Influence of extracellular nanovesicles derived from adipose-derived stem cells on nucleus pulposus cell from patients with intervertebral disc degeneration

Extracellular Vesicles

An increasing number of individuals are suffering from lower back and neck pain caused by intervertebral disc degeneration each year. Although the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has provided desirable results in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, there are multiple risks associated with the directed application of MSCs. An increasing number of studies have suggested that stem cells, through the release of extracellular nanovesicles, have vital functions in tissue regeneration and repair with low risk. The present study investigated the effect of extracellular nanovesicles derived from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from patients with intervertebral disc degeneration. Human NP cells were obtained from patients with intervertebral disc degeneration undergoing surgical procedures in addition to ADSCs from liposuction patients. ADSC-derived extracellular nanovesicles were isolated and characterized. The differentiation and biological activity of NP cells cultured with or without ADSC-derived extracellular nanovesicles were assessed and inflammatory factors and intervertebral disc degeneration-associated markers were also measured. The results indicated that extracellular nanovesicles derived from ADSCs increased the migration and proliferation of NP cells and inhibited inflammatory activity, suggesting their utility for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.

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Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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