Enzymatically active apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 is released by mammalian cells through exosomes
Mangiapane, Giovanna, Isabella Parolini, Kristel Conte, Matilde Clarissa Malfatti, Jessica Corsi, Massimo Sanchez, Agostina Pietrantoni, Vito G. D’Agostino, and Gianluca Tell. "Enzymatically active apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 is released by mammalian cells through exosomes." Journal of Biological Chemistry 296 (2021).
The apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APE1), the main AP-endonuclease of the DNA base excision repair pathway, is a key molecule of interest to researchers due to its unsuspected roles in different nonrepair activities, such as: i) adaptive cell response to genotoxic stress, ii) regulation of gene expression, and iii) processing of microRNAs, which make it an excellent drug target for cancer treatment. We and others recently demonstrated that APE1 can be secreted in the extracellular environment and that serum APE1 may represent a novel prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular and non-small-cell lung cancers. However, the mechanism by which APE1 is released extracellularly was not described before. Here, using three different approaches for exosomes isolation: commercial kit, nickel-based isolation, and ultracentrifugation methods and various mammalian cell lines, we elucidated the mechanisms responsible for APE1 secretion. We demonstrated that APE1 p37 and p33 forms are actively secreted through extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes from different mammalian cell lines. We then observed that APE1 p33 form is generated by proteasomal-mediated degradation and is enzymatically active in EVs. Finally, we revealed that the p33 form of APE1 accumulates in EVs upon genotoxic treatment by cisplatin and doxorubicin, compounds commonly found in chemotherapy pharmacological treatments. Taken together, these findings provide for the first time evidence that a functional Base Excision Repair protein is delivered through exosomes in response to genotoxic stresses, shedding new light into the complex noncanonical biological functions of APE1 and opening new intriguing perspectives on its role in cancer biology.View full article