Effects of exercise on exosome release and cargo in in vivo and ex vivo models: A systematic review
Estébanez, Brisamar, David Jiménez‐Pavón, Chun‐Jung Huang, María J. Cuevas, and Javier González‐Gallego. "Effects of exercise on exosome release and cargo in in vivo and ex vivo models: A systematic review." Journal of cellular physiology 236, no. 5 (2021): 3336-3353.
Exercise-released exosomes have been identified as novel players to mediate cell-to-cell communication in promoting systemic beneficial effects. This review aimed to systematically investigate the effects of exercise on exosome release and cargo, as well as provide an overview of their physiological implications. Among the 436 articles obtained in the database search (WOS, Scopus, and PubMed), 19 articles were included based on eligibility criteria. Results indicate that exercise promotes the release of exosomes without modification of its vesicle size. The literature has primarily shown an exercise-driven increase in exosome markers (Alix, CD63, CD81, and Flot-1), along with other exosome-carried proteins, into circulation. However, exosome isolation, characterization, and phenotyping methodology, as well as timing of sample recovery following exercise can influence the analysis and interpretation of findings. Moreover, a large number of exosome-carried microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, and miR-486, in response to exercise are involved in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle tissue, although antigen-presenting cells, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and platelets are the main sources of exosome release into the circulation. Collectively, with the physiological implications as evidenced by the ex vivo trials, the release of exercise-promoted exosomes and their cargo could provide the potential therapeutic applications via the role of intercellular communication.View full article