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Immunomodulatory role for membrane vesicles released by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection

Volgers, Charlotte, Birke J. Benedikter, Gert E. Grauls, Paul HM Savelkoul, and Frank RM Stassen. "Immunomodulatory role for membrane vesicles released by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection." BMC microbiology 17, no. 1 (2017): 216.

Background


During infection, inflammation is partially driven by the release of mediators which facilitate intercellular communication. Amongst these mediators are small membrane vesicles (MVs) that can be released by both host cells and Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Bacterial membrane vesicles are known to exert immuno-modulatory and -stimulatory actions. Moreover, it has been proposed that host cell-derived vesicles, released during infection, also have immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the release and activity of host cell-derived and bacterial MVs during the first hours following infection of THP-1 macrophages with the common respiratory pathogens non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Results

Using a combination of flow cytometry, tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS)-based analysis and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the release of MVs occurs by both host cells and bacteria during infection. MVs released during infection and bacterial culture were found to induce a strong pro-inflammatory response by naive THP-1 macrophages. Yet, these MVs were also found to induce tolerance of host cells to secondary immunogenic stimuli and to enhance bacterial adherence and the number of intracellular bacteria.

Conclusions

Bacterial MVs may play a dual role during infection, as they can both trigger and dampen immune responses thereby contributing to immune defence and bacterial survival.

Keywords
Membrane vesiclesExtracellular vesiclesOuter membrane vesiclesBacterial infectionInflammatory responseImmuno-modulationNon-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis Streptococcus Pneumoniae Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

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