Multiplexed electrokinetic sensor for detection and therapy monitoring of extracellular vesicles from liquid biopsies of non-small-cell lung cancer patients
Cavallaro, Sara, Petra Hååg, Siddharth Sourabh Sahu, Lorenca Berisha, Vitaliy O. Kaminsky, Simon Ekman, Rolf Lewensohn, Jan Linnros, Kristina Viktorsson, and Apurba Dev. "Multiplexed electrokinetic sensor for detection and therapy monitoring of extracellular vesicles from liquid biopsies of non-small-cell lung cancer patients." bioRxiv (2021).
Liquid biopsies based on extracellular vesicle (EV) protein profiles represent a promising tool for treatment monitoring of tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). In this study, we present the development of an electrokinetic sensor for multiplexed surface protein profiling of EVs and analysis of clinical samples. The method detects the difference in the streaming current obtained as a result of EV binding to the inner surface of a functionalized microcapillary, thereby estimating the expression level of a surface marker. Using multiple microchannels functionalized with different antibodies in a parallel fluidic connection, we first demonstrate the capacity for simultaneous detection of multiple surface markers in small EVs (sEVs) from NSCLC cells. To investigate the prospects of liquid biopsies based on EVs, we then apply the method to profile sEVs isolated from the pleural effusion (PE) fluids of three NSCLC adenocarcinoma patients with different genomic alterations (ALK-fusion, KRAS and EGFR) and applied treatments (chemotherapy, EGFR or ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors). These vesicles were targeted against CD9 tetraspanin, as well as EGFR and PD-L1, two markers of interest in NSCLC. The electrokinetic signals showed detection of these markers on sEVs yet highlighting distinct interpatient differences, e.g., increased EGFR levels in sEVs from a patient with EGFR mutation as compared to an ALK-mutant one. The sensors also detected differences in PD-L1 expressions, in line with those measured by complementary methods. The analysis of sEVs from a patient prior and post crizotinib treatment also revealed a significant increase in the expression of some markers, e.g. EGFR and PD-L1. The obtained results hold promise for the application of the method for tumor treatment monitoring based on sEVs from liquid biopsies.View full article