An immunogold single extracellular vesicular RNA and protein (AuSERP) biochip to predict responses to immunotherapy in non‐small cell lung cancer patients

Extracellular Vesicles

Conventional PD-L1 immunohistochemical tissue biopsies only predict 20%-40% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that will respond positively to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. Herein, we present an immunogold biochip to quantify single extracellular vesicular RNA and protein (Au SERP) as a non-invasive alternative. With only 20 μl of purified serum, PD-1/PD-L1 proteins on the surface of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and EV PD-1/PD-L1 messenger RNA (mRNA) cargo were detected at a single-vesicle resolution and exceeded the sensitivities of their bulk-analysis conventional counterparts, ELISA and qRT-PCR, by 1000 times. By testing a cohort of 27 non-responding and 27 responding NSCLC patients, Au SERP indicated that the single-EV mRNA biomarkers surpass the single-EV protein biomarkers in predicting patient responses to immunotherapy. Dual single-EV PD-1/PD-L1 mRNA detection differentiated responders from non-responders with an accuracy of 72.2% and achieved an NSCLC diagnosis accuracy of 93.2%, suggesting the potential for Au SERP to provide enhanced immunotherapy predictions and cancer diagnoses within the clinical setting.

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Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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