Novel modification of Luminex assay for characterization of extracellular vesicle populations in biofluids.
Volpert, OV, E Gershun, K Elgart, V Kalia, H Wu, AA Baccarelli, E Eren, et al. 2022. “Novel Modification of Luminex Assay for Characterization of Extracellular Vesicle Populations in Biofluids,” January. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.12.475897.
Most approaches to extracellular vesicle (EV) characterization focus on EV size or density. However, such approaches provide few clues regarding EV origin, molecular composition, and function. New methods to characterize the EV surface proteins may aid our understanding of their origin, physiological roles, and biomarker potential. Recently developed immunoassays for intact EVs based on ELISA, NanoView, SIMOA and MesoScale platforms are highly sensitive, but have limited multiplexing capabilities, whereas MACSPlex FACS enables the detection of multiple EV surface proteins, but requires significant quantities of purified EVs, which limits its adoption. Here, we describe a novel Luminex-based immunoassay, which combines multiplexing capabilities with high sensitivity and, importantly, bypasses the enrichment and purification steps that require larger sample volumes. We demonstrate the method’s specificity for detecting EV surface proteins using multiple EV depletion techniques, EVs of specific cellular origin isolated from culture media, and by co-localization with established EV surface markers. Using this novel approach, we elucidate differences in the tetraspanin profiles of the EVs carrying erythrocyte and neuron markers. Using size exclusion chromatography, we show that plasma EVs of putative neuronal and tissue macrophage origin are eluted in fractions distinct from those derived from erythrocytes, or from their respective cultured cells. In conclusion, our novel multiplexed assay differentiates between EVs from erythrocytes, macrophages, and neurons, and offers a new means for capture, classification, and profiling of EVs from diverse sources.View full article