A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids
Bano, Reshma, Farhan Ahmad, and Mohd Mohsin. "A perspective on the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from different biofluids." RSC Advances 11, no. 32 (2021): 19598-19615.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound particles, which include exosomes, micro vesicles (MVs) and various-sized vesicles, released by healthy and diseased cells. EVs also include other vesicular structures, such as large apoptotic bodies (1–5 μm), as well as membrane particles (50–80 nm) originating from the plasma membrane. However, exosomes are nanosize (≈30–100 nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin that are bud-off by most types of cells and circulate in bodily fluids. Extracellular nanovesicles contain a large variety of biomolecules, including miRNA, RNA, DNA, proteins, signaling peptides and lipids, that can have diagnostic and therapeutic value. The spectrum of the existing scientific interest in extracellular nanovesicles is comprehensive, which ranges from understanding their functions and pathways to their potential clinical usage. EVs can be obtained from different body fluids with minimally invasive techniques (e.g., urine, plasma, serum), so they are most useful in disease diagnosis. High yield and purity contribute to the accurate diagnosis of various diseases, but damaged EVs and impurities can cause misinterpreted results. Over the last decade, a plethora of approaches have been developed for examining EVs using optical and non-optical tools. However, EV isolation methods have different yields and purities. Moreover, the isolation method that is most appropriate to maximize EVs recovery depends on the different experimental situations. This review explores the emerging use of micro and nano-technologies to isolate and characterize exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) from different biological samples, and the application of these technologies for the monitoring and diagnosis of different pathological conditions.View full article