease, we sought to identify EV originating from central nervous system (CNS) endothelial as biomarkers of active MS. Because endothelial cells secrete more EV when stimulated or injured, we hypothesized that circulating concentrations of CNS endothelial derived EV will be increased in MS patients with active disease. Methods To test this, we developed a novel method to identify EV originating from CNS endothelial cells isolated from patient plasma using flow cytometry. Endothelial derived EV were identified by the absence of lymphocyte or platelet markers CD3 and CD41, respectively, and positive expression of pan-endothelial markers CD31, CD105, or CD144. To determine if endothelial derived EV originated from CNS endothelial cells, EV expressing CD31, CD105, or CD144 were evaluated for expression of the myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL, a protein specifically expressed by CNS endothelial cells compared to endothelial cells of peripheral organs. Results Quality control experiments indicate that EV detected using our flow cytometry method are 0.2 to 1 micron in size. Flow cytometry analysis of EV isolated from 20 healthy controls, 16 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients with active disease not receiving disease modifying therapy, 14 RRMS patients with stable disease not receiving disease modifying therapy, 17 relapsing-RRMS patients with stable disease receiving natalizumab, and 14 RRMS patients with stable disease receiving ocrelizumab revealed a significant increase in the plasma concentration of CNS endothelial derived EV in patients with active disease compared to all other groups (p = 0.001). Conclusions: For the first time, we have identified a method to identify CNS endothelial derived EV in circulation from human blood samples. Results from our pilot study indicate that increased levels of CNS endothelial derived EV may be a biomarker of BBB permeability and active disease in MS.
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2022
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Classification of Preeclamptic Placental Extracellular Vesicles Using Femtosecond Laser Fabricated Nanoplasmonic Sensors
Placental extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in pregnancy by protecting and transporting diverse biomolecules that aid in fetomaternal communication. However, in preeclampsia, they have also been implicated in contributing to disease progression. Despite their potential clinical value, current technologies cannot provide a rapid and effective means of differentiating between healthy and diseased placental EVs. To address this, a fabrication process called laser-induced nanostructuring of SERS-active thin films (LINST) was developed to produce scalable nanoplasmonic substrates that provide exceptional Raman signal enhancement and allow the biochemical fingerprinting of EVs. After validating the performance of LINST substrates with chemical standards, placental EVs from tissue explant cultures were characterized, demonstrating that preeclamptic and normotensive placental EVs have classifiably distinct Raman spectra following the application of advanced machine learning algorithms. Given the abundance of placental EVs in maternal circulation, these findings encourage immediate exploration of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of EVs as a promising method for preeclampsia liquid biopsies, while this novel fabrication process will provide a versatile and scalable substrate for many other SERS applications.
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2022
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Citrus limonL.-Derived Nanovesicles Show an Inhibitory Effect on Cell Growth in p53-Inactivated Colorectal Cancer Cells via the Macropinocytosis Pathway
Edible plant-derived nanovesicles have been explored as effective materials for preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, dependent on gene status, as a K-Ras-activating mutation via the macropinocytosis pathway. Approximately 70% of CRC harbors the p53 mutation, which is strongly associated with a poor prognosis for CRC. However, it has not been revealed whether p53 inactivation activates the macropinocytosis pathway or not. In this study, we investigated parental cells, wild-type or null for p53 treated with Citrus limon L.-derived nanovesicles, as potential materials for CRC prevention. Using ultracentrifugation, we obtained C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles, the diameters of which were approximately 100 nm, similar to that of the exosomes derived from mammalian cells. C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles showed inhibitory effects on cell growth in not p53-wild, but also in p53-inactivated CRC cells. Furthermore, we revealed that the macropinocytosis pathway is activated by p53 inactivation and C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles were up taken via the macropinocytosis pathway. Notably, although C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles contained citrate, the inhibitory effects of citrate were not dependent on the p53 status. We thus provide a novel mechanism for the growth inhibition of C. limon L.-derived nanovesicles via macropinocytosis and expect to develop a functional food product containing them for preventing p53-inactivation CRC incidence.
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2022
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Circulating Small Extracellular Vesicles May Contribute to Vaso-Occlusive Crises in Sickle Cell Disease
We previously found that the plasma of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) contains large numbers of small extracellular vesicles (EVs) and that the EVs disrupt the integrity of endothelial cell monolayers (especially if obtained during episodes of acute chest syndrome, ACS). The present study was designed to test the generality of this finding to other complications of SCD, specifically to evaluate the possibility that circulating EVs isolated during a vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) also cause damage to the intercellular connections between endothelial cells. Plasma was obtained from nine pediatric subjects at baseline and during VOC episodes. EVs isolated from these samples were added to cultures of microvascular endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to assess monolayer integrity and to localize two intercellular junction proteins (VE-cadherin and connexin43). The EVs isolated during VOC caused significantly greater monolayer disruption than those isolated at baseline. The extent of disruption varied between different episodes of VOC or ACS in the same patient. The VOC EVs disrupted the integrity of both junction proteins at appositional membranes. These results suggest that circulating EVs may be involved in modulating endothelial integrity contributing to the pathogenesis of different complications of SCD.
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2022
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Circulating microparticles are associated with plaque burden and cause eNOS uncoupling in patients with carotid atherosclerosis
Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the correlation of different microparticle (MP) phenotypes with plaque burden and their diagnostic value and preliminarily explore the role of MPs in atherosclerosis (AS). Methods: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and maximal plaque area in 23 patients with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) and 22 healthy subjects were measured by ultrasound. Transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot were used to identify MPs. Flow cytometry assay measured absolute number of MPs, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the relationship between plaque burden and MPs. To study the preliminary mechanism of MPs in AS, MPs were administered to 32 male Kunming mice, which were randomly divided into control, CAS, healthy, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry staining, and Western blot were adopted to detect relevant indexes 24 h after the injection. Results: The plasma levels of CD45+ leukocyte-derived microparticle (LMP), CD11a+ LMP, CD11a+/CD45+ LMP, and CD31+/CD42b+ platelet-derived microparticle (PMP) in CAS patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects, and were positively correlated with the maximal plaque area. Moreover, the levels of CD11a+ LMP, CD11a+/CD45+ LMP were also positively correlated with CIMT. The area under the ROC curve of the four MPs was 0.689, 0.747, 0.741, and 0.701, respectively. Compared with healthy subjects, MPs from CAS patients resulted in a significantly lower expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dimer/monomer, and BH4 could improve eNOS uncoupling. Moreover, the level of VCAM-1 in intima in the CAS group was significantly higher than in the other three groups. Conclusion: CD11a+ LMP and CD11a+/CD45+ LMP might be potential biomarkers for CAS prediction. BH4-related eNOS uncoupling occurs in CAS patients, and circulating MPs from them lead to endothelial dysfunction through eNOS uncoupling.
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2022
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Circulating extracellular vesicles provide valuable protein, but not DNA, biomarkers in metastatic breast cancer
Detection of cell‐free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and cancer‐specific extracellular vesicles (EVs) in patient blood have been widely explored as non‐invasive biomarkers for cancer detection and disease follow up. However, most of the protocols used to isolate EVs co‐isolate other components and the actual value of EV‐associated markers remain unclear. To determine the optimal source of clinically‐relevant circulating biomarkers in breast cancer, we applied a size exclusion chromatography (SEC) procedure to analyse separately the content in nucleic acids of EV‐enriched and EV‐depleted fractions, in comparison to total plasma. Both cellular and mitochondrial DNA (cellDNA and mtDNA) were detected in EV‐rich and EV‐poor fractions. Analysing specific mutations identified from tumour tissues, we detected tumour‐specific cellular alleles in all SEC fractions. However, quantification of ctDNA from total plasma was more sensitive than from any SEC fractions. On the other hand, mtDNA was preferentially enriched in EV fractions from healthy donor, whereas cancer patients displayed more abundant mtDNA in total plasma, and equally distributed in all fractions. In contrast to nucleic acids, using a Multiplexed bead‐based EV‐analysis assay, we identified three surface proteins enriched in EVs from metastatic breast cancer plasma, suggesting that a small set of EV surface molecules could provide a disease signature. Our findings provide evidence that the detection of DNA within total circulating EVs does not add value as compared to the whole plasma, at least in the metastatic breast cancer patients used here. However, analysis of a subtype of EV‐associated proteins may reliably identify cancer patients. These non‐invasive biomarkers represent a promising tool for cancer diagnosis and real‐time monitoring of treatment efficacy and these results will impact the development of therapeutic approaches using EVs as targets or biomarkers of cancer.
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2022
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Circulating extracellular vesicles in lung cancer patients are not enriched in tumor-derived DNA fragments as revealed by whole genome sequencing
Abstract Liquid biopsies contain multiple analytes that can be mined to improve the detection and management of cancer. Beyond cell-free DNA (cfDNA), mutations have been detected in DNA associated with extracellular vesicles (EV-DNA). The genome-wide composition and structure of EV-DNA are poorly characterized, and it remains undecided whether circulating EVs are enriched in tumor signal compared to unfractionated cfDNA. Here, using whole genome sequencing from selected lung cancer patients with a high cfDNA tumor content (>5%), we determined that the tumor fraction and heterogeneity are comparable between DNA associated with EVs and matched plasma cfDNA. DNA in EV fractions, obtained with standardized size-exclusion chromatography, are comprised of short ∼150-180 bp fragments and long >1000 bp fragments that are poor in tumor signal. Other fractions only exhibit short fragments with similar tumor DNA content. The composition in bases at the end of EV-DNA fragments, as well as their fragmentation patterns are similar to plasma cfDNA. Mitochondrial DNA is relatively enriched in EV fractions. Our results highlight that cfDNA in plasma is of dual nature, either bound to proteins (including the nucleosome) but also associated to EV. cfDNA associated to small EV (including exosomes) is however not preferentially enriched in tumor signal.
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2022
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Circulating extracellular vesicles carrying Firmicutes reflective of the local immune status may predict clinical response to pembrolizumab in urothelial carcinoma patients
Bacterial flora has clinical significance for the host. The metabolic environment created by this flora influences immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma. However, there are no reports on the clinical significance of bacterial flora in the host bloodstream. We aimed to clarify the correlation between extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived blood microflora information and tumor immunological status in urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients. Serum samples were collected from 20 healthy donors, 50 patients with localized UC, and 31 patients with metastatic UC (mUC) who had undergone pembrolizumab treatment. Bacterial DNA in EVs was extracted from each sample. Metagenomic sequencing was performed after amplification of the V1–V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Using the matched tumor tissue and serum samples, we revealed that the smaller amount of peripheral EVs carrying Firmicutes DNA was significantly correlated with the higher number of infiltrating T cells within tumor tissues (CD3; p = 0.015, CD4; p = 0.039, CD8; p = 0.0084) and the higher expression of activation markers on their surface (ICOS on both CD4; p = 0.0013 and CD8 T cells; p = 0.016 and 4-1BB on CD4 T cells; p = 0.016). In terms of circulating metabolic information, l-Ser and l-Pro levels, which play important roles in T cell expansion and proliferation, were significantly higher in the Firmicutes-low group (p = 0.010). All of the patients with higher Firmicutes abundance had disease progression without any clinical response (p = 0.026) and significantly inferior prognosis for pembrolizumab therapy (p = 0.035). This is the first study on the importance of peripheral bacterial EVs in cancer patients treated with cancer immunotherapy.
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2022
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Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Are Strongly Associated With Cardiovascular Risk Markers
Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicron membrane-bound vesicles released from various cells, which are emerging as a potential novel biomarker in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to their procoagulatory and prothrombotic properties. However, there is little information about the relationships between circulating EVs and conventional and thrombogenic risk markers of CVDs. Objective: To investigate the relationships between circulating EVs, conventional cardiovascular risk markers and thrombogenic markers in subjects with moderate risk of CVDs. Design: Subjects (n = 40) aged 40-70 years with moderate risk of CVDs were recruited and assessed for body mass index, blood pressure and plasma lipid profile, as well as platelet aggregation, clot formation, thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. Numbers of circulating EVs were assessed by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and flow cytometry. A range of assays were used to assess the procoagulatory activity of plasma and circulating EVs. Results: Circulating EV numbers were positively associated with body mass index, blood pressure, plasma triacylglycerol concentration and overall CVD risk. Higher circulating EV numbers were also associated with increased thrombin generation and enhanced clot formation, and EVs isolated from subjects with moderate CVD risk promoted thrombin generation ex vivo. Higher numbers of endothelial-derived EVs were associated with a greater tendency for clot lysis. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration and diastolic blood pressure independently predicted circulating EV numbers, and EV numbers independently predicted aspects of thrombin generation and clot formation and 10-year CVD risk. Conclusion: Circulating EVs were strongly associated with both conventional and thrombogenic risk markers of CVDs, and also with overall CVD risk, highlighting a potentially important role for EVs in CVDs.
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2022
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Circulating Exosomal Proteins are linked to Neuropathogenesis in SIV‐infected Rhesus Macaque: A Proteomic Approach
Combined antiretroviral therapy suppresses HIV replication, but 30‐60% of patients suffer from HIV‐1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Studies are uncovering the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs), especially exosomes, in HIV CNS infection. Using proteomics, we investigated possible circulating exosomal protein links to neuropathogenesis in SIV‐infected rhesus macaque (RM). Exosomes were isolated from sera of SIV‐infected (SIV‐Exo) and uninfected (CTL‐Exo) RM (N = 3/group) by QIAGEN exoEasy kit and characterized by the qNano‐IZON system. Proteomic analysis of the isolated exosomes was performed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS). qNano‐IZON analysis indicated that isolated EVs were predominantly exosomes (particle size < 150 nm). In the LC‐MS/MS study, 5,654 proteins were quantified, with 236 proteins (~ 4%) significantly differentially expressed (DE) between CTL‐Exo and SIV‐Exo. Two or more unique peptides were detected in 85% (4777/5654) of quantified proteins, and in 89% (211/236) of significant DE proteins, indicating the depth of analysis. We quantified most of the exosome‐associated proteins (tetraspanins, enzymes, lipid rafts, cytoskeletal, and endosome‐specific proteins) reported in previous studies. The heat‐maps and hierarchical clustering indicated that proteins involved in latent viral reactivation (heat shock transcription factor 1), inflammation (complement factor H, antioxidants, glycoproteins), unfolded protein response (UPR) (proteasome activators, cochaperones), neuropathology (amyloid beta [Aβ] precursor, chromogranin‐A and ‐B), and signaling (cytoskeleton regulators, cyclin‐H, mTOR complex 2, CD74) were expressed at significantly higher levels in SIV‐Exo than CTL‐Exo. However, proteins involved in mitochondrial (Mt) fission (Mt‐fission 1, ‐fission factor, and fission regulator 1), and ATP production (Mt Complex‐I, ‐IV, and ‐V), that play a critical role in the brain energy supply, were significantly decreased in SIV‐Exo. Moreover, exosomal‐proteins involved in autophagy‐mediated degradation (autophagy related 9A, ‐2B, lysosomal associated membrane protein 2), endosomal recycling (sorting nexin 4) and exocytosis (synaptogyrin), sprouting angiogenesis (jumonij domain‐containing 6), and cytoskeleton organization (calponin) were also expressed at significantly lower levels in SIV‐Exo than CTL‐Exo. Our novel findings suggest that circulating exosomal proteins are associated with viral reactivation, inflammation, UPR, mitochondrial dysfunction, defective autophagy, and Aβ and Tau pathology that may elucidate the etiology of HAND, and possibly provide novel therapeutic targets.
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2022
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Characterization and function of extracellular vesicles in a canine mammary tumour cell line: Ultracentrifugation versus size exclusion chromatography
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound vesicles involved in many biological processes such as tumour progression. For years, ultracentrifugation (UC) has been considered the gold standard for EV isolation but limited purity and integrity allowed the diffusion of alternative techniques. In this study, EVs were isolated from a canine mammary tumour cell line using UC and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and analysed for size and concentration by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and for protein expression by western blot (WB). EV autocrine effect on cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness was then evaluated in vitro. In all samples, particles were in the EV size range (50-1000 nm), with a higher concentration in UC than in SEC samples (1011 and 1010 particles/ml respectively), and expressed EV markers (Alix, CD9). Functional assays did not show statistically significant difference among conditions, but EV treatment slightly increased cell proliferation and invasiveness and treatment with SEC-isolated EVs slightly enhanced cell migration compared to UC-isolated EVs. In conclusion, the main differences between the two isolation techniques are the quantity of the final EV-product and slight differences on EV functionality, which should be further explored to better highlight the real autocrine effect of tumoral EVs.
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2022
ev
Characterisation of Extracellular Vesicles from Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-encapsulated particles secreted by virtually all cell types. EVs play an essential role in cellular crosstalk in health and disease. The cellular origin of EVs determines their composition and potential therapeutic effect. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-derived EVs have shown a comparable therapeutic potential to their donor cells, making them a promising tool for regenerative medicine. The therapeutic application of EVs circumvents some safety concerns associated with the transplantation of viable, replicating cells and facilitates the quality-controlled production as a ready-to-go, off-the-shelf biological therapy. Recently, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) suggested a set of minimal biochemical, biophysical and functional standards to define extracellular vesicles and their functions to improve standardisation in EV research. However, nonstandardised EV isolation methods and the limited availability of cross-reacting markers for most animal species restrict the application of these standards in the veterinary field and, therefore, the species comparability and standardisation of animal experiments. In this study, EVs were isolated from equine bone-marrow-derived MSCs using two different isolation methods, stepwise ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography, and minimal experimental requirements for equine EVs were established and validated. Equine EVs were characterised using a nanotracking analysis, fluorescence-triggered flow cytometry, Western blot and transelectron microscopy. Based on the ISEV standards, minimal criteria for defining equine EVs are suggested as a baseline to allow the comparison of EV preparations obtained by different laboratories.
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2022
ev
Cathelicidin-3 Associated With Serum Extracellular Vesicles Enables Early Diagnosis of a Transmissible Cancer
The identification of practical early diagnostic biomarkers is a cornerstone of improved prevention and treatment of cancers. Such a case is devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), a highly lethal transmissible cancer afflicting virtually an entire species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Despite a latent period that can exceed one year, to date DFTD diagnosis requires visual identification of tumor lesions. To enable earlier diagnosis, which is essential for the implementation of effective conservation strategies, we analyzed the extracellular vesicle (EV) proteome of 87 Tasmanian devil serum samples using data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry approaches. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-3 (CATH3), released by innate immune cells, was enriched in serum EV samples of both devils with clinical DFTD (87.9% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity) and devils with latent infection (i.e., collected while overtly healthy, but 3-6 months before subsequent DFTD diagnosis; 93.8% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity). Although high expression of antimicrobial peptides has been mostly related to inflammatory diseases, our results suggest that they can be also used as accurate cancer biomarkers, suggesting a mechanistic role in tumorous processes. This EV-based approach to biomarker discovery is directly applicable to improving understanding and diagnosis of a broad range of diseases in other species, and these findings directly enhance the capacity of conservation strategies to ensure the viability of the imperiled Tasmanian devil population.
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2022
ev
Case Report: Analysis of Plasma Extracellular Vesicles in a Triple Negative Spindle-Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer Patient
Metaplastic breast cancer (MpBC) is a rare tumor representing 1% of all breast malignancies. The prognosis of this histologic subtype is actually poor and there are no current clear-cut therapeutic guidelines. Hence, despite its uniqueness, its aggressive prognostic profile strongly encourages further studies to identify new markers and therapeutic targets. Herein, we report a case of 32-years-old patient affected with of triple negative spindle-shaped MpBC. The research of molecular targets on the primary tumor did not allow performing an effective therapeutic choice. Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are under intense study as new potential pathophysiological markers and targets for therapeutic applications, in different tumors for their role in tumor onset, progression and aggressiveness. Here, we examined the involvement of EVs in this case, to look into the MpBC microenvironment willing to identify new potential molecular targets, pathways of aggressiveness, and markers of prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. Firstly, we characterized MpBC patient EV dimensions and surface proteins. Moreover, we analyzed the EV RNA cargo supposed to be delivered to nearby and distant recipient cells. Interestingly, we observed a dysregulation EV-contained miRNAs, which could determine an increased expression of oncogenes in the tumor microenvironment, probably enabling cancer progression. These data suggest that the characterization of miRNA cargo of EVs could be important for the identification of new markers and for the application of future new target therapies.
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2022
ev
Cancer cell uptake and distribution of oxanorbornane-based synthetic lipids and their prospects as novel drug delivery systems
Innovative developments in drug delivery technologies rely on our ability to tune the properties of supramolecular and macromolecular carriers through the chemical characteristics of individual components or building-blocks. In this regard, oxanorbornane-based synthetic lipids offer great promise as novel drug delivery systems (NDDS). As part of our efforts to develop them as vehicles for anticancer drugs, we have designed and synthesized a new derivative with a fluorescent tag (NBD) on the head group, and investigated its uptake and distribution in A549 cells. Addition of its DMSO solution to aqueous phase followed by extrusion generated solid lipid particles (SLPs), which were characterized by DLS, AFM and TEM techniques. Vesicles of this lipid in a co-assembled state with phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol were also prepared by thin-film hydration method. DLS data obtained from samples suspended in PBS showed that average size of SLPs is relatively smaller (∼56 nm) than that of vesicles (∼262 nm). The zeta potential of these particles was between −45 and −51 mV, which favor stable formulations. Confocal microscopic analysis of these aggregates after incubation with A549 cells showed that they get distributed predominantly in the cytosolic side. Concentration- and time-dependent flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake commences in the initial 5 min itself, and almost 90% of cells become NBD-positive in 2 h. There was an increase in uptake at higher concentration, indicative of passive diffusion. At the same time, a reduction in uptake at lower temperature (4 °C) compared to that at 37 °C pointed towards some contribution from active transport as well. Variation in uptake after pre-treatment with endocytosis inhibitors such as chlorpromazine and methyl-β-cyclodextrin suggested involvement of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways. Cell viability and hemolytic assays further indicated that these nanocarriers have good safety profile.
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2022
ev
Burn Injury-Induced Extracellular Vesicle Production and Characteristics
ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized membrane-bound particles containing biologically active cargo molecules. The production and molecular composition of EVs reflect the physiological state of parent cells, and once released into the circulation, they exert pleiotropic functions via transferring cargo contents. Thus, circulating EVs not only serve as biomarkers, but also mediators in disease processes or injury responses. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of plasma EVs from burn patients and healthy subjects, characterizing their size distribution, concentration, temporal changes, cell origins, and cargo protein contents. Our results indicated that burn injury induced a significant increase in circulating EVs, the response peaked at the time of admission and declined over the course of recovery. Importantly, EV production correlated with injury severity, as indicated by the total body surface area and depth of burn, requirement for critical care/ICU stay, hospitalization length, wound infection, and concurrence of sepsis. Burn patients with inhalation injury showed a higher level of EVs than those without inhalation injury. We also evaluated patient demographics (age and sex) and pre-existing conditions (hypertension, obesity, and smoking) and found no significant correlation between these conditions and overall EV production. At the molecular level, flow cytometric analysis showed that the burn-induced EVs were largely derived from leukocytes and endothelial cells (ECs), which are known to be activated postburn. Additionally, a high level of zona-occludens-1 (ZO-1), a major constituent of tight junctions, was identified in burn EV cargos, indicative of injury in tissues that form barriers via tight junctions. Moreover, when applied to endothelial cell monolayers, burn EVs caused significant barrier dysfunction, characterized by decreased transcellular barrier resistance and disrupted cell-cell junction continuity. Taken together, these data suggest that burn injury promotes the production of EVs containing unique cargo proteins in a time-dependent manner; the response correlates with injury severity and worsened clinical outcomes. Functionally, burn EVs serve as a potent mediator capable of reducing endothelial barrier resistance and impairing junction integrity, a pathophysiological process underlying burn-associated tissue dysfunction. Thus, further in-depth characterization of circulating EVs will contribute to the development of new prognostic tools or therapeutic targets for advanced burn care.
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2022
ev
Breast cancer extracellular vesicles-derived miR-1290 activates astrocytes in the brain metastatic microenvironment via the FOXA2→CNTF axis to promote progression of brain metastases
Mechanisms underlying breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) are still unclear. In this study, we observed that extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from breast cancer cells with increased expression of tGLI1, a BCBM-promoting transcription factor, strongly activated astrocytes. EV-derived microRNA/miRNA microarray revealed tGLI1-positive breast cancer cells highly secreted miR-1290 and miR-1246 encapsulated in EVs. Genetic knockin/knockout studies established a direct link between tGLI1 and both miRNAs. Datamining and analysis of patient samples revealed that BCBM patients had more circulating EV-miRs-1290/1246 than those without metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-1290 or miR-1246 strongly activated astrocytes whereas their inhibitors abrogated the effect. Conditioned media from miR-1290- or miR-1246-overexpressing astrocytes promoted mammospheres. Furthermore, miRs-1290/1246 suppressed expression of FOXA2 transcription repressor, leading to CNTF cytokine secretion and subsequent activation of astrocytes. Finally, we conducted a mouse study to demonstrate that astrocytes overexpressing miR-1290, but not miR-1246, enhanced intracranial colonization and growth of breast cancer cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that breast cancer EV-derived miR-1290 and miR-1246 activate astrocytes in the brain metastatic microenvironment and that EV-derived miR-1290 promotes progression of brain metastases through the novel EV-miR-1290→FOXA2→CNTF signaling axis.
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2022
ev
BMSC-EV-derived lncRNA NORAD Facilitates Migration, Invasion, and Angiogenesis in Osteosarcoma Cells by Regulating CREBBP via Delivery of miR-877-3p
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can boost osteosarcoma (OS) cell proliferation and invasion, yet the function of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from BMSCs on OS is scarcely known. This study is aimed at examining the role of BMSC-EVs in OS cells. BMSCs and BMSC-EVs were isolated and identified. The effect of EVs and EVs-si-NORAD on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis was determined. Expressions of NORAD, miR-877-3p, and CREBBP were detected. The binding relationship among NORAD, miR-877-3p, and CREBBP was verified. The miR-877-3p inhibitor or pc-CREBBP was delivered into OS cells treated with EVs-si-NORAD for in vitro analysis. The nude mouse model of the subcutaneous tumor xenograft was established for in vivo analysis. BMSC-EVs promoted OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. BMSC-EVs carried NORAD into OS cells and upregulated CREBBP by sponging miR-877-3p. miR-877-3p downregulation or CREBBP overexpression partly inverted the inhibitory effect of EVs by silencing NORAD on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. In vivo experiments validated that BMSC-EV-derived NORAD facilitated tumor growth by upregulating CREBBP via miR-877-3p. To conclude, BMSC-EV-derived NORAD facilitated OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis by modulating CREBBP via miR-877-3p, which may offer new insights into OS treatment.
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2022
Biomechanical responses of encysted zoospores of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis to hyperosmotic stress are consistent with an ability to turgor regulate
Zoospores are motile, asexual reproductive propagules that enable oomycete pathogens to locate and infect new host tissue. While motile, they have no cell wall and maintain tonicity with their external media using water expulsion vacuoles. Once they locate host tissue, they encyst and form a cell wall, enabling the generation of turgor pressure that will provide the driving force for germination and invasion of the host. It is not currently known how these spores respond to the osmotic stresses that might arise due to different environments on and around their hosts that have different osmotic strengths. We have made microaspiration (MA) measurements on > 800 encysted zoospores and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on 12 encysted zoospores to determine their mechanical properties and how these change after hyperosmotic stress. Two types of encysted zoospores (Type A and Type B) were produced from the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, that differed in their morphology and response. With a small hyperosmotic stress (using 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 155.4 and 295.6 mOsmol/kg), Type A zoospores initially became stiffer, with an increase in the Young's modulus (E) over 30 mins from 0.16 MPa to 0.25 and 0.22 MPa respectively. E then returned to its original value after 120 min. With a greater osmotic stress (using 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 438.2, 587.2 and 787.6 mOsmol/kg) the reverse occurred, with an initial decrease in E over 30 - 60 mins to values of 0.1, 0.08 and 0.09 MPa respectively, before recovery to the original value after 120 min. In 0.5 M sorbitol this recovery was only observed with AFM, but not with MA. Type B zoospores, which may be primary/secondary spores about to release secondary/tertiary spores, or else spores that were damaged during encystment, initially stiffened in response to the lower hyperosmotic stresses with a slight increase in E (from 0.077 to 0.1 MPa after 15 min (with both 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol) before recovering to the original value after 60 min. These spores showed no change in response to the higher osmotic stresses. The responses of the Type A spores are consistent with rapid changes in cell wall thickness and a turgor regulation mechanism. Turgor regulation is further supported by microscopic observations of the Type A spores showing protoplast retraction from the cell wall followed by deplasmolysis, coupled with measurements of spore volume. As far as we are aware this is the first demonstration of turgor regulation, not just in encysted zoospores, but in oomycetes in general.
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2022
vr
Bioanalytics for Influenza Virus-Like Particle Characterization and Process Monitoring
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are excellent platforms for the development of influenza vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, their characterization is challenging due to VLPs' unique biophysical and biochemical properties. To cope with such complexity, multiple analytical techniques have been developed to date (e.g., single-particle analysis, thermal stability, or quantification assays), most of which are rarely used or have been successfully demonstrated for being applicable for virus particle characterization. In this study, several biophysical and biochemical methods have been evaluated for thorough characterization of monovalent and pentavalent influenza VLPs from diverse groups (A and B) and subtypes (H1 and H3) produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS). Particle size distribution and purity profiles were monitored during the purification process using two complementary technologies - nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). VLP surface charge at the selected process pH was also assessed by this last technique. The morphology of the VLP (size, shape, and presence of hemagglutinin spikes) was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Circular dichroism was used to assess VLPs' thermal stability. Total protein, DNA, and baculovirus content were also assessed. All VLPs analyzed exhibited similar size ranges (90-115 nm for NTA and 129-141 nm for TRPS), surface charges (average of -20.4 mV), and morphology (pleomorphic particles resembling influenza virus) exhibiting the presence of HA molecules (spikes) uniformly displayed on M1 protein scaffold. Our data shows that HA titers and purification efficiency in terms of impurity removal and thermal stability were observed to be particle dependent. This study shows robustness and generic applicability of the tools and methods evaluated, independent of VLP valency and group/subtype. Thus, they are most valuable to assist process development and enhance product characterization.
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2022
ev
Assessment of extracellular vesicle isolation methods from human stool supernatant
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are of growing interest due to their potential diagnostic, disease surveillance, and therapeutic applications. While several studies have evaluated EV isolation methods in various biofluids, there are few if any data on these techniques when applied to stool. The latter is an ideal biospecimen for studying EVs and colorectal cancer (CRC) because the release of tumour markers by luminal exfoliation into stool occurs earlier than vascular invasion. Since EV release is a conserved mechanism, bacteria in stool contribute to the overall EV population. In this study, we assessed five EV separation methods (ultracentrifugation [UC], precipitation [EQ-O, EQ-TC], size exclusion chromatography [SEC], and ultrafiltration [UF]) for total recovery, reproducibility, purity, RNA composition, and protein expression in stool supernatant. CD63, TSG101, and ompA proteins were present in EV fractions from all methods except UC. Human (18s) and bacterial (16s) rRNA was detected in stool EV preparations. Enzymatic treatment prior to extraction is necessary to avoid non-vesicular RNA contamination. Ultrafiltration had the highest recovery, RNA, and protein yield. After assessing purity further, SEC was the isolation method of choice. These findings serve as the groundwork for future studies that use high throughput omics technologies to investigate the potential of stool-derived EVs as a source for novel biomarkers for early CRC detection.
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2022
ev
Anti-inflammatory effects of extracellular vesicles from Morchella on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells via the ROS-mediated p38 MAPK signaling pathway
Morchella is a kind of important edible and medicinal fungi, which is rich in polysaccharides, enzymes, fatty acids, amino acids and other active components. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a typical membrane structure, and the vesicles contain some specific lipids, miRNAs and proteins, and their can deliver the contents to different cells to change their functions. The present study investigated whether Morchella produce extracellular vesicles and its anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW246.7 macrophages. The experimental results showed that Morchella produced extracellular vesicles and significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a model of LPS-induced inflammation. In addition, the expression of inflammatory factor-related genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed dose-dependent inhibition. Morchella extracellular vesicles also can inhibit the inflammatory response induced by LPS by inhibiting the production of ROS and reducing the phosphorylation levels of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These results indicate that the Morchella extracellular vesicles can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory substance in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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2022
ev
Analyses of single extracellular vesicles from non-small lung cancer cells to reveal effects by Epidermal growth factor inhibitor treatments
Abstract Precision cancer medicine have changed the treatment landscape of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as illustrated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) towards mutated Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Yet, responses to such TKIs e.g., erlotinib and osimertinib among patients are heterogenous and there is a need for non-invasive blood-based analytics to follow treatment response and reveal resistance to improve patient’s treatment outcome. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as an important source of tumor biomarkers promising to revolutionize liquid biopsy-based diagnosis of cancer. However, high heterogeneity has been a major bottleneck. The pathological signature is often hidden in the differential expression of membrane proteins in a subset of EVs which are difficult to identify with bulk techniques. Using a fluorescence-based approach, we for the first time demonstrate that the single-EV technique can be used to monitor the treatment response of targeted cancer therapies such as TKIs towards EGFR. To test the hypothesis, we analyzed the membrane proteins of native EVs extracted from EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell line, both prior and post treatment with EGFR-TKIs erlotinib or osimertinib. The selected cell line being refractory to erlotinib and responsive to osimertinib makes it a suitable model system. The expression level of five surface proteins; two common tetraspanins (CD9, CD81) and three markers of specific interest in lung cancer (EGFR, PD-L1, HER2) were studied. The data suggest that in contrast to erlotinib, the osimertinib treatment increases the population of PD-L1, EGFR and HER2 positive EVs while the expression level per EV decreases for all the three markers. The PD-L1 and HER2 expressing EV population seems to increase by several fold because of osimertinib treatment. The observations agree with the previous reports performed on cellular level indicating the biomarker potential of EVs for liquid-biopsy based monitoring of targeted cancer treatments. Highlights Membrane protein analyses of single EVs may reveal distinct differences when lung cancer cells are refractory vs responsive under different EGFR-TKI treatments. Comparison of 1 st generation erlotinib and 3 rd generation osimertinib shows clear signature on the expression of PD-L1, EGFR, HER2 on single EVs Colocalization showed a change in common marker combinations before after treatment. PD-L1 expression per vesicle decreases while the number of PD-L1 positive EVs increases as a result of osimertinib treatment, indicating that such signature may not be detectable under bulk analysis
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2022
ev
An electro-optical bead-nanochip technology for the ultrasensitive and multi-dimensional detection of small extracellular vesicles and their markers
ABSTRACT Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes, are enriched in multiomics information mirroring their parental cells. They have been investigated in health and disease and utilised in several applications from drug discovery to diagnostics. In disease diagnostics, sEVs can be sampled via a blood draw, enabling the convenient liquid biopsy of the tissue they originate from. However, few applications with sEVs have been translated into clinical practice. We developed a Nanoparticle EXOsome Sensing (NEXOS) technology, for the ultrasensitive and multi-dimensional detection of sEVs. NEXOS comprises two methods: a novel nanoelectronics method, E-NEXOS, and a high-throughput optical detection method, O-NEXOS. Both methods share the same steps for the immunocapture and antibody-labelling of sEVs and can be combined to derive differentiated detection parameters. As a proof of concept, we show the analytical detection and sensitivity of these methods in detecting pre-prepared cancer cell-derived CD9 + CD81 + and CD9 + HER2 + sEVs. Both sEV populations were diluted in PBS and spiked in processed plasma. We also provide a novel approach for the determination of target sEVs (TEVs), target epitopes in sEVs (TEPs), and epitopes per target sEV, as yet unseen from current and emerging technologies. Further, we demonstrate the higher sensitivity of O-NEXOS compared to the gold standard techniques, as well as demonstrating that E-NEXOS possesses commensurate sensitivity whilst only being powered by 36 nanogap-based sensors per nanochip. Finally, this manuscript lays the groundwork for a scalable electronics miniaturization of E-NEXOS nanochip with millions of nanogap-based sensors for the translation of NEXOS into standard clinical practice.
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2022
ev
Addressing MISEV guidance using targeted LC‐MS/MS: A method for the detection and quantification of extracellular vesicle‐enriched and contaminant protein markers from blood
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane‐bound nanosized particles released by cells into bodily fluids containing an array of molecular cargo. Several characteristics, including stability and accessibility in biofluids such as blood and urine, make EVs and associated cargo attractive biomarkers and therapeutic tools. To promote robust characterisation of EV isolates, the minimal requirements for the study of extracellular vesicles (MISEV) guidelines recommend the analysis of proteins in EV samples, including positive EV‐associated markers and negative contaminant markers based on commonly co‐isolated components of the starting material. Western blot is conventionally used to address the guidelines; however, this approach is limited in terms of quantitation and throughput and requires larger volumes than typically available for patient samples. The increasing application of EVs as liquid biopsy in clinical contexts requires a high‐throughput multiplexed approach for analysis of protein markers from small volumes of starting material. Here, we document the development and validation of a targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) assay for the quantification of markers associated with EVs and non‐vesicle contaminants from human blood samples. The assay was highly sensitive, requiring only a fraction of the sample consumed for immunoblots, fully quantitative and high throughput. Application of the assay to EVs isolated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and precipitation revealed differences in yield, purity and recovery of subpopulations.
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2022
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