Role of peroxiredoxin 6 in the chondroprotective effects of microvesicles from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation, low-grade synovitis and subchondral bone alterations. In the damaged joint, there is a progressive increase of oxidative stress leading to disruption of chondrocyte homeostasis. The modulation of oxidative stress could control the expression of inflammatory and catabolic mediators involved in OA. We have previously demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in the secretome of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) exert anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in OA chondrocytes. In the current work, we have investigated whether AD-MSC EVs could regulate oxidative stress in OA chondrocytes as well as the possible contribution of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). METHODS: Microvesicles (MV) and exosomes (EX) were isolated from AD-MSC conditioned medium by differential centrifugation with size filtration. The size and concentration of EVs were determined by resistive pulse sensing. OA chondrocytes were isolated from knee articular cartilage of advanced OA patients. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts, IL-6 and MMP-13 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of Prdx6 and autophagic markers was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Prdx6 was downregulated in AD-MSCs by transfection with a specific siRNA. RESULTS: MV and to a lesser extent EX significantly reduced the production of oxidative stress in OA chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β. Treatment with MV resulted in a dramatic upregulation of Prdx6. MV also enhanced the expression of autophagy marker LC3B. We downregulated Prdx6 in AD-MSCs by using a specific siRNA and then MV were isolated. These Prdx6-silenced MV failed to modify oxidative stress and the expression of autophagy markers. We also assessed the possible contribution of Prdx6 to the effects of MV on IL-6 and MMP-13 production. The reduction in the levels of both mediators induced by MV was partly reverted after Prdx6 silencing. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that EVs from AD-MSCs regulate the production of oxidative stress in OA chondrocytes during inflammation. Prdx6 may mediate the antioxidant and protective effects of MV.The translational potential of this article: This study gives insight into the protective properties of EVs from AD-MSCs in OA chondrocytes. Our findings support the development of novel therapies based on EVs to prevent or treat cartilage degradation.
Phospholipid fatty acid remodeling and carbonylated protein increase in extracellular vesicles released by airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract
Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.
A portable elliptical dichroism spectrometer targeting secondary structural features of tumorous protein for pancreatic cancer detection
Stereochemical analysis is essential for understanding the complex function of biomolecules. Various direct and indirect approaches can be used to explore the allosteric configuration. However, the size, cost, and delicate nature of these systems limit their biomedical usage. Here, we constructed elliptical dichroism (ED) spectrometer for biomedical applications, whose performance is validated by experiment and theoretical simulation (Jones/Mueller calculus and time-dependent density-functional theory). Instead of complicated control of circular polarization, ED spectrometer adopted the absorbance of left- and right-oriented elliptically polarized light. With a simplified design, we demonstrated the potential of ED spectrometry as an alternative for secondary structural analysis of biomolecules, their conformation and chirality. It not only provides a portable, low-cost alternative to the sophisticated instruments currently used for structural analysis of biomolecules but also provides superior translational features: low sample consumption(200μl), easy operation, and multiple working modes, for noninvasive cancer detection.
Endosomal escape of nucleic acids from extracellular vesicles mediates functional therapeutic delivery
Extracellular vesicles hold great promise as a drug delivery platform for RNA-based therapeutics. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence for the intracellular trafficking of nucleic acid cargos, specifically, whether they are capable of escaping from the endolysosomal confinement in the recipient cells to be released into the cytosol and hence, interact with their cytoplasmic targets. Here, we demonstrated how red blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles (RBCEVs) release their therapeutic RNA/DNA cargos at specific intracellular compartments characteristic of late endosomes and lysosomes. The released cargos were functional and capable of knocking down genes of interest in recipient cells, resulting in tumor suppression in vitro and in an acute myeloid leukemia murine model without causing significant toxicity. Notably, surface functionalization of RBCEVs with an anti-human CXCR4 antibody facilitated their specific uptake by CXCR4+ leukemic cells, leading to enhanced gene silencing efficiency. Our results provide insights into the cellular uptake mechanisms and endosomal escape routes of nucleic acid cargos delivered by RBCEVs which have important implications for further improvements of the RBCEV-based delivery system.