Silica Inverse Opal Nanostructured Sensors for Enhanced Immunodetection of Extracellular Vesicles by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring

Extracellular Vesicles

Suthar, Jugal, Alberto Alvarez-Fernandez, Alaric Taylor, Maximiliano J. Fornerod, Gareth R. Williams, and Stefan Guldin. 2022. “Silica Inverse Opal Nanostructured Sensors for Enhanced Immunodetection of Extracellular Vesicles by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.” ACS Applied Nano Materials, August.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized circulating assemblies that contain biomarkers considered promising for early diagnosis within neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Recently, acoustic wave biosensors, in particular based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), have emerged as a sensitive, label-free, and selective EV characterization platform. A rational approach to further improving sensing detection limits relies on the nanostructuration of the sensor surfaces. To this end, inorganic inverse opals (IOs) derived from colloidal self-assembly present a highly tunable and scalable nanoarchitecture of suitable feature sizes and surface chemistry. This work systematically investigates their use in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) for enhanced QCM-D EV detection. Precise tuning of the architecture parameters delivered improvements in detection performance to sensitivities as low as 6.24 × 107 particles/mL. Our findings emphasize that attempts to enhance acoustic immunosensing via increasing the surface area by 3D nanostructuration need to be carefully analyzed in order to exclude solvent and artifact entrapment effects. Moreover, the use of 2D nanostructured electrodes to compartmentalize analyte anchoring presents a particularly promising design principle.

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