Small extracellular vesicles in cancer
ev nm vr
Abhange, Komal, Amy Makler, Yi Wen, Natasha Ramnauth, Wenjun Mao, Waseem Asghar, and Yuan Wan. "Small extracellular vesicles in cancer." Bioactive Materials 6, no. 11 (2021): 3705-3743.
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are lipid-bilayer enclosed vesicles in submicron size that are released from cells. A variety of molecules, including proteins, DNA fragments, RNAs, lipids, and metabolites can be selectively encapsulated into EVs and delivered to nearby and distant recipient cells. In tumors, through such intercellular communication, EVs can regulate initiation, growth, metastasis and invasion of tumors. Recent studies have found that EVs exhibit specific expression patterns which mimic the parental cell, providing a fingerprint for early cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as monitoring responses to treatment. Accordingly, various EV isolation and detection technologies have been developed for research and diagnostic purposes. Moreover, natural and engineered EVs have also been used as drug delivery nanocarriers, cancer vaccines, cell surface modulators, therapeutic agents and therapeutic targets. Overall, EVs are under intense investigation as they hold promise for pathophysiological and translational discoveries. This comprehensive review examines the latest EV research trends over the last five years, encompassing their roles in cancer pathophysiology, diagnostics and therapeutics. This review aims to examine the full spectrum of tumor-EV studies and provide a comprehensive foundation to enhance the field. The topics which are discussed and scrutinized in this review encompass isolation techniques and how these issues need to be overcome for EV-based diagnostics, EVs and their roles in cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring, EVs as vaccines, therapeutic targets, and EVs as drug delivery systems. We will also examine the challenges involved in EV research and promote a framework for catalyzing scientific discovery and innovation for tumor-EV-focused research.View full article