A novel strategy to identify candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for gastric cancer

Extracellular Vesicles

BackgroundGastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. It is essential to identify non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of GC. The aim of the present study was to screen candidate biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of GC by a novel strategy.MethodsThe expression level of gene higher in cancer than in adjacent non-cancer tissue was defined as “positive”, and the top 5% genes with “positive rate” were filtered out as candidate diagnostic biomarkers in three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Further, a prognostic risk model was constructed by multivariate Cox regression analysis in GEO dataset and validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The expression level of candidate biomarkers was determined in serum and serum-derived exosomes of GC patients. Moreover, the effect of biomarkers in exosomes on migration of GC cells was analyzed by transwell assay.ResultsTen candidate biomarkers (AGT, SERPINH1, WNT2, LIPG, PLAU, COL1A1, MMP7, MXRA5, CXCL1 and COL11A1) were identified with efficient diagnostic value in GC. A prognostic gene signature consisted of AGT, SERPINH1 and MMP7 was constructed and showed a good performance in predicting overall survivals in TCGA. Consistently, serum levels of the three biomarkers also showed high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing GC patients from controls. In addition, the expression level of the three biomarkers were associated with malignant degree and decreased after surgery in GC patients. Moreover, the expression level of AGT and MMP7 in exosomes correlated positively with serum level. The exosomes derived from serum of GC patients can promote migration of SGC‐7901 cells. After neutralized the expression level of three proteins in exosomes with antibodies, the migration of GC cells was obviously suppressed.ConclusionsOur findings provided a novel strategy to identify diagnostic biomarkers based on public datasets, and suggested that the three-gene signature was a candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with GC.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.