Application of Nanomaterials in the Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Extracellular Vesicles

Due to differences in geographic surveillance systems, chemical sanitization practices, and antibiotic stewardship (AS) implementation employed during the COVID-19 pandemic, many experts have expressed concerns regarding a future surge in global antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A potential beneficiary of these differences is the Gram-positive bacteria MRSA. MRSA is a bacterial pathogen with a high potential for mutational resistance, allowing it to engage various AMR mechanisms circumventing conventional antibiotic therapies and the host's immune response. Coupled with a lack of novel FDA-approved antibiotics reaching the clinic, the onus is on researchers to develop alternative treatment tools to mitigate against an increase in pathogenic resistance. Mitigation strategies can take the form of synthetic or biomimetic nanomaterials/vesicles employed in vaccines, rapid diagnostics, antibiotic delivery, and nanotherapeutics. This review seeks to discuss the current potential of the aforementioned nanomaterials in detecting and treating MRSA.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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