Exosomes from neuronal stem cells may protect the heart from ischaemia/reperfusion injury via JAK1/2 and gp130

Extracellular Vesicles

Myocardial infarction requires urgent reperfusion to salvage viable heart tissue. However, reperfusion increases infarct size further by promoting mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes. Exosomes from a wide range of different cell sources have been shown to activate cardioprotective pathways in cardiomyocytes, thereby reducing infarct size. Yet, it is currently challenging to obtain highly pure exosomes in quantities enough for clinical studies. To overcome this problem, we used exosomes isolated from CTX0E03 neuronal stem cells, which are genetically stable, conditionally inducible and can be produced on an industrial scale. However, it is unknown whether exosomes from neuronal stem cells may reduce cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we demonstrate that exosomes from differentiating CTX0E03 cells can reduce infarct size in mice. In an in vitro assay, these exosomes delayed cardiomyocyte mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, which is responsible for cardiomyocyte death after reperfusion. The mechanism of MPTP inhibition was via gp130 signalling and the downstream JAK/STAT pathway. Our results support previous findings that exosomes from non-cardiomyocyte-related cells produce exosomes capable of protecting cardiomyocytes from myocardial infarction. We anticipate our findings may encourage scientists to use exosomes obtained from reproducible clinical-grade stocks of cells for their ischaemia/reperfusion studies.

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Cigarette smoke (CS) represents one of the most relevant environmental risk factors for several chronic pathologies. Tissue damage caused by CS exposure is mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress induced by its toxic and pro-oxidant components. Evidence demonstrates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cell types exposed to CS extract (CSE) are characterized by altered biochemical cargo and gained pathological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the content of oxidized proteins and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of EVs released by human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells treated with CSE. This specific molecular characterization has hitherto not been performed. After confirmation that CSE reduces viability of BEAS-2B cells and elevates intracellular ROS levels, in a dose-dependent manner, we demonstrated that 24 h exposure at 1% CSE, a concentration that only slight modifies cell viability but increases ROS levels, was able to increase carbonylated protein levels in cells and released EVs. The release of oxidatively modified proteins via EVs might represent a mechanism used by cells to remove toxic proteins in order to avoid their intracellular overloading. Moreover, 1% CSE induced only few changes in the fatty acid asset in BEAS-2B cell membrane phospholipids, whereas several rearrangements were observed in EVs released by CSE-treated cells. The impact of changes in acyl chain composition of CSE-EVs accounted for the increased saturation levels of phospholipids, a membrane parameter that might influence EV stability, uptake and, at least in part, EV-mediated biological effects. The present in vitro study adds new information concerning the biochemical composition of CSE-related EVs, useful to predict their biological effects on target cells. Furthermore, the information regarding the presence of oxidized proteins and the specific membrane features of CSE-related EVs can be useful to define the utilization of circulating EVs as marker for diagnosing of CS-induced lung damage and/or CS-related diseases.

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