Characterizing Extracellular Vesicles and Particles Derived from Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and Myotubes and the Effect of Acute Contractile Activity
Bydak, Benjamin, Taiana M. Pierdoná, Samira Seif, Karim Sidhom, Patience O. Obi, Hagar I. Labouta, Joseph W. Gordon, and Ayesha Saleem. 2022. “Characterizing Extracellular Vesicles and Particles Derived from Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and Myotubes and the Effect of Acute Contractile Activity.” Membranes 12 (5): 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12050464.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), released from all cells, are essential to cellular communication and contain biomolecular cargo that can affect recipient cell function. Studies on the effects of contractile activity (exercise) on EVs usually rely on plasma/serum-based assessments, which contain EVs from many different cells. To specifically characterize skeletal muscle–derived vesicles and the effect of acute contractile activity, we used an in vitro model where C2C12 mouse myoblasts were differentiated to form myotubes. EVs were isolated from conditioned media from muscle cells at pre-differentiation (myoblasts) and post-differentiation (myotubes) and also from acutely stimulated myotubes (1 h @ 14 V, C-Pace EM, IonOptix, Westwood, MA, USA) using total exosome isolation reagent (TEI, ThermoFisher (Waltham, MA, USA), referred to as extracellular particles [EPs]) and differential ultracentrifugation (dUC; EVs). Myotube-EPs (~98 nm) were 41% smaller than myoblast-EPs (~167 nm, p < 0.001, n = 8–10). Two-way ANOVA showed a significant main effect for the size distribution of myotube vs. myoblast-EPs (p < 0.01, n = 10–13). In comparison, myoblast-EPs displayed a bimodal size distribution profile with peaks at <200 nm and 400–600, whereas myotube-Eps were largely 50–300 nm in size. Total protein yield from myotube-EPs was nearly 15-fold higher than from the myoblast-EPs, (p < 0.001 n = 6–9). Similar biophysical characteristics were observed when EVs were isolated using dUC: myotube-EVs (~195 nm) remained 41% smaller in average size than myoblast-EVs (~330 nm, p = 0.07, n = 4–6) and had comparable size distribution profiles to EPs isolated via TEI. Myotube-EVs also had 4.7-fold higher protein yield vs. myoblast EVs (p < 0.05, n = 4–6). Myotube-EPs exhibited significantly decreased expression of exosomal marker proteins TSG101, CD63, ALIX and CD81 compared with myoblast-EPs (p < 0.05, n = 7–12). Conversely, microvesicle marker ARF6 and lipoprotein marker APO-A1 were only found in the myotube-EPs (p < 0.05, n = 4–12). There was no effect of acute stimulation on myotube-EP biophysical characteristics (n = 7) or on the expression of TSG101, ARF6 or CD81 (n = 5–6). Myoblasts treated with control or acute stimulation–derived EPs (13 g/well) for 48 h and 72 h showed no changes in mitochondrial mass (MitoTracker Red, ThermoFisher,Waltham, MA, USA), cell viability or cell count (n = 3–4). Myoblasts treated with EP-depleted media (72 h) exhibited ~90% lower cell counts (p < 0.01, n = 3). Our data show that EVs differed in size, distribution, protein yield and expression of subtype markers pre vs. post skeletal muscle–differentiation into myotubes. There was no effect of acute stimulation on biophysical profile or protein markers in EPs. Acute stimulation–derived EPs did not alter mitochondrial mass or cell count/viability. Further investigation into the effects ofchronic contractile activity on the biophysical characteristics and cargo of skeletal muscle–specific EVs are warranted.View full article