miR-1227 Targets SEC23A to Regulate the Shedding of Large Extracellular Vesicles

Extracellular Vesicles

Cancer cells shed a heterogenous mixture of extracellular vesicles (EVs), differing in both size and composition, which likely influence physiological processes in different manners. However, how cells differentially control the shedding of these EV populations is poorly understood. Here, we show that miR-1227, which is enriched in prostate cancer EVs, compared to the cell of origin, but not in EVs derived from prostate benign epithelial cells, induces the shedding of large EVs (such as large oncosomes), while inhibiting the shedding of small EVs (such as exosomes). RNA sequencing from cells stably expressing miR-1227, a modified RISCTRAP assay that stabilizes and purifies mRNA-miR-1227 complexes for RNA sequencing, and in silico target prediction tools were used to identify miR-1227 targets that may mediate this alteration in EV shedding. The COPII vesicle protein SEC23A emerged and was validated by qPCR, WBlot, and luciferase assays as a direct target of miR-1227. The inhibition of SEC23A was sufficient to induce the shedding of large EVs. These results identify a novel mechanism of EV shedding, by which the inhibition of SEC23A by miR-1227 induces a shift in EV shedding, favoring the shedding of large EV over small EV.

View full article

Recent Publications

Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

No items found.
No items found.
No items found.